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Full text of "History of Framingham, Massachusetts, early known as Danforth's Farms, 1640-1880; with a genealogical register"

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By J. h: temple, 


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1887. ^ 

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At a legal meeting of the town of Framingham, April 4, 1881, a committee 
was appointed " to consider and report on the matter of the publication of a 
History of the Town." 

At a meeting of the town, held April 24, 1882, the committee reported: — 

" The fact is known to most of our citizens, that Rev. J. H. Temple has 
been at work for many years, gathering the materials for a full and faithful 
history of the town. His advantages for this work are exceptionally good, 
being a native of the place, and familiar with its localities and traditions. He 
comes from an ancestry noted for long life, and the old men of his boyhood 
were communicative, so that the information ready for him at Jirst hand, runs 
back to the old French and Indian Wars ; and careful study of authentic 
records of the State, the County, and the Town, has supplemented the verbal 
narratives, and has supplied annals of the earlier times ; and his own knowl- 
edge furnishes the facts and statistics of the last half century. 

'• The ' History of Framingham' published by Rev. William liarry, thirty- 
five years ago, is now out of print; a great number of valuable documents 
relative to our early history — and particularly to the period which embraced 
the Revolutionary War — which were not then accessible, have been found 
by Mr. Temj^le, and are of special interest in our local annals. The Family 
Registry, prepared by Mr. Barry, practically closed with the families who 
settled here before 1800, while the largest part of our present population 
became residents since that date. 

The committee recommend that the Town appropriate a sum not exceeding 
$4,000, to publish the History prepared by Mr. Temple ; and that a commit- 
tee be appointed to make the necessary contracts, and advise with Mr. Temple 
as to details of publication." 

Signed, James W. Clark, 

C. C. ESTY, 

Adolphus Merriam, 

,. „^' j, -■ " ■' ^ » CftAS. W. COOLIDGE, 

y.''' '..'•' "'J I fi .C;./ Stearns, 

J. R'. Entwistle, 
' ' ' " Walter Adams. 

The report was accepted; t-ne suni^^af |^,coo was appropriated; and the 
above-named appointed a comiMitts^i; ^f; public?. fton,; 


The volume herewith offered to the citizens of Framingham, and 
the public, covers a period of 240 years. It is the result of ten years 
of investigation among the papers preserved in the State Archives, in- 
cluding the Journals of the General Court ; also of the writings of 
John Eliot, Daniel Gookin, Gov. Thomas Danforth and their cotempo- 
raries ; also of the records of the Probate and other county courts, 
and the Registry of Deeds of Suffolk, Worcester, and Middlesex coun- 
ties ; also of the town and church records of Sudbury, Sherborn, and 
the Indian plantation at Natick, as well as the town and church rec- 
ords of Framingham. 

The writer has been allowed free access to the libraries of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, and the New England Historic- 
Genealogical Society, where are gathered stores of manuscripts and 
printed volumes illustrative of the local as well as general history of 
our early settlements. 

In the early part of his labors he was assisted by the well-stored 
memories of Mrs. Nabby (Morse) Freeman, Dea. John Temple, Nathan 
Stone, Mrs. Martha (Trowbridge) Gibbs, Adams Littlefield, Warren 
Nixon, Esq., Col. Moses Edgell, and Mrs. Eliza (Buckminster) Eaton ; 
and later by Miss Chloe Haven, Dea. Jonathan Greenwood, Luther 
Kendall, Jonathan Eames, Joseph Brown, Charles B. Clark, Charles 
Parker, George Haven, George Warren, Dexter Hemenway, Henry 
Eames, and others. 

The diaries kept by Dea. Ezra Hemenway, Mrs. Freeman, and Mrs. 
Uriah Rice, have been of much assistance in fixing dates, and furnish- 
ing items of family history. 

Of course the writer has availed himself of the labors of Dr. Wil- 
liam Ballard and Rev. William Barry, whose published histories are 
still extant. And it is a pleasure as well as a duty to recognize the 
fruitful work of Mr. Barry, who culled the field in advance, and found 
a rich harvest of facts, which were given to the public in 1847. His 
Family Register is a monument of patient and successful research. 
W^henever statements are copied from Mr. Barry's History, due credit 

vi Preface. 

is given ; but in all cases where the originals are still in existence, 
those originals have been examined and copied. And this, together 
with the numerous documents which have come to light since the date 
of Mr. Barry's publication, will account for the many corrected state- 
ments found in the present volume. The war records of the American 
Revolution and the war of 1812 were not accessible to Mr. Barry; 
and as they constitute an essential part of our annals, they properly 
occupy a large space in this book. 

Our Town Records are in a good state of preservation, except for 
the years 1782-87, which are missing. 

The Church Records are imperfect. Rev. Mr. Swift left a journal 
of ecclesiastical events [really a Church Record], covering the period 
from Dec, 1716, to July, 1728. Then there is a hiatus of 18 years. 
The regular book of Church Records begins with the settlement of 
Rev. Matthew Bridge in 1746. Mr. Barry intimates that the early 
Church Records were maliciously destroyed in modern times. But in 
a letter written in 1771, Mr. Bridge says, "There are no records 
belonging to the Framingham church so ancient as 1726," and the 
records are complete since the date of his letter. 

The writer has been fortunate in discovering the "remains " of many 
Indian village-sites, forts, corn-fields, etc., on our territory, and in col- 
lecting authentic information relating to the natives who dwelt here. 
He also has been able, from natural marks and historical data, to 
locate the principal Indian trails and early bridle-paths running through 
the town. Indeed, traces, more or less distinct, of several of these 
paths were in existence in his youth, and have been followed by him 
for many a mile. Detailed accounts are given of the first visits hither 
of white men ; of original land-grants ; of the gradual coming on of 
settlers ; the incorporation of the town, and the founding and progress 
of its social, civil, ecclesiastical, educational, and industrial institu- 
tions. The honorable part taken by our citizens in the earlier and 
later wars is fully set forth ; and thus long-deferred justice is done to 
the memory of many who were patriots and heroes in their day, and 
who contributed materially to the glory of our Commonwealth. 

In the matter of Family History, pedigrees are traced, where prac- 
ticable, to the emigrant ancestor. And the list contains the name of 
every inhabitant, whether native or foreign-born, who has held taxable 
estate, and reared children in town, down to the present generation. 
In the preparation of these genealogies, besides the town records, 
family registers, family Bibles, and inscriptions on grave-stones have 
been consulted. And where irreconcilable contradictions occur in 
these records, a solution has been sought by reference to the specifi- 
cations on the enlistment rolls, wills, and guardianship papers, and 
collateral facts. The result of exhaustive research has often led to 

Preface. vii 

conclusions at variance with family tradition and published records. 
But no dates and lines of descent have been adopted, without what 
appeared to be reliable evidence of accuracy. Cases of doubt are 
marked with an interrogation point. 

Some months were spent in the Registry of Deeds, and devoted to 
the investigation of original land-titles, and early transfers of estates ; 
and the descriptions herewith given, will enable present holders, in a 
majority of cases, to trace their rights to possession. 

Biographical sketches are given of several of our citizens who, by 
common consent, are regarded as public benefactors, or have attained 
marked distinction in life. The list might have been much extended. 

This work is not the expression of the writer's opinions on the sub- 
jects brought to view ; but is largely composed of Original Records 
and Official Documejits, copied verbatim ; and the facts in the case are 
left to tell their own story, and indicate the legitimate inferences. 

The Military Records comprise the names and terms of service of 
all officers and privates furnished by the town, for the Indian and 
French Wars, the Revolution, the War of 1812, and the Civil War of 
1861-65, so far as these are preserved in the State muster-rolls. 

JosiAH H. Temple. 
Framingham, May 2, 1887. 


On p. 24, 14th line from bottom, for Coolett read Corlctt. 

On p. TJ, 9th 1. from top, erase 6. 

On p. 106, 2d 1. from bottom, for Henry read Hervey . 

On p. 144, loth 1. from top, after Mendo/i, add /;/ the present town of 

On p. 167, 4th 1. from top, for Sheiusbiiry read Shrewsbury . 

On p. 216, sixth paragraph, after expedition, add and Joshua Train. 

On p. 276, loth 1. from bottom, for Noah Eaton id, read Jr. 

On p. 323, 7th 1. from top, for died of disease, read k. at Harlem Heights, 
Sept. i6, 1776. 

On p. 347, for Ashbuiy, read Asbury. 

On p. 386. for Silas W. Ingrahain, read Ingram. 

On p. 419, after Z. B. Adams, read Bowd. Coll. 1849; Har7'. Med. Sch. 
1853, etc. 

On p. 457, Hervey W. Allen's 2d w. should read Charlotte, not Henrietta. 

Old and New Style. — All dates, prior to 1752, are understood to be in con- 
formity with old style, then in use. 

Double Dating. — The custom which prevailed in former times, of double- 
dating events which transpired between January i, and March 25, has in most 
instances been retained ; but sometimes the true date is given, /. e. the year 
is considered as beginning January i ; and sometimes the author has met the 
same perplexity which will confuse the reader. 



Topography and Natural Features of the Territory — Mill- 
seats — First Notices of the place — Name of the Town — with 
BRIEF Notices of Sudbury, Marlborough, Natick and Sherborn. 

f RAM INGHAM is situated in the southwestern part of Middle- 
sex County, midway and on a direct line between Worcester 
and Boston. The old turnpike between these cities ran through 
the Centre village ; the Boston and Albany railroad runs through 
the South village ; the Old Colony railroad. Northern division, from 
New Bedford to Fitchburg, and to Lowell, runs through both the 
South and Centre villages. 

When the act of incorporation was granted in 1700, the town was 
bounded easterly by Sudbury, Wachituate Pond and Natick lands ; 
southerly by Sherborn and the Indian lands ; west by Marlborough, 
and north by Sudbury. Its present boundaries are, northeasterly by 
Wayland ; easterly by Natick ; southeasterly by Sherborn ; south- 
westerly by Ashland ; west by Southborough and Marlborough, and 
north by Sudbury. 

As originally laid out, the Plantation contained about 20,500 acres. 
Subsequently several tracts, of greater or lesser extent, were transferred 
to other towns. Simpson's Farm of 500 acres was set to Hopkinton, 
when that town was incorporated in 17 15. Holliston took off a point 
of the southern extremity of the town in 1724. In 1727 South- 
borough took in the long strip of land known as Fiddle Neck. The 
Leg was annexed to Marlborough in 179 1. By these subtractions 
the area of the township was reduced to 18,976 acres. In 1846 a 
tract of about 3,000 acres was set off to form, with parts of Hop- 
kinton and Holliston, the new town of Ashland. In 187 1 a triangular 

2 History of Framingham. 

piece of land was taken from the town of Natick and annexed to 
Framingham. The present area of the town is 15,930 acres. 

EngHsh adventurers explored these lands as early as 1633, and 
became acquainted with the features of the country ; but the Colonial 
government took no action intended to promote a settlement here 
till 1640, when a considerable grant, within its limits, was made to 
•the widow of Rev. Josse Glover. At this date, the nearest towns 
were Sudbury, Watertown and Dedham. To the westward, the 
nearest and only settlement in Massachusetts was Springfield. The 
country adjacent on the south and west was inhabited only by 

In the earliest notices of the territory now embraced in this town, 
it is described as Wilderness Land lying north of the path from 
Sudbury to Nipnox. Later (1662) it is called "The tract of waste 
lands belonging to Thomas Danforth Esq. lying between Marlbury 
and the Old Connecticut Path;''' and still later (1693), "A Plantation 
situated between Sudbury, Marlbury, Sherborn, and the Indian Plan- 
tation at Natick, and westerly is the wilderness." A considerable 
part of these lands, viz : those which lay on the easterly side of 
Sudbury River, was disposed of by the General Court to individuals 
and to the Natick plantation, between the years 1640 and 1660. In 
1660-62 the Court granted to Thomas Danforth, Esq., the larger 
part of the lands on the westerly side of the river. To this granted 
land Mr. Danforth added, by purchase, the tract situated west and 
south of Farm Pond, extending as far as the old Sherborn line. The 
combined gift and purchases covered about two.-thirds of what con- 
stituted the township ; and the place was, for many years, officially 
designated as "Mr. Danforth's Farms."* 

No record has been discovered of any act of the General Court 
by which these lands were created into a plantation. Settlers came 
on slowly and were much scattered. Until 1675, all the adults were 
members of the church in Sudbury ; and most of them had home-ties 
there, and did not desire, and were not able to bear the burdens of 
separate civil and ecclesiastical charges. 

After a considerable number of families had located, and made 
valuable improvements, and stocked their farms, the residents were 
called upon by the Colonial authorities to pay " country rates," and 
required to furnish their proper quota of soldiers for the army. This, 
so far as appears, was the only public recognition of our existence as 
a plantation, previous to our incorporation as a town. And up to 
that date, the inhabitants exercised no plantation rights. 

*The plural Farms was used, from the fact that he received three distinct grants, and purchased 
two farms, viz: the Wayte farm, and the Russell farm. 

Name of the Town. 3 

Name. — On the Colonial records, the place is officially designated 
as Mr. Danfo7-tli' s Farms., and Frainifigham. In a single instance, on 
the Middlesex county records, where entry is made of the births of 
two children of Thomas Eames, and one child of Joseph Bradish, the 
name is written Fra?nnng/iam. And in a petition drawn up by Peter 
Clayes in 1698, and presented to the legislature, this spelling is used. 
Neither has anything more than a clerical authority; and both may 
have been clerical inadvertencies. In the records of the Middlesex 
County Court, under date Dec. 23, 1673, and elsewhere, the name 
is written Framingham, and uniformly so in the General Court rec- 
ords ; and in Mr. Danforth's numerous leases, of different dates, and in 
his will, the name is written without the /. Mr. Danforth's own usage 
is, of course, tinal authority in the matter. Oct. 27, 1675, a tax was 
laid, " to meet the charges of the present war with the Indians," and 
Framingham was assessed ^i. Dec. 28, 1675, Framingham is ordered 
to raise one soldier, as its proportion of a levy of 300. Under the 
same name, the inhabitants were assessed till 1699, when the amount 
was 36 pounds, which they had declined to pay, assigning as the reason, 
that " they were not a settled town, and consequently were incapable 
to choose town officers, and levy a tax." 

But, whether the word be spelled with or without an /, there is no 
doubt that the Plantation received its name from the birthplace of 
Thomas Danforth in England. "The interest which naturally at- 
taches to the name of this town," says Mr. Barry, "may justify a brief 
account of the original town in Great Britain. Framlingham is in the 
hundred of Loes, county of Suffolk, England, and lies 88 miles north- 
east from London. The river Ore runs by it, and upon the VV. side 
of the town spreads into a sort of lake. By the bounty of King 
Henry I. here was formerly a castle of the Bigods. It is described 
by Camden [1695] as 'a very beautiful castle, fortified with a rampire, 
a ditch, and a wall of great thickness, with thirteen towers; within it 
has very convenient lodgings. From this place it was that, a. d. 1173, 
when the rebellious son of King Henry II. took up arms against his 
father, Robert, Earl of Leicester, with his stipendiaries from Flanders, 
harassed the country all around; and here also it was that An. 1553, 
Queen Mary entered upon the government, notwithstanding the vio- 
lent opposition of Dudley, Earl of Northumberland, against King 
Henry VIII's daughters.' This town contains a free school, and also 
the chapel of Saxtead, valued in the King's books at ;^43.6.8, the pat- 
ronage of which is in Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. The church is ded- 
icated to St. Michael. The resident population of this parish, in 1801, 
was 1854, and the amount raised by the parish rates, in 1803, was 
;!^ii29.i2.o, at 5s. 4>^d. in the pound. Cotton Mather relates of 

4 History of Fi'aviinghavt. 

Nicholas Danforth (father of Thomas), that he was 'of such figure and 
esteem in the church, that he procured that famous lecture at Fram- 
lingham in Suffolk, where he had a fine manor, which lecture was 
kept up by Mr. Burroughs and many other noted ministers in their 
turn • to whom, and especially to Mr. Shepard, he proved a Gains, 
and then especially, when the Laudian fury scorched them.' Fram- 
lingham is a market town, its market being held on Saturday. The 
Fairs are on Whit-Monday and the loth of October." • 

As considerable parts of our territory were claimed by adjoining 
towns, and the early settlers were taxed and had civil and religious 
rights in said towns, it is proper, in this connection, to give the dates 
of settlement and incorporation of these older neighbors. By an 
early statute, it was provided that "Every inhabitant shall contribute 
to all charges both in church and commonwealth, whereof he doth or 
may receive benefit ; and the lands and estates of all men (wherein 
they dwell ) shall be rated for all town charges, both civil and eccle- 
siastical, where the lands and estates shall lie, and their persons where 

they shall dwelt And for all peculiars, viz : such places 

as are not yet laid within the bounds of any town, the same lands 
with the persons and estates thereupon, shall be assessed by the rates 
of the town next unto it, the measure or estimation shall be by the 
distance of the meeting houses." Statutes, 1651, 1657. 

As a consequence, the settlers who came on before 1699 were re- 
garded as belonging to Sudbury, Marlborough or Sherborn, according 
to their location ; and through the exercise of civil jurisdiction for a 
longer or shorter period, one or other of these to^ns laid claims to 
lands within our limits, and opposed the incorporation of the new town, 
unless the bounds could be fixed to suit their several interests. 

Sudbury. — The township of Sudbury — the elder of our neighbor 
towns — was petitioned for by iniiabitants of Watertown Nov. 20, 
1637;' was first settled in the spring of 1638; was incorporated as 
a plantation Sept. 6, 1638 f and received the name of Sudbury 
Sept. 4, 1639. ^^ The first planters located near where is now the 
village of Wayland ; and here all the original home-lots were laid out. 

The town plot was originally five miles square. The southwest cor- 
ner was near the east foot of Nobscot. The south line of the town 
corresponded with the present bounds from that point east, and con- 
tinued a straight course to Weston. In 1640, the inhabitants pe- 
titioned for an addition of a mile in length upon the southeast and 
southwest sides of the town ; which petition was allowed, on condition 
" it may not hinder Mrs. Glover's farm of 600 acres formerly granted."* 

iMass. Co). Rec. I. 210. ^jbid. 1.238. Mbid. i. 271. ••Col. Rec. i. 289. 

Sudbury. 5 

The Glover farm lay on the east side of Sudbury river, its north bound 
being the old south line of Sudbury, and its east bound a straight 
course from Sudbury line to the northeasterly point of Dudley pond ; 
so that the "mile addition " was laid out to the east and south of this 
farm, and easterly of Cochituate pond. Later, i. e. in 1649, the town 
was enlarged by the addition of two miles in width, on its westerly 

Sudbury men were the earliest settlers within the territory now 
comprised in Framingham, and pitched upon the lands contiguous to 
the mother town. The families of Stone, Rice, Bent, Adams, Brown, 
et ah., had grants or bought rights near the falls in Sudbury river (now 
Saxonville), and at Rice's End ; built houses, and became permanent 
residents between the years 1646 and 1683. But they were known as 
"out-dwellers,'" and described in deeds as "living near unto Sudbury;" 
and their lands were assessed as " Sudbury Farms." That the territory 
in question was not included in Sudbury town bounds, is shown by the 
following extract from the Sudbury Town Records : " Oct. 26, 1686. 
Agreement between the town of Sudbury and certain out-dwellers, viz. 
Corp. Henry Rice, Corp. John Bent, Matthew Rice, Benjamin Rice, 
William Brown, Daniel Stone, John Loker, John Adams, Samuel 
King, and David Rice, who are inhabitants bordering upon, but 
dwelling without the line or bounds of this town — have engaged to 
pay all rates for building the meeting house, and for the maintenance 
of the ministry of the town, and for defraying town debts and the 
support of the poor — provided the town do relieve the poor amongst 
them and free them from repairing the highways within the town 

Notwithstanding the explicit terms of the Records, it has been 
claimed by Dr. Stearns and others, that Sudbury town bounds once 
included Saxonville. Probably the claim is based on the following 
" Order " passed by the General Court Mar. 8, 169 1-2 : " In answer to 
the petition of the selectmen of Sudbury, ordered : That the out 
dwellers adjoining unto the said Town, comprehended within the line 
beginning at Matth. Rice's, from thence to Cornet Wm. Brown's, Corp. 
Henry Rice's, Thomas Drury's, Tho. Walker, Jr., John How, and 
Samuel Winch's (not belonging to any other towne), be annexed unto 
the Town of Sudbury, and continue to bear their part of all duties 
and partake of all priviledges there as formerly, until further order." 
The terms of the order seem to limit its application to persons and 
taxable estates, and carry no transfer of territory. And that it was so 
understood by the parties in interest, is evident from the following 
petition, bearing date July 4, 1700, signed by these same farmers, and 
sent to the legislature: "The said town of Sudburv have for above 

6 History of Frauiiughain. 

a year denied your Petitioners the liberty of voting and other town 
privileges, utterly disclaiming them as not belonging to the said town, 
though your Petitioners have contributed to the building the Meeting 
house and maintenance of the minister, and have paid several town 
rates and done many town duties ; wherefore they pray to be annexed 
to the town of Framingham." \\'hereupon, on the following day, July 
5th — without serving any order of notice upon the adverse party, as 
would have been necessary in case these lands were included in Sud- 
bury bounds, — it was '■'■ordered, that the petitioners and other the 
farms lying betwixt the Northerly end of Cochitawick Pond and the 
line of Framingham, be laid and annexed to the town of Framingham ; 
and enjoy all immunities, and privileges with other the inhabitants in 
said town, and that they and their estates be liable to bear a propor- 
tion of charge in the said town." 

Gore's Survey [1699], and other official plans, place the Sudbury 
south line on the north side of the Glover grant. 

Natick Plantation. — This was originally settled and organized 
as an Indian village, and so continued for nearly a century. It be- 
came an English precinct or parish in 1745 ; and was incorporated as 
a town Feb. 19, 1781. 

The village was located at what is now South Natick. What is 
now Natick Centre is of comparatively recent origin. 

In 1636, the General Court granted to the town of Dedham, a tract 
of five miles square, lying on the northerly side of Charles River. ' 
This was laid out in general terms in 1639, and covered the neck of 
land now forming the towns of Needham, Natick, and the easterly part 
of Sherborn.- But the exact bounds were not settled till 1643.^' 

In 1650 the Apostle Eliot gathered his praying Indians into a set- 
tled community at the Falls on Charles river (South Natick), on 
Dedham land. October, 165 1, on petition of Eliot, and on motion and 
the offer of the inhabitants of Dedham to allow 2,000 acres of land 
within her bounds, the General Court ordered that the said 2,000 
acres be set apart and established as the Indian Plantation at Natick.* 
In 1658, Eliot petitioned for an enlargement and change of bounds of 
the Natick plantation ; and a committee was appointed by the Gen- 
eral Court, " to lay out convenient bounds to Natick, out of the com- 
mon lands adjoining, and also to treat with Dedham, and compound 
with them for such lands as lye adjoining to y« said place, and seemed 
to be necessary for the Indians."^ This committee proceeded to lay 
out a large tract, bounding on Sudbury, Mr. Danforth's Farms, Magun- 
kook and the Charles river. « 

»Mass. Col. Rec. i. 180. - Ibid. 257 ; in. 247. 'Ibid. 11. 50. Mbid. in. 246. '•> Ibid. iv. pt. \. 
p. ■(62. " Ibid. p. 408. 

N a tick. 7 

Dedham claimed to own 4,000 acres (exclusive of the 2,000 already 
by her consent set to Natick) of this tract. And in May, 1662, a 
committee was appointed by the General Court " to make final issue 
of the controversy between the town of Dedham and the Indians at 
Natick." 1 June, 1663, the committee reported, and " the Court judgeth 
it meete to grant Dedham 8,000 acres of land in any convenient place 
or places, where it can be found free from former grants ; provided 
Dedham accept this offer."- In 1665 this 8,000 acres was laid out 
at Deerfield, on the Connecticut river, " to recompence Dedham for 
what land [4,000 acres] they part with, over and above the 2,000 acres 
above said."^ 

The exact bounds of the Natick Plantation, as established under the 
order of 1658 (laid out Nov. 1659), were as follows: "from Natick 
meeting house, the line shall extend up the [Charles] River as far as 
the house of Nicholas Woods, and from his house to be continued upon 
a westerly line four miles : And on the northerly side, the line to 
extend from the Ponds along Cochittuate brook to the common fording 
place or highway that leadeth from Sudbury to John Stone's house, 
and from this point the bounds to be John Stone's land and Sudbury 
river, extending up the river four miles, the distance to be measured 
by a straight line from the aforesaid common wading-place on Co- 
chittuate brook : And on the west side, the bound to be a straight line 
from the termination of the above named four miles, to the termination 
of the four miles from Nicholas Woods. Any lands within this 
compass, already granted to any particular person or town, are 

This tract took in Rice's End, the whole of what is now South 
Framingham, and the lands lying westerly and southwesterly of Farm 
Pond, including Wayte's and Russell's grants. The northwesterly 
corner was a point on Sudbury River at or near the falls where 
Cutler's mill stood. 

The Indians were dissatisfied with this tract, as they found, on 
examination, that the best of the lands, both upland and meadow, had 
been previously granted by the Court to the English. And to pacify 
the natives, in 1660, another enlargement of their plantation was 
made, by extending the northerly bounds on Sudbury river "one mile 
to the westward of Cowasuck brook, which will be an enlargement of 
near half a mile in the angle of their bounds."^ This carried their 
northwesterly corner bound up to near the falls at Ashland Centre; 
but it added very little to the value of the grant. 

The Indians soon began to dispose of these lands. In 1676, they 

^Mass. Col. Rec. IV. pt 2. p. 49. ^ jbid. p. 84. ^ jjjid. iv. pt. i. p. 76. <Ibid.p.4o8. 

■5 Ibid. p. 428. 

8 History of Fi-amiiighafn. 

sold 300 acres to Thomas Eames. In 1682, they sold 1,700 acres of 
the northeasterly part, including Rice's End, to Messrs. Samuel Gookin 
and Samuel How ; and in 1697, 1,000 acres were sold to the town of 
Sherborn. In the meantime, i.e. in 1679, they had exchanged with 
Sherborn 4,000 acres which adjoined Sherborn on the north, for a 
like quantity of " Magunkook lands," lying in what is now Ashland 
and Hopkinton. 

The Natick Indians are sometimes spoken of as a distinct tribe; 
but such was not the fact. Properly described, they were a collection 
of scattered families, of different tribal affinities, brought together at 
Natick by Eliot, not earlier than 1649 or 1650. The Speen family, who 
were the original owners of the lands around the Falls, were Nipnets ; 
so were the Awassamog families ; Waban was from Musquitequid ; 
Netus was from Sudbury. Indeed Eliot states the matter exactly 
when he says, writing in 1649, " Some Sudbury Indians, some of 
Concord Indians, some of Maestick Indians, and some of Dedham 
Indians, are ingenious and pray unto God, and sometimes come to 
the place where I teach and hear the word." 

Marlborough. — This place, situated "about 8 miles west of 
Sudbury," was erected into a plantation May, 1656. In answer to 
the petition of Edmund and Henry Rice, Richard Newton, John 
Bent, Wm. Ward, et als., inhabitants of Sudbury, the General Court 
granted a tract six miles square, for a plantation by the name of 
Whipsufferage, which was changed to Marlborow in 1660. It ex- 
tended from the Sudbury river on the south to the Assabet river on 
the north (excepting certain Indian lands, and grants to particular 
persons), and included the present towns of Marlborough, South- 
borough, and considerable parts of Westborough and Northborough. 
The church was organized in 1666. 

The easterly bounds, where it adjoined Framingham, have remained 
substantially unaltered. By the established rule of estimation, the 
families of Mixer, Hemenway, Lamb, Wood, Bruce, and others, who 
settled near the west bounds of Framingham, had religious and civil 
privileges for a time in Marlborough. In the act for levying a Prov- 
ince tax, passed Oct. 19, 1697, it is provided "that the sum of ^12 
(as well as the sum of ;^8 previously levied), herein set and propor- 
tioned to the Farmes or Precinct called Framingham, shall be assessed 
upon the polls and estates in said Precinct, by the assessors of the 
adjacent town of Marlborough: and that the inhabitants of said 
Precinct or Farmes shall have liberty and are hereby impowered to 
choose one assessor from among themselves to join with the assessors 
of the said Town of Marlborough in assessing and apportioning the 

Sherboru. 9 

aforesaid sums set upon said Precinct, and also to appoint a collector 
for the gathering in of the same." 

The south part of Marlborough, previously known as " Stoney 
Brook," was erected into a new town by the name of Southborough in 

Sherborn. — In a petition dated May 7, 1662, the following 
persons, styling themselves " inhabitants of Bogestow," state that they 
have purchased lands at a place called Bogestow ; that they attend 
upon the means of grace at Medfield, tho' with great difificulty, first, 
in respect to the distance, and second, by reason of the danger in 
going over the River ; and ask the Hon<i Court to grant us liberty to 
be a town of ourselves of the dimensions of 5 miles square — that we 
may set up the worship and ordinances of God among ourselves. 
Signed, Samuel Bass, Daniel Morse, Nicholas Wood, Henry Layland, 
Thomas Holbrook, Thomas Bass, John Hill, Thomas Brick, Benj. 
Bullward, William Briggs, George Fairbank, George Speare, Benjamin 
Albey, Robert Hensdell.^ 

This petition was referred to a committee who were "impowered 
to vejw the place & returne their apprhentions to the next sessions of 
this Court, for setling a touneship there, as is desired."^ 

The report of this committee has not been found. 

Oct. 7, 1674, the inhabitants of Bogestow renew their petition for a 
township; state that they are near twenty families; and ask for a 
grant of six miles square. ^ "The Court grants them the quantity of 
6 miles square, not exceeding eight miles in length ; provided that 
there be a farme of 200 acres of meet land reserved, and laid out 
for a farme for the country — the name of the place to be called 

May 12, 1675, Henry Adams, in behalf of the Sherborne planters, 
petitioned for liberty to exchange 4,000 acres of the westerly end of 
the township, "adjoining to Magungekook Indian Hill," with the 
Indians at Natick, for a like quantity of Natick lands, "described 
and bounded on the northeast with Natick, on the southeast, south- 
west, and west with Sherborne, on the west and northwest with a 
Farm belonging to Mr. Danforth."^ 

This petition was referred to Capt. Daniel Fisher, Sergt. Richard 
Ellis, Sergt. Thomas Thirston of Medfield, and Capt. Gookin, Mr. 
Eliot on behalf of the Indians.*^ In their report, dated May 22, 1677, 
the committee say : ". . . . We find there is but little or no coun- 
try land near the place where they intend to set their meeting house ; 

1 Mass. Archives, cxii. 137. 2 Mass. Col. Rec. iv. pt. 2. p. 50. ^Mass. Archives, cxii. 241. 
■♦Mass. Col. Rec. v. p. 23. " Ibid. pp. 37, 227. 6 ibid. p. 37. 

lo History of Framingham. 

and we doubt whether they be like to be a town, if some 

considerable tract of land be not procured from the Indians either by 
exchange or purchase or both."' 

April i6, 1679, articles of agreement, respecting the proposed 
exchange of lands (Sherborne covenanting to pay the Indians 200 
bushels of Indian corn to boot) were signed by Daniel Morse and 
others on behalf of Sherborne, and Waban, John Awassamog and 
others on behalf of Natick.- And at the session of the General 
Court held May 30, 1679, the said articles of exchange were ratified.^ 
But it was not till July 8, 1685, that a deed of exchange was executed 
by the Indians.* 

The boundaries of this 4,000 acres were somewhat indefinite, as de- 
scribed in the articles and deed. A survey and plot, made by Sherborne, 
of these Exchange lands, placed them wholly to the southward of Fram- 
ingham plantation. And that both parties so understood them to lie 
is shown by the fact that in 1682 the Indians sold to Messrs. Gookin 
and How 1700 acres of their lands in this neighborhood, the south 
line of which ran from Henry Rice's most southerly corner to Thomas 
Pratt's land on Pratt's plain; which left — so the General Court's 
committee say — "a tract of 1,000 acres between said Gookin and 
How's purchase and Sherborne line." And as late as 1697 the town 
of Sherborne petitioned the Court for liberty to buy this 1,000 acres 
of the Indians — which was unnecessary, if it was included in the 
Exchange lands.'-' The General Court, in the act approving the 
articles of exchange, inserted a proviso, excepting from its operation 
" all that tract of lands now belonging to Thomas Danforth, Esq. 
Deputy Governour."^ And in the order, confirming the Sherborne 
town grant, dated May, 17, 1684, is this clause: "provided always it 
do not intrench upon former grants to any town or particular per- 
sons." These provisos restricted Sherborne from all title to (among 
others) the Danforth lands bordering upon and to the southward 
of Farm Pond, Stone's meadows, the Gookin and How purchase, 
the Rice grants, and the tract purchased of the Indians by Thomas 

But notwithstanding the clear evidence of the facts in the case, and 
the town's own official survey and plot, Sherborne, in 1700, laid 
claim to what is now South Framingham, and taxed the families 
living on that territory up to 1709, strenuously opposing the movement 
for the incorporation of Framingham township. 

A full account of this controversy properly belongs to a subsequent 

1 Mass. Col. Rec. v. 229. ^ ibid. 227. Ibid. 229. * Mass. Archives, xxx. 305. ^ Ancient 
Plans, I. 177. "Mass. Col. Rec. v. 230. 

Streams. 1 1 

By the established rule of estimation, the families of Pratt, Gleason, 
Learned, Eames, Death, Haven, ei als., had civil and religious privi- 
leges in Sherborne, and their estates were taxable there, up to 1700. 


Streams. — In looking upon the town map, or in crossing our 
territory, the natural feature which first arrests attention is the Sudbury 
River and its tributaries. It is formed by the union of South Branch, 
commonly known as Hopkinton river, and Stoney brook \ and in the 
early records, only that portion below where the two branches unite 
was called Sudbury river. 

Hopkinton River rises in the central part of the town of Westborough, 
at the easterly foot of the highlands which form a water-shed between 
the streams flowing easterly, and those which go to form the Assabet 
on the north and the Blackstone on the south. It receives the water 
of Whitehall brook, which is the outlet of Whitehall pond, lying in the 
southwest part of Hopkinton. It is also considerably augmented by 
the waters of Indian brook and Cold Spring brook, both of which 
have their rise near Hopkinton Centre. 

This stream entered the limits of the old Framingham Plantation 
at the upper end of Fiddle IVeck, just within the present territory of 
Westborough, and formed our southern boundary for a distance of 
three miles, till the Neck was made a part of Southborough in 1727. 
While Simpson's Farm continued to form a part of Framingham, the 
river was within our territory to the mouth of Cold Spring brook, 
from which point to the site of Cutler's mills it formed the dividing 
line between Framingham and Sherborn, till the incorporation of 
Holliston in 1724, when it became for this distance the boundary 
between Framingham and Holliston. This part of the stream is now 
wholly in Ashland. From Ashland line to the point of confluence 
with Stoney brook is about half a mile. Its length from the source in 
Westborough to the point of confluence is about eleven miles. 

This branch has numerous falls which furnish important mill 
privileges. Beginning up stream, the first privilege within the town 
limits was what is known as the Old Forge, near the present line of 
Southborough. A grist-mill and forge was in existence here as early 
as 1745, then owned by Andrew Newton, Sen. (who m. Mehitable 
Bellows). His son Andrew, Jr., took the property and carried on the 
business till his death in 1792. An article in the Framingham town 
warrant for April 6, 1795, was, "to look into the matter respecting the 
forge known by the name of the Andrew Newton Forge, and act 
anything relative thereto. Voted, to choose a committee of three 

12 History of Framinghani. 

to dispose of the town's interest in the said forge and privilege 

WilHam Ward rebuilt the dam, and occupied the privilege. There 
is now a woolen-mill here, owned by Taft and Aldrich. About one 
mile down the stream is the site of the old paper-mill, built in 1817 
by David and Dexter Bigelow. Still lower down, is a box and 
planing mill put in by Josiah Cloyes, now owned by Alvah Metcalf. 
The important privilege at Ashland Centre was first occupied about 
1735, when Col. John Jones built a grist-mill. Afterwards he added 
a saw-mill, and fulling-mill. About 1795, Col. Jones sold the property 
to Isaac Clark, who exchanged it in 1809 with Samuel Clark for what 
is now the South Framingham Hotel estate. Samuel Clark sold Jan. 
23, 181 1, to Samuel Valentine, Jr., who sold to the Middlesex Manu- 
facturing Company. A cotton-factory was erected, which had a 
varied history till 1828, soon after which it came into possession of 
James Jackson, a man of energy and business tact, through whose 
influence the village of Unionville soon sprang up. Mr. Jackson 
sold the property in 1852. It is now owned by the Dwight Print 

Nov. 14, 1706, Savill Simpson bought of Joseph Buckminster six 
acres of land lying on the north side of the river opposite his farm, 
and the next year put in a corn-mill and saw-mill, at a point about 
eight rods above where the Boston and Albany railroad crosses the 
stream. A year or two later, he added a fulling-mill. July 20, 1709, 
John How, then of Framingham (afterwards of Hopkinton), bought of 
Joseph Buckminster twenty acres of land lying in the bend of the 
river opposite the mouth of Cold Spring brook, and extending up 
stream to lands of William Ballard. In the summer of 171 1, Mr. 
How built a dam at the site afterwards known as the Shepard Paper- 
mill ; and April i, 17 12, bought of Savill Simpson the six acres of 
Buckminster land (before described), " together with one corn-mill, 
one saw-mill and one fulling-mill, and the buildings thereto belonging, 
which said mills and buildings, the said How, with said Simpson's 
consent, hath lately removed to a place on said How's own land." 
Either Mr. Simpson had not calculated the extent of flowage, or Mr. 
How raised the height of his dam; for July 5, 17 15, Mr. Simpson sued 
Mr. How, "for overflowing his meadow, thus spoiling the crop on 
three pieces of meadow containing 10 or 11 acres, which produced 
about 10 loads of hay yearly, and also injuring the bridge and cause- 
way leading from said Simpson's farm to the county road leading to 
Sherborn." Simpson gained his suit, and then How petitioned the 
General Court for redress ; but in the end the mill privilege was given 
up. Mr. How removed to Hopkinton, selling the property to Jacob 



Gibbs, his son-in-law, who owned it in 1740. Before the Revolution, 
Col. John Jones bought this property, and leased twenty-five acres 
lying on both sides the stream to Capt. Gilbert Dench, who with his 
son Isaac built a dam on the old site in the winter of 1779, ^""^1 P^^ 
in a saw and grist-mill. In 1798 the heirs of Col. Jones quitclaimed 
this estate to Capt. Dench, who in 1807 sold his half to his son Isaac. 
Isaac Dench sold in 18 13. In 1828 this privilege was bought by 
Maj. Calvin Shepard, who built a paper-mill. In 1856, the property 
was sold to Charles Alden, who established emery-mills. The privi- 
lege is now held by the city of Boston. 

The next privilege is what is known as Cutler's Mills. As early as 
1747, Ebenezer Marshall had a blacksmith's shop on the river bank 
here. Feb. 20, 1748, he bought of Joseph Haven the land adjoining, 
with a right to use the water of the river for the purposes of his trade, 
and soon after put in a forge and trip-hammer, and manufactured 
axes, scythes, hoes, etc. A saw-mill was erected here by Richard 
Sears about 18 16. Mr. Sears sold to Calvin Bigelow, who built a 
grist-mill. James Whitmore bought this property in 1824 ; sold to 
Wrn. Greenwood in 1833. In 1838 S. N. Cutler purchased the 
privilege, greatly enlarged the facilities, and with his sons established 
an extensive grain business. The mill-seat now lies in about the 
centre of Reservoir No. 2. 

The tributaries of Ilopkinton river, within the present bounds of 
Framingham, are Bartoti's brook and Cowassock brook, both of which 
rise in the highlands to the south of Salem End, and enter the river 
just below Merriam's Hill. The former has three mill privileges. 
A grist-mill was put in by Ebenezer Singletary, on Dadmun's Lane, 
about 1750. At the opening of the Revolution he built two saw-mills, 
one near the outlet of Coller meadow, the other a short distance 
below, for his two elder sons, so that they should not be liable to be 
drafted for the army, millers being exempt. 

Cowassock brook has one pi-ivilege, near the house of J. Van Praag. 
A dam was built, and a turning-lathe and grindstone put in soon 
after the Revolution, by Maj. Lawson Nurse. 

The name of this brook is of Indian origin. Kowa means, a pine 
tree, plural koash ; ohke or ock signifies, place ; Koash-ock would then 
mean, the pine-trees' place. The natives applied the term to a knoll, 
covered with pines, near the mouth of the brook, where they had a 
small village. The name, as applied to the brook, is found in the 
earliest English transfers of property here. 

Stoney Brook. This stream rises in the northwesterly part of 
Southborough, and flows in a southeasterly course to Fayville, then 
turns to the northeast, and having received the waters of Angle brook 

14 History of Framingham. 

in the east part of Southborough, turns again to the southeast, which 
course it follows into Framingham and to the junction with Hopkin- 
ton river, half a mile west of Mt. Wayte. This stream has numerous 
valuable mill privileges in Southborough, and but two in Framingham. 
A grist-mill was built northeast of the mountain, by Dr. Ebenezer 
Hemenway, before 1760, which continued in use about thirty years. 
A machine-shop was erected on the other privilege, where the Salem 
End road crosses the brook, in 1830, by George Bullard, and was 
continued in operation by him till his death in 1868. 

The tributaries of Stoney brook from the south are Roaring brook, 
Rugg's brook and Willow brook. Roaring brook rises in the northwest 
part of Ashland, flows northerly, partly in Southborough and partly in 
Framingham, and enters the main stream northwest of the mountain. 
A tan-yard, with water-wheel for grinding bark, was put in at the falls 
west of Tower's Hill about 1740, by Benj. Mixer, who sold to his son 
Joseph about 1765, who sold in 1780 to Thomas and Ezekiel Williams 
of Roxbury, who carried on tanning and currying here for ten years, 
and sold to Benj. Eaton in 1790. Mr. Eaton continued the business 
till his death. The spot is now occupied by the brick-yard. Rugg's 
brook rises southeast of the Jonathan Rugg, now Solomon Gates 
place, crosses the Worcester turnpike midway between the houses of 
John R. Rooke and Daniel Newton, flows south of the mountain, 
and reaches Stoney brook northeast of J. H. Temple's. Willow brook 
has its rise in some springs near the Ashland line, flows through 
lands of W. P. Temple, Leander Barber and Dr. Peter Parker, and 
reaches the main stream north of Bridges' hill. 

The afifluents of Stoney brook from the north are, Angellico brook, 
which rises on Pine mountain in Southborough, flows southerly, and 
reaches the main stream north of the mountain. Otis Bullard had 
a small machine-shop on this brook, where he made shoe-knives, etc. 
The mouth of this brook is named as a westerly bound of the 
Danforth farm as originally laid out, though the bound subsequently 
recognized is a fourth of a mile to the west from this point. Angler's 
brook rises on Work hill, and runs to the south, near school-house 
No. 6. 

Sudbury River. As before stated, this name was applied in 
early times, to the united waters of Hopkinton river and Stoney 
brook. From the point of junction, it flows in a northeasterly course 
to the Sudbury town line, thence through the " Sudbury meadows," 
and when near the centre of Wayland turns more to the north, which 
general course it follows to its union with the Assabet in the town of 
Concord. From this point it is known as the Concord river, and 
unites with the Merrimack in the city of Lowell. 

Streams. 1 5 

Several privileges have been occupied on this river within our 
town limits. 

A dam was put in at a point nearly due north from the old John 
Eames house, now R. L. Day's, and a grist-mill maintained for a 
time. It was probably owned by Maj. John Farrar. If so, he built 
it about 1755, and it continued in use till after the Revolution. 

There was a dam, the remains of which are still visible, to the 
north of Addison G. Kendall's, where there is a fall of about three 
feet. A trip-hammer and forge was in operation here for a time. 

In 1824, Lawson Buckminster, Jr., and Joseph Brown, constructed 
a dam, and built a grist and saw-mill, near the Dea. Bent place, now 
F. A. Billings'. This privilege was well supplied with water, and had 
power sufficient to carry two runs of stones. These mills had a large 
share of local custom for many years, till the estate was sold to the 
proprietors of the Saxonville Mills. 

We next come to the largest power on the river, and the most 
important accessory to the early industries of the town, and known in 
the earliest records as " The Falls," around which has since gathered 
the flourishing village of Saxonville. 

The first corn-mill within the limits of the Framingham Plantation 
was built here by Elder John Stone, before 1659. A little later a 
saw-mill was set up on the same dam, probably by Daniel Stone, Sen. 
May 22, 17 1 1, Daniel Stone, Sen., sold " one-fourth part of the stream, 
together with the corn and saw-mill standing thereon," to Samuel 
How, Sen., of Sudbury. After the death of Mr. How, his share was 
bought, Feb. 15, 17 14, by Dea. Stone and his son John Stone. 
A fulling-mill standing on "an island which was part of the clam," 
was in operation here as early as 1735, probably built by Micah 
Stone, who also had a clothier's shop. The privilege was held by 
the Stone family till 1824, when it was sold to the Mill corporation. 
After the war of 18 12, Isaac Dench bought the right to use the waste- 
water of the pond, and built a small shop on the rocks forming the 
north wing of the dam, where he put in a turning-lathe, for the 
manufacture of wheel-hubs, bedsteads, etc. His son Gilbert owned 
it at the time of his death in 1828, when the "water privilege" was 
appraised at $300. 

The history of the Saxon Factory Co., and its successors, properly 
belongs to a subsequent chapter. 

The southern affluents of Sudbury river are, Eames brook, which is 
the outlet of Farm pond, and which having a fall of less than two feet 
affords an insignificant power. Sucker brook is the outlet of Sucker 
pond, and enters the river opposite the house of George Warren. 
A dam was put in on this stream, as early as 1708, by John Stone 

1 6 History of Framingham. 

(son of Dea. Daniel), at the ridge east of the swamp, with the view of 
utilizing the whole surplus waters of the pond. It is not known that 
the power was ever used. A small pond was raised, in connection 
with the tan-yard, on the Isaac Warren premises, where power suffi- 
cient to drive a bark-mill was obtained. This was in use till Mr. 
Warren discontinued his tan works. 

Jacob's brook, below F. A. Billings', drains Jacob's meadow. 

Cochituate brook. This is the outlet of Cochituate pond, and pur- 
sues a tortuous, and in the main northwesterly course, entering Sudbury 
river northeasterly from the Falls. The first attempt to utilize the 
power of this stream is thus noticed in the town records: "Mays, 
1748. To see if the town will give Mr. William Brown leave to erect 
a dam over the brook in the place where the bridge now is by his 
barn ; he being obliged to keep the highway there in good repair for 
passing for teams and other travelers, at his own cost, and that he 
does not obstruct the passage of the fish." At the town meeting, 
May 16, "put to vote whether the town would give leave to Mr. 
William Brown to erect a dam in the room of the bridge near his 
barn, etc., and it passed in the negative." This vote only denied the 
privilege of building a dam in the line of the highway, which should 
take the place of the bridge. Soon after this date Mr. Brown built a 
dam east of the highway, and put in a grist-mill. This continued in 
use till 18 13. His son Ebenezer built a saw-mill on the same dam 
about 1795. In 18 11 the privilege was sold by Ebenezer Brown to 
Hopestill Leland and Col. Calvin Sanger of Sherborn, who organized 
the Framingham Manufacturing Co., and erected a cotton-mill, which 
did a large business for many years. The property passed into the 
hands of I. McLellan of Boston. In July, 1844, this privilege was 
sold to William H. Knight, who put in machinery for spinning woolen 
yarns. Mr. K. sold to the City of Boston. 

Before the Revolution, Dea. Brown built a fulling-mill at the old 
fording place, southwest of his dwelling-house. This came into the 
possession of his son Andrew — Maj. Andrew, he was called, — who 
carried on business here till his death in 1803. The property then 
fell to Roger Brown, brother of Andrew, and through him to his son. 
Col. James. Luther Rice occupied the fulling-mill for a time, and 
put in machinery for spinning cotton thread. In 1829, Col. James 
Brown sold the privilege to William H. Knight. Mr. K. changed the 
machinery, and immediately commenced here the manufacture of 
carpets. His means were limited, and not at all commensurate with 
his skill. He would purchase wool sufficient for a single piece of 
carpeting, work it. up and take it to Boston, and from the proceeds 
buy more wool. He furnished a room in the upper story of the 

Fisheries. 1 7 

factory, where he lived. And it was not an uncommon thing for his 
wife, from her window to catch the fish necessary for their frugal 
repast. In 1839 Mr. Knight bought the "bridge lot," eighty rods 
below the fulling-mill site, where he started large carpet works. With 
these several powers, which embraced all on the brook, his business 
rapidly increased, so that in 1845 — only fifteen years after his humble 
beginning — he owned three mills, which consumed annually 465,000 
lbs. of wool, producing 199,037 yards of carpeting, of the value of 
$149,530. The mills gave employment to 191 males and forty-one 

Mr. Knight sold all his property and water rights on Cochituate 
brook to the City of Boston, June 25, 1846. The buildings connected 
with the bridge lot establishment were burnt on the morning of Mar. 
20, 1847. 

"Fisheries on Cochituate brook. Before the construction of 
dams, salmon, shad and alewives had free access to the upper tributa- 
ries of Sudbury river, and Farm pond was as well stocked with these 
fish as Long pond. But the dam at " The Falls " so obstructed the 
passage, that Farm pond was practically deserted by them. An 
attempt was made in 1762 by the town, "to see if the town will 
choose a committee to have a way opened through Stone's dam, that 
the alewives be not obstructed coming up the Sudbury river, to pass 
up into Farm pond to cast their spawn." Messrs. James Cloyes, 
Isaac Fiske and Joshua Harrington were appointed said committee. 
But the rights acquired by the owners of the dam through one hun- 
dred years of peaceful possession proved too strong, and the whole 
subject was dismissed. 

But all this while the fish had free access to Cochituate pond ; and 
the fisheries of this pond and brook were of considerable importance. 
There was enough for all ; and the town took no action to regulate 
the catch, till 1743, when Josiah Drury and Daniel Gregory were 
appointed a committee "to take care of the fish." This was done to 
prevent the wasteful destruction of the females on their way up to the 
pond for spawning, and to keep away trespassers from other towns. 

But the building of Brown's dam in 1748 threatened to interfere 
with the Cochituate fishery. Probably Mr. Brown put in a fish-way, 
and thus averted immediate danger. The statute provided that 
" Towns shall have power to choose at the annual meeting in March, 
one or more persons, whose duty it shall be to see that the passage 
ways for alewives are open, that said fish be not obstructed in their 
usual passing up and down stream, and to appoint the proper places 
for taking such fish with scoop-nets, etc., and to limit the particular 
days for taking the same.'' In accordance with this act, at the 

1 8 History of Fratningham. 

meeting March 7, 1763, the town appointed Mr. William Brown 
and Mr. Bezaleel Rice a committee to carry the law into effect. 
Similar committees where appointed in succeeding years. April 2, 
1792, the town voted, "That the fish called alewives and shad be 
taken only one day in the week, that to be on Tuesday, and to be 
taken only at one place, and that to be within 15 rods of Dea. Wm. 
Brown's old fulling-mill dam. Voted to choose a committee of three 
to let out the catching the alewives to the highest bidder, and whoever 
purchases the privilege is to sell them for no more than four pence 
per score." In some years the proceeds of the fisheries were given 
to the singers, and hence were called the "singer's fish privilege." 
It sometimes amounted to sixteen dollars, which shows the immense 
numbers that were caught. 

In 182 1 an act was passed, providing that "it shall not be lawful 
for any person to set more than one hook at any one time in any of 
the ponds or streams within the town of Framingham ; nor shall it be 
lawful for any person to draw any seine or net in any of the ponds or 
streams in said Town, nor shall any person set any pot or net in any 
of the streams aforesaid; on forfeiture of one dollar for each hook 
more than one, so set, and five dollars for drawing any seine or net, 
or setting any pot — the owner to forfeit such hook, seine, net or pot." 

The northern affluents of Sudbury river are Baiting brook, which 
rises in the northwesterly part of the town, and traverses more than 
one-half its length in a southeast course, entering the river fifty rods 
below the mouth of Stoney brook. Col. Joseph Buckminster built a 
grist-mill a little west of his house, before 1741, and the site is still 
occupied. Aaron Bullard built a dam and put in a large grindstone, 
just east of the present house of John F. Macomber. Blac'ksmiths, 
scythe-makers, etc., sent their newly-forged tools to him for grinding; 
and many mechanics and farmers chose to pay him 6]^ cents rather 
than consume time and strength and patience in sharpening a very 
dull tool. 

Birch meadotv brook rises in the swamp north of the Willard Cutting 
place, runs southerly about half a mile, where by an old arrangement 
•of dams, it forms a partial junction with Baiting brook, and then 
turns east, traversing the Edgell farm. Maj. Lawson Buckminster 
built a saw-mill north of his house (now Moses Ellis') some time after 
the Revolution. His son Lawson, Jr., put in a grist-mill, and after- 
wards a turning-lathe, a short distance below the saw-mill. Mr. 
Woolson had a shingle-mill here, later. 

DunsdeWs brook rises on the Bowditch farm, west of John Forris- 
ter's ; runs southeasterly near the Calvin Hemenway place, and enters 
Sudbury river 100 rods below Birch meadow brook. Nathan Frost 

Brooks — Springs. 1 9 

formerly had a shop with turning-lathe on an eastern branch of this 

Cherry meadow brook rises ift Wolf swamp, and takes first a south- 
easterly, and then a southwesterly course. 

Square meadow brook, now Dadmun's brook, is only half a mile long, 
and enters the river about half a mile above the falls. Boman's brook 
is still shorter, comes down from Roger's Field, through Mr. Simp- 
son's premises, and enters the pond thirty rods above the dam. 

The streams which are not connected with the Sudbury river 
system, are Hop brook, which rises south of Liberty Chadwick's, and 
runs through North Framingham in a northerly direction, crossing 
the Sudbury town line near the Framingham and Lowell Railroad 

Course brook rises in a swamp near the old Worcester turnpike, on 
the east border of the town, and flows in a northeasterly direction 
into Cochituate brook. 

Strawberry corner brook is named in the will of Henry Rice in 17 10. 

The Great Drain, is at Rice's End, and probably in part artificial. 

Beaver Dam brook, is the outlet of Washakum pond, and drains the 
Guinea meadows. It is a tortuous and sluggish stream, running 
easterly into Natick, and emptying into Cochituate pond. 

Springs. — There is a spring of water highly impregnated with 
sulphur, on the west slope of Indian Head hill, on land now owned 
by John L. Wilson. 

A spring, highly impregnated with sulphur and magnesia, is found 
on Mr. Badger's farm, near Barton's brook. Near by is an extensive 
deposit of red ochre. 

A Barometric sprijig comes out in a little ravine northerly from the 
house of A. D. Cloyes, the water of which flows east through the farm 
of J. H. Temple. It is a never-failing spring of pure soft water, 
distinguishable from others in the neighborhood only by its peculiarity 
of overflowing with a sudden rush just before a rainfall. It matters 
not what the season of the year may be — summer and winter, in wet 
weather and in time of severest drought — all at once the water 
comes pouring from this spring, sometimes flooding the intervale 
through which it is discharged ; and within thirty-six hours thereafter 
a rainfall comes. 

The underground currents which supply this spring have been 
traced to some rocky highlands with swampy depressions, a fourth 
of a mile to the southwest. The main artery has been tapped by a 
well thirty rods from the spring, and is there twenty-four feet below 
the surface. 

20 History of Fi'-amingJiam. 

In wet seasons the outflow is sufficient to fill an eight-inch pipe. It 
diminishes in volume gradually, as other neighboring springs do, with 
the progress of the summer, or a drought, except as already indicated. 
The following memoranda, taken in 1869, give a specimen of what is 
constantly recurring : " Sept. 5. — A severe drought of forty days con- 
tinuance ; wells and streams have failed ; discharge from barometric 
spring unusually sluggish, scarcely enough water flowing to fill a 
two-inch pipe, and reaching only forty rods from the outlet. Sept. 6. 
— Sky brassy, heat intense, air suffocating ; water pouring from the 
spring in a little torrent, having more than doubled in volume, and 
reaching to a distance of eighty rods. Sept. 7. — Spring continues to 
overflow as yesterday ; clouds have overcast the sky. 1 1 o'clock 
A. M. rain began to fall, and lasted till 3 P. M. Sept. 8. — Clear and 
warm ; spring discharging freely, but less than on the 6th, showing 
that the rain is less potent in affecting the outflow than the atmos- 
pheric pressure." 

Springs of pure cold water come out at the foot of the bluffs and 
hills, in all parts of the town, furnishing refreshing drink to fishermen, 
hunters, berry-pickers and haymakers, and creating spots of greenness 
and beauty in early April and dusty August. 

Ponds. — Cochituate pond, ox Long pond, as it was uniformly called 
in the early records, lies partly in Natick, partly in Wayland, and 
partly in Framingham, our easterly line traversing it for a distance of 
seven-eighths of a mile, and including about eighty acres within our 
town limits. The term Cochituate was applied by the early white 
settlers, as it was by the natives, not to the water, but to the site of 
the large Indian village on the borders and near the outlet of the 
pond. This point will be fully treated of in a subsequent chapter. 

The length of this pond in a direct line from north to south, is 
three and one-half miles; its breadth at the widest part is a little 
more than half a mile ; the circumference, at the water's edge, when 
at its medium height, measures ten miles. 

This pond originally presented the appearance of two bodies of 
water, united by a narrow strait, over which has been constructed the 
Saxonville Branch railroad. This strait was an Indian fording-place 
and fishing-place, and by dumping in large quantities of small 
stones, the early settlers made a passable roadway. There was 
another fording-place, where the road from Framingham to Cochituate 
village now crosses the pond. The greatest depth of water, at high 
flood, in the southern section, is sixty-nine feet ; in the middle section, 
sixty-one feet ; in the northern section, forty-eight feet. The entire 
area of the pond at low water, or when the surface is even with the 

Ponds. 2 1 

flume at the outlet, is 489 acres ; when raised three feet above the 
flume, 559 acres ; when raised six and one-half feet above, 659 acres. 

The water of this pond is now held by the city of Boston, as a part 
of its water supply, under an act of the legislature. 

Farm pond. This was called by the first explorers Great potid, 
and is so named in some early deeds. After the last grant to 
Mr. Danforth was laid out, and he had purchased the Wayte farm, 
the pond began to be called Farm pond, or the Farms pond. It lies 
southeast from Mt. Wayte ; is one mile in length from north to south, 
and half a mile in width at the broadest part ; and contains an area 
of 193 acres. The shad and alewive fisheries of this pond were of 
much account to the natives, and were one of the motives for locating 
a cluster of wigwams at the northerly end ; and the celebrated eel 
fishery at the south end, where it originally received the overflow of 
the smaller pond, was a main reason for placing the Indian village 
at that point. 

This pond now forms a part of the Sudbury river system of water 
supply for the city of Boston. 

Washakamaug pond. The Indian name of this pond is now 
commonly contracted into Washakum, or Shakum. The name was 
applied by the natives, not to the pond, but to the land lying between 
this and its northerly neighbor, where they had a settlement, and 
where they resorted annually in summer, for eel fishing, the Indian 
word signifying "eel-fishing place.'' It lies to the southwest of 
Farm pond, distant about 170 rods, and covers about ninety acres. 
It once discharged its waters into Farm pond ; but the strip of morass 
between them became gradually filled with vegetable accumulations, 
aided and hastened by the construction of the highway with an insuf- 
ficient sluiceway. It now discharges its overflow to the south and 
east through Beaver Dam brook. 

Learned' s pond lies directly east of Farm pond, at the distance of 
about 100 rods. It covers thirty-six acres, and has no visible outlet. 
It was named for Isaac Learned, who settled on its southerly border 
in 1679. Tradition has it, that a chest of gold was sunk near the west 
shore of this pond by Capt. Kidd, or some other noted pirate, and 
put under the "charm" by which such treasures were guarded. 
Several of the early settlers near the pond reported that they had 
caught sight of the mysterious chest, floating just beneath the surface, 
but no one had the courage and presence of mind to observe the 
necessary precautions to secure it. These conditions, according to 
the popular belief of the time, were : the presence of three persons 
arranged so as to represent the points of a triangle ; the three to 
maintain perfect silence, and not take their eyes from the chest, but 

22 History of Framingham. 

move slowly towards it, keeping their exact relative position ; and one 
of them to lay a key or some iron tool upon it, when it would in- 
stantly become subject to his control, /. e. the diabolical spell by 
which it was held would thus be broken. The last reputed observer 
of this chest, so far as is known, was Nathaniel Pratt, Jr. (born 
1702), who was accustomed to recount the particulars of his exploit, 
to the amazement of youthful listeners, and to deplore his want of 
forethought in neglecting to silently lay his jackknife on the coveted 
treasure ! In his excitement he spoke aloud, and, as he expressed 
it, " in a minnit the thing squggled down into the mud out of sight ! " 
Similar traditions attach to numerous other ponds and islands all 
through New England, and are associated with possible and impossible 
conditions and superstitious fancies. These beliefs of the fathers 
are important to be preserved, as characteristic traits of the time in 
which they lived. 

Gleason's pond, lying a short distance to the east of Learned's, covers 
thirteen acres. It was called by the first settlers Little pond, and 
for a time Bigelow's pond. The present name is derived from 
Thomas Gleason, who bought a tract of land adjoining in 1673, and 
whose descendants lived on the south border of the pond for four 

Sucker pond is situated one mile east from Framingham Centre. 
Its area is less than four acres. A still smaller pond lies a short 
distance to the north of it. 

Meadows. — Meadow lands were held in high esteem by the first 
settlers on our territory, as they were the main reliance for obtaining 
hay for their stock. The annual burning of the country by the Indians 
in the month of November, after the grass and other vegetation had 
become dry, left these meadows free from trees and underbrush, and 
ready for the scythe ; and the amount of grass produced on them was 
enormous, and though somewhat coarse, yet in quality it was very 

Men in official position, and men of wealth, were careful to secure 
grants from the General Court of all desirable meadows, in advance 
of settlements. John Stone got possession of most of the lower mead- 
ows on Sudbury river, and those on Baiting brook now owned by 
Moses Ellis ; Richard Wayte, and through his title, Gov. Danforth, 
secured the meadows lying east and south of Bare hill, those bordering 
the Hopkinton river, and sixty acres lying west of the Beaver dam. 
Edmund Rice received a grant of the meadow lying below the Beaver 
dam. Rev. Edmund Brown of Sudbury, as a special favor, was allowed 
three lots of meadow within our bounds, one lying near Nobscot, 

Meadows. 2 3 

one on Dunsdell's brook, and a small meadow of three acres at 
the falls on Cochituate brook. These grants carried a perfect title, 
and the lands descended to the heirs of the grantee ; and when a 
township was incorporated, the property became valuable. 

Great meadow, was the name applied by the first settlers to the 
tract of low land lying southwesterly of Washakamaug pond, extend- 
ing as far as the old Holliston line. The " Russell grant " covered this 
tract. Most of those who located on the Eames' land, all the Havens 
and Mellens, all the Salem-end farmers, Rev. Mr. Swift, John Town, 
Benj. Treadway, and others, owned lots in this meadow, which were 
held in their families for two or three generations. The annual hay- 
making on Great meadow was a sort of common gala-time for these 
distant farmers and their boys ; and mighty deeds of mowing and 
pitching, and wrestling at noontime, were the theme of boastful glory 
for the rest of the summer. 

Guinea meadow. This name is now applied somewhat indefinitely, 
but includes the lowlands on either side of Beaver Dam brook, from 
the pond down to Natick line. In the deeds to and from the Whit- 
neys, and Havens, and Eameses, and Deaths who were the earliest 
owners of this tract, it is uniformly designated as Long meadow. 
The Indian name was Quinneh, which signifies " long." The term 
Guinea, is evidently a corruption of the Indian word. This meadow 
originally produced an excellent quality of grass. But in order to 
destroy some briars and bushes that had got root in several places, the 
whites set fires at these points, before the fall rains had set in, which 
spread over the entire tract, and destroyed the rich vegetable mould, 
leaving only the cold sub-soil. They thought they were imitating the 
natives ; but the Indian never set his fires till after the equinoctial 

Meilen's meadow lay on the west side of the river, west and north of 
Joseph A. Merriam's. 

CoUcr's mcadott) is west of Merriam's hill, and southeasterly from 
the house of Mrs. William Badger. 

The Wayte meadow lay on the northerly bank of Sudbury river, and 
included the lowlands from the old cemetery as far up as the mouth 
of Stoney brook. A considerable part of this meadow belonged to 
the ministerial land, granted to Rev. Mr. Swift. 

yacket meadow, was on Baiting brook, and is now owned by Moses 

Ellis. Birch meadow was west of Mr. Ellis' saw-mill, on the brook of 


the same name, " about half a mile southwest from the house of 
Reginald Foster." Both the above were early known as " Stone's 

Turkey meadow lay south of the Willard Cutting place. 

24 History of FramingJiain. 

Wildcat meadows lay to the northwest of Wildcat hill, and are now 
in Ashland. 

Hearthstone meadotv was near the Southborough town line, to the 
south of the brick-yard. It was so called from the abundance of large 
fiat stones of a hard texture, which would resist the action of heat, 
and consequently were suitable for hearths. Troublesome meadow lay 
south of Hearthstone. 

DunsdeWs meadow is on the brook of the same name, and was 
granted by the legislature to Rev. Edmund Brown of Sudbury, in 1654. 

Read's Flag meadow lies southwest of the old Frost house, now 
Liberty Chadwick's. It was owned by Thomas Read, Sen., in 1693. 

Square i7iead(nv is on the brook of the same name. 

Rattlesjiake meadow is described in a deed from Matthew and 
J. Gibbs to Nathaniel Stone, 1697, as "between Sudbury, and Fram- 

Jacob's meadow lies east of Indian Head hill. It was named- for 
Old Jacob, the Indian, who lived here. Jacobs further meadoio lies 
southeast of Gleason's pond. 

Black Oak meadow was on or near the Micah Leland farm. 

BejijamMs meadow was at Rice's End. 

Indian William's meadow, was the name of about three acres of 
land, near the falls of Cochituate brook, and was granted to Rev. 
Edmund Brown. It was originally owned by William Boman. 

Beaver hole meadow, Pod meadow, and Wills meadow, were on the 
Glover Farm, near the northeast corner of the town. 

Swamps. — Ashen swamp is on the west side of Great meadow, 
near the old Holliston line. 

Wolf siuatnp was on the Coolett farm, to the east of the Elisha 
Frost place. Deer swafnp was east of the Micah Leland place. Roe 
swamp was west of the Charles Fiske tannery, and near Mr. Simp- 
son's farm buildings. 

Morse's S7aatnp, afterwards Bucktninster's, was on the old Worcester 
Turnpike, and is now covered by Reservoir No. 3. 

Spruce swamp was north of the old cemetery'. 

Little Cedar swamp was in Salem End, extending from a point south 
of Dam No. 3, southerly to the river. It formed the westerly bound 
of Salem plain. 

Plains. — Pratt' s plain lay east of the Centre village, distant about 
a mile. The State muster ground now takes in the larger part of it. 
It was so called from Thomas Pratt, who with his sons owned and 
settled on the tract. 

Hills. 25 

Salem plaifi, is the name given in early deeds to the tract of land 
enclosed by Stoney brook on the north, Hopkinton river on the east, 
Cowassack brook and Cedar swamp on the south and west. It com- 
prised the present farms of F. C. Browne, William G. Lewis and 
J. Van Praag. 

Willow plaifi lies on the south side of Willow brook, at tJie foot of 
the hill north of the house of George Nurse. It is named in deeds 
as early as 1708. 

Hills. — The range of hills near the Sudbury town line, on the 
northerly border of Framingham, and the corresponding " hill coun- 
try " on the left bank of Hopkinton river, are a conspicuous feature 
of our landscape ; and the isolated conical and rounded elevations in 
the central part of the town, give the variety and resting-places for 
the eye, which add a charm to natural scenery. 

Nobscot. This noted landmark is situated on our north border, 
midway between Saxonville and Marlborough line. The original 
name was Penobscot, by which designation it is found on the Sudbury 
town records as early as 1657. This is an Indian word, meaning "at 
the fall of the rocks," or the steep rock place. The natives so 
applied the name, from the precipice on the eastern face, near which 
they built their wigwams, and below which, at the foot of the hill, they 
had planting-fields. In early records the name is uniformly given as 
Nobscot, not Nobscot hill, thus following the exact Indian usage. 
The noted Indian cairn on the top will be described in another 
chapter. The height of this hill above the level of mean high tide 
at Boston is 525 feet. 

Doeskin hill, named in the Colony Records in 1658, and in the Sud- 
bury records in 1662, is directly west from Nobscot, with only a slight 
depression between them. There is some ambiguity in the applica- 
tion of the name of this hill, among early writers ; some giving the 
designation Doeskin to the whole range, and some seeming to apply 
it to the eastern hill. But a number of affidavits found among the 
Court papers in Suffolk County settle the question satisfactorily. In 
the controversy between Col, Joseph Buckminster and the heirs of 
Thomas Danforth, about the exact location of "the 600 acres of 
Reserved land," the application of the foregoing names became a 
vital point. A score of affidavits of the first settlers in Sudbury and 
Framingham were taken, similar in terms to the following : " Thomas 
Pratt, of lawful age, testifyeth and saith, that for this fifty years or 
more, he hath known the great hills adjoining to Sudbury south 
boundary, to go by the name of Nobscot and Doeskin hills, the 
easterly hill called Nobscot, and the westerly hill called Doeskin, 

26 Histoiy of Framingham. 

Joseph Berry's orchard in said Framingham standing in part on the 
westerly end of Doeskin hill." Sworn to Feb. 25, 1736-7. 

The name of this hill had a curious origin, as appears from the 
following affidavit: " Hopestill Brown, Esq., of lawful age testifyeth 
and saith that for this sixty years he hath known the great hill adjoin- 
ing to Sudbury south boundary to go by the name of Nobscot or 
Doeskin hill: that some of the improvements with some of the 
orchard in the possession of Joseph Berry in Framingham is on the 
westerly part of said hill : The deponent further saith that he heard 
his father say that Mr. Pelham and himself went up the hill above 
mentioned to take a prospect, and that Mr. Pelham lost a Doeskin 
glove on said hill, and that Mr. Pelham said, this hill shall be called 
Doeskin hilir Sworn to December 24, 1736. 

A path from the " New Bridge " near the Oxbow, to Marlborough, 
ran by the present house of Dea. Jonathan Greenwood, up the valley, 
and crossed the range between Nobscot and Doeskin, and so over a 
bridge (still standing) on the north declivity, where it intersected the 
original path from Sudbury to Marlborough. The old Sudbury path, 
on which the Nixons and Stanhopes lived, was travelled as early as 
1650; and this path by Dea. Greenwood's was marked out in 1674. 
Several cellar-holes along the valley indicate the sites of ancient 

Huckleberry hill is the name sometime given in old deeds to the 
elevation north of Capt. Rufus Russell's. 

Frosfs hill lies to the west of the Joel Tainter place. 

Gibb's moimtain is near the Marlborough line in the northwest part 
of the town. 

Work hill is northwest of Charles Capen's. 

School-house hill is back of school house No. 6. 

The Mountain is the name applied very early to the rounded emi- 
nence on the southerly side of Stoney brook, and northwest of J. H. 

Tower's hill is situated on the dividing line between Framingham 
and Southborough, nearly west from the Mountain. It is composed 
almost wholly of stony clay, which is now utilized in the manufacture 
of bricks. 

The Lamb hill is southeast and near to Tower's hill. It received 
its name from Samuel Lamb, who built a house on its north slope 
about 1707. The Boston and Worcester Turnpike crossed its north- 
erly end. 

Wild-cat hill is the counterpart of Nobscot, and is the highest point 
of land in the southwesterly part of the original township. It is now 
in Ashland. 

Hills. 2 7 

BallarcVs hill is a name applied to the high lands lying to the 
northwest of the site of Cutler's mill. The range is now in Ashland. 

Merriatn's hill is a modern name applied to a beautiful elevation on 
the left bank of Hopkinton river, west of Farm pond. Dam No. 2 is 
built at its northeasterly foot. 

Long hill is named in very early deeds. It extends from Park's 
Corner to near Washakamaug pond. It was owned by John and 
Nathaniel Haven ; John settling at the northerly end, and Nathaniel 
at the southerly. 

Mount Wayte is a conical hill situated at the northwest of Farm 
pond. It was included in the grant made in 1658 to Richard Wayte, 
a man of note in our early colonial history. He sold to Thomas Dan- 
forth. It will always be memorable as the scene of the murder of the 
Thomas Fames family by the Indians, Feb. i, 1676. The slopes of 
this hill are now occupied as a Methodist Camp-meeting ground, the 
projectors of which have christened the place with the insignificant 
name of " Lake View," in room of the old title so rich in historic 

Bare hill is situated in the Centre village. When the first explorers 
visited the spot, it was without trees, except a few stunted pines. 
Height above tide level, 289 feet. 

Indian Head hill was so named before the incorporation of the 
town. It is a conspicuous eminence, to the northeast of the Centre 
village. Mr. John L. Wilson has built on its western slope. It was 
the favorite residence of Old Jacob, an Indian somewhat noted in our 
early annals. Elevation above tide level, 336 feet. 

Capf. Tom's hill is on the line between Natick and Framingham, 
east of Pratt's plain. It was named for the Indian sachem known as 
Capt. Tom, of Hassanamesit, who was captured at this place in June, 
1676, and hanged in Boston, June 22. His history will be given in a 
subsequent chapter. 

Gleason's hill is in the southeasterly corner of the town, north of 
the Boston and Albany railroad. 

Fort hill is a name early given to the point of the bluff, at Saxon- 
ville, directly east from where the Cochituate brook enters Sudbury 
river. There is evidence that it was the site of an Indian fort. 

There is another Fort hill, popularly known as Prospect hill, on the 
west border of Cochituate pond, south of the outlet. This was the 
true Cochitawick or cascade place, of the natives. An extended notice 
of this hill and fort will be given in another place. 

Bridges' hill is east of W. E. Temple's and south of Reservoir No. 3. 
It was named for Benjamin Bridges, who located at its easterly foot 
in 1693. 

2 8 History of Frmningham. 

jfaqiies' hill is the name given in early deeds to a slight elev'ation 
of land on the west side of Union Avenue, near the north line of R. L. 
Day's farm. The roadway cut off part of it. It was named for John 
Jaques, who built and lived and died in a house on the top of the knoll. 

Fiddle Neck. This was a long irregular strip of land bearing 
some resemblance to a fiddle, lying on the north bank of Hopkinton 
river, extending from the west bounds of Framingham westerly into 
Westborough, where it came to a point near the Rocklawn mills. In 
Gore's survey, 1699, it is described as 2^ miles long. In a survey 
made in 1708 it is described as 600 rods long by 114 rods wide at the 
base or east end. It was originally laid out to answer a grant by the 
General Court to Thomas Mayhevv in 1643. Joseph Buckminster 
claimed ownership, under Mr. Danforth's lease ; and Framingham 
held a ^?/rt'J'/ jurisdiction over it for a time. In 1727, on the incorpo- 
ration of Southborough, it became a part of that town. 

The Leg was a tract of about 280 rods long by 150 rods wide, 
running north, at the northwest corner of the town. It is marked on 
Gore's survey, 1699. How it came originally within our town bounds, 
does not appear. It contained several valuable farms, and was set 
off to Marlborough, Feb. 23, 1791. 

Stone's End is the name formerly given to that part of the town 
which now comprises Saxonville. It was so called because it was 
owned and settled by families of that name. 

Rice's End was the district east of Hastings' Corner, originally 
settled largely by families of the name of Rice. 

Guinea End was a designation applied to the south part of the 
town, near the railroad station. 

Salem End. This name was early given to the territory settled 
by the families who came from Salem village in 1693. It included 
Salem plain, and the dwellers as far south as the Badger farm, and 
west as far as the Nurse farm. 

Pike Row was the early name of the highway extending from the 
Capt. Adam Hemenway place, west to the Moses Haven place, now 
Reginald Foster's. 

Shereorn Row was the name of the highway from the north line 
of the State Muster Grounds, southerly through South Framingham 
to Sherborn line. There were fourteen houses on this road in 1699. 

Park's Corner is the modern name given to the district around 
where the old Baptist meeting-house stood. The " Corner " was at 
the present railroad crossing, south of the house of David Nevins. 
Jonas Dean and others kept a famous tavern here. John Park had a 
no less famous store here, which stood on the west side of the road 
north of the railroad track. 

Geology. 29 

New Boston is a name sometimes applied to the district around 
Brackett's bakery and store. It is now known by the appropriate 
title of Nobscot, and has its post-ofifice and railroad station. 

Zachery's Point was the designation of the land which projected into 
Farm pond on the east side, about west a little north of the house of 
Luther Eames (the old Red house). Zachariah Paddleford owned a 
farm here, and had a barn and orchard on the lot. The railroad cut 
went through it, and much of the earth has been carried away for 

Bridge Field is at Saxonville, where Knight's new carpet-factory 
stood. It is often named in deeds. 

Roger's Field was also at Saxonville, and took in the large tract 
bounded east by a line from the Falls along by Stone's hall to the 
turn in the river, north by the river, south by the river and Boman's 
brook, west by a ditch running from the brook to the river. Deeds 
of the property have been lately found. 

Jethro's Field, referred to in the records of 1649, as near the line 
of Sudbury, was also named for the Indian owner. The following 
affidavit locates and describes it : " George Walkup being sworn saith, 
that for this five and forty years he hath known the old Fields on the 
westerly part of Nobscot called by the name of Jethro's Field, Peter's 
Field, and Concubine's Field." Sworn to Aug. 3, 1739. Old Jethro's 
" granary " still remains, near his field ; and the orchard which he 
planted before 1650, has scarcely gone to decay. 


The following outline sketch of the Geology of this town has been 
kindly furnished by George C. Mahon, Esq., a former resident, and a 
recognized authority in the science. 

Hitchcock, in his report on the Geology of Massachusetts, terms 
the rock formation of Framingham "gneiss." The term is rather 
ambiguous ; originally it meant that kind of slaty granite, an elemen- 
tary crystalline rock, which forms the transition between granite 
proper (intrusive granite) and mica slate, the slaty appearance being 
caused by the parallelism in the planes of the mica contained. But 
latterly MacCuUoch and other writers have used the term " gneiss " 
to express not only a different kind of rock, but as the generic name 
of an entire series of rocks of wholly different origin, first observed 
intelligently in the north of Scotland ; and it seems to be in this sense 
that Mr. Hitchcock has applied the term to the rock formation of 

In this sense gneiss means a series of rocks originally deposited in 

30 History of framingham. 

water, and still stratified but metamorphosed by heat to the extent of 
becoming crystalline, and curiously imitative of granite and other 
igneous rocks, properly so called. These imitation rocks vary in 
their composition to the most extraordinary extent ; the constituent 
crystals which determine their character and name varying not only 
according to the chemical character of the stratum metamorphosed, 
but according to the degree and duration of the heat to which they 
have been exposed; also no doubt according to electrical and other 
conditions at present but little understood. 

Framingham is peculiarly rich in metamorphic rocks of this charac- 
ter. The passing visitor can see a good instance of this within two 
minutes walk of the railway station at Framingham Centre, in the 
face of the cutting opposite the tool-house at the junction of the Lowell 
railroad. Here a great variety of ribs or strata, differing lithologi- 
cally from each other, are exposed, dipping to the northeast at an 
angle of about 45^^ and presenting at least six different lithological 
characters within 100 yards. At the northern end, we have a band 
or stratum of green stone (or diorite); at the south quartzite, wdiile 
halfway between the two we have the original conglomerate, with its 
pebbles still easily detached from their bed, though metamorphosed, 
as well as the cement or paste that contains them. 

Almost every varietv of the normal crystalline rocks is simulated 
thus by metamorphism in Framingham. Some of the most striking 
instances are represented by specimens in the cabinet of the Science 
Association in the Town Hall at Framingham Centre, the labels 
stating the localities. . 

Though micaceous granite and mica slate exist in large quantities, 
yet as a general rule in Framingham, chlorite replaces mica in all 
kinds of rock in which mica is ordinarily a constituent. At Fisher's 
cutting, about a mile further to the north on the Lowell railroad, 
large masses of crystalline chlorite rock exist ; and near it in the same 
cutting particles of copper pyrites associated with pearl spar and crys- 
talline chlorite. Framingham is par excellence a chlorite locality. The 
crystals are sometimes very perfect. 

On the Badger farm in Salem End, the rocks are greatly disordered, 
and there are even some signs of a disturbance apparently volcanic. 
Pumice stone and native sulphur are found there. This farm also 
contains a good deal of bog iron ore on elevated ground, so that the 
course of metallic mineral from whence the iron originally came 
cannot be very distant. A vein of silver in argillaceous schist, has 
lately been discovered. Galena, oxide of manganese, and yellow cop- 
per pyrites exist in large quantities in this locality. The three latter 
minerals are found disseminate in small quantities, in many parts of 

Geology. 3 1 

the town ; and there are courses of rock more or less impregnated 
with iron pyrites, which as they decompose resemble gossan, and 
would seem to indicate the existence of profitable mineral deposits ; 
but as yet, nothing has been found superior to the indications on Mr. 
Badger's farm. 

Quarries of good building stone exist in all parts of the town, 
especially on the Rugg farm in the west part, on Fenton's farm in 
Salem End, and near Park's Corner. The main drawback to their 
commercial value is the discoloration owing to the presence of iron 
pyrites. The parsonage of the First Parish, and the dwelling-house 
of Mrs. F. W. Clapp, were built of stone taken from the cellar of the 
latter house. Memorial Hall is constructed of stone from the 
John Johnson farm ; the Episcopal church from a quarry on the 
roadside near Richard Roby's. 

The drifi of Framingham presents splendid opportunities for obser- 
vation. The peat meadow near Nobscot railroad station is a square 
depression of several acres enclosed on all sides by high banks of 
drift. Learned's pond is something of the same kind. 

There are undoubted glacier markings in all parts of the town. 
One deep and very clearly cut lateral groove is found on the west 
side of a gorge north of George H. Thompson's, near the Poor farm. 
It would be difficult to find a locality that will repay the student of 
glacial action and drift, better than Framingham ; or go further to 
settle the much vexed question as to whether drift of such a character 
is to be attributed — first, to the breaking up of a great glacial sheet 
thawing away rapidly from its southern limit; or secondly, to ordi- 
nary glaciers thawing away slowly ; or thirdly, to the action of 
icebergs alternately floating and grounding, while the drift was still 

Clay is scarce, except in the form of clayey gravel or " hard pan," 
of which bricks are made at the yard near Tower's hill. The Lamb 
hill, and Bridges' hill are of the same character. Some good cla}', 
tenacious enough for grafting purposes, exists on the Rugg farm, in 
the west part of Salem End, and near Saxonville ; but though sought 
after for the use of the Boston Water Works, could not be found in 
sufficient quantity anywhere in the town. 

No roofing slate is yet known to exist. 

The best possible material for macadamizing roads exists in abun- 
dance in all parts of the town ; but as yet only gravel is used. 


History of the Indians who occupied the Framingham 

i ^aHE natural features of the territory included in the limits of the 
Mj original town grant, mark it as a desirable abiding-place of the 
native red man. The swamps abounded in beaver and other 
fur-bearing animals;' the ponds were stopping-places of migratory 
fowl, and the breeding-places of shad and salmon ; the several falls 
and the mouths of the smaller streams running into the Sudbury river 
and Stoney brook were excellent fishing-places ; the higher hills 
sheltered the larger sorts of wild game, and were well covered with 
chestnut trees to furnish a store of nuts ; and the plain lands supplied 
rich and easily-tilled planting-fields. 

We are apt to think of the Indians as a roving and predatory race, 
whose best idea of existence was the excitement and glory of "Wild 
life in the Woods'' — in hunting and trapping game to supply him 
and his with food, and furnish amusement and exhilaration, and test 
his skill and prowess. 

But — aside from war and games for the young men — an Indian 
was averse to everything that required bodily labor. He trapped 
and hunted only when necessity compelled him. It was the duty of 
his squaw to supply him with food. She planted and tended and 
gathered the corn, and cured the fish, and dug the ground-nuts, and 
skinned the game, and prepared the skins for clothing, and the mats 
to cover his wig\yam. And it was only when her stores failed that he 
would go hunting. His idea of true dignity and true happiness was, 
to bask in the sun or over his fire, smoke his pipe, eat to repletion, 
and doze. 

Higginson, in his Account of New England, 1629, says : "The men 

^ The beaver dam on the brook of the same name, near the house of Joseph Phipps, will be 
described elsewhere. It would flood a large tract of the meadows above, and thus indicates the 
rendezvous of a large and permanent colony of beavers. The remains of a beaver dam and houses 
can be seen at the outlet of a miry swamp on Dunsdell's brook, northwest of the Calvin Hemenway 
place ; and another dam existed on the same brook at a point lower down. These animals also had 
a storehouse on Barton's brook, near the Badger place. Buckminster's swamp, on the old Worcester 
turnpike, was the permanent home of a large colony of beavers. 

India7i Occupation. "i^Ty 

for the most part live idly ; they do nothing but hunt and fish. 
Their wives set their corn and do all their other work. They have 
little household stuff, as a kettle, and some other vessels like trays, 
spoons, dishes and baskets." 

Cotton Mather, in his Life of Eliot, says : " The Indian's way of 
living is infinitely barbarous ; the men are most abominably slothful, 
making their poor squaws or wives to plant, and dress and beat their 
corn, and build their wigwams for them." 

These traits of character, and this ideal of marital privilege, were 
opposed to a roving life, and naturally led the different tribes and 
clans, and even isolated families, to choose an established abiding- 
place, where they severally claimed proprietary rights. 

Many of them had two such homes, to meet the wants of the 
warmer and colder seasons. But the spot where they spent the 
spring, summer and autumn — when the squaws could furnish all the 
family supplies — was the place of which they claimed special owner- 
ship, and from which they were named. 

The following extract from Hubbard's History of New England, 
written in 1679, '^'^'" throw light on the Indian customs of habitancy 
and government, and help to a solution of some important questions 
respecting the tribal affinities and proprietary rights of the natives 
found in our neighborhood, when the first English families came on 
for settlement. " Every noated place of fishing or hunting was usually 
a distinct seigniory, and thither all theire friends and allyes of the 
neighboring provinces used to resort in the time of yeere to attend 
those seasons, partly for recreation, and partly to make provissions 
for the yeere. Such places as they chose for theire abode, were 
usually at the Falls of great Rivers, or neare the sea side, where was 
any convenience of catching such fish as every summer and winter 
used to come upon the coast ; att which times they used, like good 
fellows, to make all common ; and then those who had entertained 
theire neighbors by the sea side, expected the like kindness from 
them againe, up higher in the country ; and they were wont to have 
theire great dances for mirth at those generall meetings. With such 
kinde of entercourse were theire affayres and commerce carried on, 
between those that lived up in the country, and those that were 
seated on the sea coast about the havens and channells that issued 
into the sea ; where there used to be at all times, clams, muscles, and 
oaysters, and in the summer season lobsters, bass or mullet and stur- 
geon, of which they used to take great plenty and dry them in the 
smoake, and keepe them the rest of the yeere. Up higher at the Falls 
of great Rivers, they used to take salmon, shad, alewives, that used in 
great quantities, more than cart loades, in the spring to pass up into 

34 History of Framingham. 

the fresh watter Ponds and Lakes, therein to spawne, of all which they, 
with theire wiers used to take great store for theire use. In all such 
places there was wont to bee great resort. In time of yeere for theire 
denomination, they use to be divided, as the clans of Scotland, by the 
head of the tribes, and called after theire names. They were com- 
monly united under one chiefe person, who hath the rule over all 
those lesser fraternities or companies. Every son of such a chiefe 
person used if he could, to get a company to him, of which he also 
made himself the sagamore. The government of these sachems is 
rather arbitrary and customary, than limitted by any lawes or consti- 
tution knowne beforehand : so as they depend upon the absolute will 
of theire chieftains. As for succession, it is rather collaterall than 
direct." [Ed. of 1815, pp. 29-31.] 

The two things taken into account by our interior clans, in fixing a 
village site, were, fishing-places and cornfields. These furnished food 
during a larger part of the year than any other source, because the 
surplus products of both could be stored to meet an emergency of 
weather or war. The fishing season in our streams and ponds lasted 
a considerable time ; and the fish, both in passing up and running 
down, were readily caught ; and during this season the natives gorged 
themselves on this delicious food, roasted on the coals. The larger 
sorts, like salmon and shad, were split and dried in the smoke of 
their wigwam fires, and stored for future use. 

Their modes of catching fish were primitive and ingenious. When 
the shad and salmon are passing up to their spawning-grounds in the 
ponds, they commonly stop for a brief time at the foot of the falls or 
entrance to outlets. Watching their opportunity, the Indians caught 
them in a scoop-net, and shot many with arrows ; and at night they 
would lay in their canoes at these points, with a blazing torch in 
the bows, and spear the fish as they crowded up to the light. 
As soon as all had passed up, they constructed a fish-way or wier, 
to capture them on their descent. These wiers were stone walls built 
from each side of the river down stream, till they nearly met each 
other at an angle of forty-five degrees. At this point a large cage 
was placed, formed of twigs fastened to hoops by strips of young elm 
or other tough bark. The wall conducted the fish that were passing 
down the stream, into this cage, which was called an eel-pot, where they 
were taken in great abundance. 

It is related of the apostle Eliot, that when he was translating the 
Bible into the Indian language, and came to the passage in Judges v. 
28, he could find no word for " lattice." Describing the thing as 
well as he could, he asked the natives for the right term to express it. 
They gave him a word, which he wrote. Some years after, when he 

Indian Occupation. 35 

had learned their language more correctly, he is said to have laughed 
outright, upon finding that the Indians gave him the term for "eel- 
pot." " The mother of Sisera looked out at the window and cried 
through the eel-pot.^^ 

To show the value attached by the Indians to fish as a food, and 
consequently to the fishing-grounds and their means of securing this 
supply, it may be stated, that when the Indians at Natick relinquished 
their private rights to public proprietorship of the town, in 1650, each 
one reserved to himself " his ownership and interest in the wiers which 
he had before put." 

For corn-fields, the natives selected a piece of plain land, or a sunny 
hillside free from stones and easily broken up ; and they retained the 
same field for a succession of years. These fields varied in size with 
the number of the clan or family. Some contained as many as a 
hundred acres. But more commonly they were from five to twelve 
acres, and single families cultivated much less. The original ene- 
mies to be guarded against were birds, coons and bears. But after 
the English settled in their neighborhood and gave their cattle the 
range of the country, the natives were forced to fence in their fields. 
Thus, in the deed to John Stone in 1656, the description is, "a 
parcel of broken up and fenced in land " — evidently the work of the 
grantors. The squaws broke up the ground with stone hoes, having a 
withe handle. Their time for planting was when the leaf of the 
white oak was of the size of a squirrel's paw. This varied in different 
seasons from the fifth to the twenty -fifth of May. In the year 1676, 
as the records inform us, corn-planting by the natives in Massachu- 
setts began on the ninth, and was finished on the sixteenth of May. 
As soon as the ears were well filled out in August, the squaws com- 
menced boiling them for food. This boiled corn was called in their 
language m-sick-qua-tash — indicating the origin of our word succotash. 
With their corn they raised abundance of pumpkins, which when ripe 
were cut in strips and dried in the sun, and used in preparing soups. 
At harvest time, the corn was gathered in great baskets, well dried, and 
threshed out, and hid in their underground barns. How much corn a 
single squaw was accustomed to store for winter's use, is indicated in 
the following paper, dated Jan. 11, 1676 : 

For the honourable Governor and Council of the Colony of Massachu- 
setts : These are to certify that I John Watson Sen., being appointed by the 
honourable committee to looke to the Indians last summer, till after the 
Indian harvest ; Did goe up to Marlborough, and accompanied the Indians 
that belonged to that place and were abiding at Natick, to gather and put 
by thair corn in Indian barns; which corn, as I was informed, the country 
after made use of: And I remember said Indians that had come there were 
these that follow, vizt. 

36 History of Framinghaiii. 

Josiah Nowell, about fourteen barrels. 

Benjamin, about ten " 

Peter Nashem's widow, about fifteen " 

Old Nashem, about ten " 

Mary a widow cousin to James Speen, 15 " 

James Wiser's wife, about ten " 

David's widow, about six " 

Thomas his widow, about nine " 

Most of these Indians were confined to Deer Island last winter. The 

poor Indians above named desire that the honoured Council would please 

to order the Treasurer to repay them their corn. 

John Watson. 

The tribes in the Connecticut valley raised immense crops of corn ; 
and once from their surplus stores saved the infant Connecticut 
colony from impending famine. The spring of 1637 was so occupied 
by the English settlers at Windsor, Hartford and Wethersfield, in 
preparing for and carrying on the war with the Pequots, that they 
failed to plant the requisite amount of corn and wheat. The follow- 
ing winter proving unusually long and severe, their provisions were 
wholly exhausted. On the first opening of spring (1638) a deputation 
was sent up the river to Pacomptock (Deerfield), where they found 
plenty of corn, and purchased of the Indians enough to load a fleet of 
fifty canoes, which were taken down the river by the natives, and the 
grain delivered at the towns designated. 

Looking at our territory, and taking the natural advantages of loca- 
tion as a guide, we should expect to find Indian villages of considerable 
size, at three distinct points, viz., at the outlet of Cochituate pond, 
near the Falls at Saxonville, and around Farm pond. All the condi- 
tions requisite to Indian congregate life are found at these localities. 
And the probability arising from these natural indications, is made a 
certainty by the existence at these several points of unmistakable 
Indian reffiains, and by historical records. 

In addition to conveniency for fishing and planting, the signs 
relied on to determine the site of an Indian village, are : i. The 
presence of considerable quantities of domestic utensils, such as 
stone pestles, kettles, knives and hoes. 2. Heaps of roundish stones 
bearing evidence of the alternate action of fire and water, and covered 
with recently formed mould. Before the introduction of metal kettles, 
these stones were used to heat water, by being thrown red-hot into 
their wooden troughs. A heap of them was kept under their fire in 
the centre of the wigwam, to be ready against emergency, and being 
cumbersome to transport, the heap was left in place when they 
removed to a new location. 3. The remains of granaries or under- 
ground barns. These Indian granaries were of two classes, one 

Indian Occupation. 37 

large, the other small. Both were of similar construction, /. e., circular 
excavations, about five feet in depth. The larger ones were from 
twelve to sixteen feet across, while the small ones were onl}^ three to 
five feet in diameter. They were commonly dug in the sloping sides 
of a knoll or bank, to secure dryness, and the better to shed rain. 
A number were set close together, in order that they might be pro- 
tected from bears and other enemies by a picket. When filled with corn, 
or dried fish, or nuts, they were covered with poles and long grass, or 
brush and sods. 4. A burial-place. This was always convenient to 
their dwellings. A single grave may indicate accidental death ; but 
a cluster of graves unerringly points to a cluster of wigwams. 5. 
A pile of stone chips, where their arrow and spear heads were fash- 
ioned. 6. A place for a fort. 

At the three points specified, these remains were abundant. Hoes, 
axes, gouges, mortars and pestles, arrow and spear heads, buttons, ket- 
tles and fire-stones were formerly found in large quantities, and are 
still occasionally turned up ; stone chips are common ; granaries were 
plenty till they were obliterated by cultivation; and their burial-places 
can be identified. 

It is further to be stated here, that the kind of remains gives us 
some clew to the date of occupation. Before the coming of the 
English, all their domestic utensils and implements of war were of 
stone or copper; after this they obtained of the whites, by exchange 
for furs and wampum, iron kettles, spoons, hatchets, and some other 
things. Substantially all the implements found in this region are of 
stone, and often of the rudest description ; and the piles of stone 
chips, still in existence, after so many upturnings of the civilized plow, 
indicate that these tools were manufactured on the ground, and also 
that they are the work of successive generations. 

But while the testimony of these remains is in some respects more 
satisfactory than oral or written evidence, because they cannot be 
counterfeited nor drawn from imagination, the proof of Indian oc- 
cupancy at these several points is abundant, both from tradition and 
authentic history. The names which they gave to these village-sites 
are preserved, and tell their own significant story. Deeds, covering 
these lands, from the native owners to English grantees or purchasers, 
are still extant, and not only clear up all doubts, but identify places 
and boundaries. 

As has been suggested, the character of the remains found around 
Farm pond and other localities near by, indicate an early, as well as 
long residence by the natives. Probably they were very numerous up 
to 1616, when, according to Mourt, and other historians of the time, a 
malignant distemper broke out and swept off the major part of the 
Indians living in the eastern and central parts of Massachusetts. 

38 History of Framingham. 

Of the history of our Indians, previous to that date, our knowledge 
is scanty. 

Soon after the coming of white settlers to the mouth of Charles 
river in 1629-30, we begin to get traces of Indian occupancy on the 
Sudbury river and its affluents. The first explorers report the exist- 
ence of villages of friendly red men, in all this region. 

Our Indians were known by the general name of Nipnets, or 
Nipmucks, and the region hereabouts was for a long period called 
in deeds and official records, " the Nipmug country." 

The term Nip?iet, in the Indian language, means " the fresh water 
country." It was originally applied by the natives to the lands ad- 
joining the great ponds in the southern and central parts of Worcester 
County, and Woodstock, Ct., where was the primitive seat of the 
Nipnet tribe. May it not be that the general resemblance between 
the lands and ponds in Framingham, and those of his earlier home in 
Dudley and Oxford, first induced some enterprising young sagamore 
to remove hither, and establish a new home, and thus gain a title to 
the territory? A significant fact, bearing on the question, is, that in 
1633, the main trodden path crossing our territory led from the 
Indian village at Cochituate, past Farm pond. Cold spring in Ash- 
land, Grafton, and so to Dudley and Woodstock. By intermarriage 
of his children with the sons and daughters of the chiefs of the 
coast tribes, their descendants acquired a mutuality of interests and 
proprietary rights, which brought about the state of things found 
existing in the Framingham plantation, when Edmund Rice, John 
Stone, Thomas Fames, John Bent, and Thomas Pratt first pitched 
upon our soil. 

The Indian A^illage of Washakamaug. — When Thomas Fames 

took up land and built a house at the north end of Farm pond in 

1669, the lands to the east and southward were owned by John Awas- 

samog ; and most of the Fames farm was subsequently purchased 

of him or his children. How this tract came into Awassamog's 

possession, is stated in legal instruments bearing his signature. In a 

paper duly executed, appointing his son his successor, and dated 

Dec. I, 1684, he recites : " John Awassamog, of Naticke, not now like 

to continue long before his decease, and notable to looke after the 

Indian title that yet do remain unpaid for by Fnglish proprietors, do 

hereby acknowledge Thomas Awassamog, my natural son, my natural 

heir, and betrust and impower him in my stead to sell, bargaine, and 

alienate any of that land the Indian title of which do yet belong to 

me, according to the sagamore title. ^ Hismarke. 

' ^ ° John o- Awosomug. * 

> Mass. Col. Records, v. 531. 

Indian Occupation. 39 

In a deed dated January 21, 1684-5, in which his sons and other 
blood-relations joined, conveying the title of his Framingham and 
other lands to the said heir and successor, John Awassamog recites 
as follows : " Know all men by these presents, that we, John Awas- 
samoag, Samuel Awassamoag, John Mooqua, Peter Ephraim, Eleazer 
Pegan and Joshua Awassamoag, Indians of Natick, in the county of 
Middlesex, in New England, for reasons us thereunto moving, have 
given and granted, and do by these presents grant, aliene, enfeoffe, as- 
signe, make over and confirm unto Thomas Awassamog, Indian of the 
same town and county aforesaid, all that our whole native title, right 
and interest in that tract of land lying, situate and being betweene 
the bounds of Natick, Charles river, Marlborough, and a point of 
Blackstone's river beyond Mendon, — all which said right title and 
interest in the said land (that is not already legally disposed of) we, 
the said John Awassamoag, Samuel Awassamoag, Joshua Awassa- 
moag, John Mooqua, Peter Ephraim and Eleazer Pegan do hereby 
avouch and declare to be, at the delivery of these presents, our own 
proper estate, and law fully in our power to alienate and dispose of, — 
it being our natural right, descending to us from the chiefe sachem 
WuTTAWUSHAN, uncle to the said John Awassamoag Sen., who was 
the chiefe sachem of said land, and nearly related to us all, as may be 
made to appeare."^ 

This deed carries the title and ownership of the lands in question 
back to " the chief sachem Wuttawushan, uncle of John Awassamoag 
Sen.," and fixes approximately the time of his occupancy here. This 
date could not vary much from 1620-30. If our conjecture is right 
that he is the same as Nuttawahunt, sometimes also called Nashoonan 
and Nashacowam, this chieftain was a Nipnet, who was present and 
signed a treaty with the English at Plymouth, Sept. 13, 162 1. We 
hear of him again in 1644, in which year he and others made a 
covenant with the Massachusetts authorities, " to the end that mutual 
benefit might accrue to either party. The sachems put themselves 
under the government of the English, agreeing to observe their laws, 
in as far as they should be made to understand them. For this 
confidence and concession of their persons and lands into their hands, 
the English on their part agreed to extend the same protection to them 
and their people as to their English subjects. "^ His principal 
residence was at Nashaway (Lancaster), near the Washakum ponds. 
He was on terms of special friendship with Massasoit, with whom he 
exchanged visits. Probably Framingham was his stopping-place in 
his journeys to and from the sea-coast. 

1 Mass. Col. Records, v. 531, 2. 

2 Drake's Book of the Indians, u, 41, 46. Shattuck's Concord, p. 20. Whitney's Hist. Wore. Co. 
p. 174. Gookin's Ms. History. 

40 History of Framingham. 

But in any event, the record is clear, tiiat about 1630 the lands ly\ng 
between Farm pond and the Natick line, and indefinitely southward, 
were owned by the chieftain Wuttawushan ; and that the title de- 
scended to his nephew Awassamog, who was living here in 1649-50, 
and till 1684, and through whom the title passed to the Eames family. 

Awassamog. — Of the nephew and heir of Wuttawushan we have 
considerable knowledge. Like all other prominent characters of his 
race, his name is spelled in a variety of ways. It was customary with 
Indian sachems and warriors, when they had achieved some nota- 
ble exploit in battle or diplomacy, to take a new name, expressive 
of the action or result; but in this case the variation of spelling did 
not indicate a change of title, but w^as due to the fancy or acuteness of 
ear of the English scribe who made the record. Deeds and other 
documents were drawn up by different justices and clerks, and each 
put down the names of contracting parties, as he caught the leading 
sounds of the syllables as pronounced by the natives at the time of 
signature. The variations, Owassamug, Owusamug, Anawassamauk, 
Awosomug, Awassamoag, Aw-ansamog, are found in official documents. 
He was a Nipnet, having chieftain's blood in his veins, and was born 
about the year 1614. The place of his birth is nowhere recorded ; but 
the evidence is pretty conclusive that he was born somewhere on the 
lands which he inherited ; and leading facts point to the ancient 
Eames farm. 

His possessions extended from the old Marlborough line and 
Sudbury river on the north, to the Charles river on the southeast, 
and southerly and southweslerly to the Blackstone river, including 
South Framingham, part of Sherborn, Holliston, Ashland, Hopkinton, 
Upton, Milford, Mendon, Blackstone, part of Bellingham, etc. 

About the year 1635, Awassamog married Yawata, the daughter of 
Nanepashemet, chief of the Pawtucket tribe, whose possessions 
extended from Chelsea and Lynn on the coast, through Middlesex 
county to the Pawtucket Falls (Lowell) on the Merrimack river. 
The young couple lived for a time at Winnisimet (Chelsea), where 
their oldest child Muminquash (known afterwards as James Rumney- 
marsh) was born. Their other children were known as John 
Awassamog, Jr., Samuel Awassamog, Joshua Awassamog, Thomas 
Awassamog and Amos Awassamog. 

When the apostle Eliot began his labors with the Indians at 
Nonantum, Awassamog appears to have been living at Mistick 
(Medford), and sometimes attended Mr. Eliot's preaching. He did 
not enter heartily into the new movement, like Waban, though he was 
forcibly impressed by the claims of Christianity, and in time gave in 

Indian Occupation. 41 

his adhesion to the civil order at Natick, and became a regular 
attendant on Mr. Eliot's ministry there. As early as 1650, he came 
upon his own lands, where he remained during his life. In a deed 
dated 1662, he gives no residence, which implies that he was then living 
on his own hereditary possessions. In some later deeds, he is styled 
" of Natick," which refers to civil jurisdiction, not to the village 
boundary, and v/hich general designation covered a large tract of land 
lying in Framingham, Sherborn, Holliston and Ashland. April 22, 
1662, he sold a tract of eight miles square, " lying about fifteen miles from 
Medfield," to the English proprietors of Mendon. He sold, March 
26, 1675, ^ farm of 500 acres at a place called Chaboquasset, joining 
on Medfield west line, to William Sheffield, "which he hath lived upon 
this fifteen years." May 19, 1682, he joined the Indians at Natick 
in giving a deed of 1700 acres, covering Rice's End in Framingham, 
to Samuel Gookin of Cambridge, and Samuel How of Sudbury. He 
also joined in the sale of the Wayte and Russell grants to Thomas 
Danforth ; and just before his death, he obtained leave of the 
General Court to sell a large tract on the southwest of Sherborn line 
to Edward Rawson. 

Probably Awassamog spent his last years with his son Thomas, 
whom he appointed his executor and heir. This son lived for a time 
in Sherborn, as appears from the following deed : " Thomas Awassa- 
mog of Sherborn, sells, June 4, 1684, Abraham Cousins of Sudbury, 
blacksmith, 14 acres of land in Sherborn lying on both sides of 
Chestnut brook, bounded northwesterly by land of Jonathan Whitney, 
Jr., and southeasterly with the house lot laid out to the administrators 
of Thomas Fames, said land being granted to me by the Town of 
Sherborn for a house lot." Thomas also owned a house-lot upon the 
land of Thomas Fames, probably situated to the southeast of Pratt's 

Awassamog died in the early part of 1685. That his last years were 
spent near his Framingham home is made evident from the recital in 
the deed given by his sons to the sons of Thomas Fames, of the fact, 
that "for sundry years until his death, he the said Thomas Fames 
did give relief to John Awassamog, chief proprietor of these lands." 

Of the character of this Indian chief, there are fortunately 
preserved cotemporary accounts. In i Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., vol. IX. 
p. ig8, in an Account of the Christian Indians, it is said, "John 
Owussamug, Sen. He was a young man when they began to pray- to 
God. He did not at the present join with them. He would say to 
me, ' I will first see to it, and when I understand it I will answer you.' 
He did after a while enter into the Civil Covenant, but was not 
entered into Church Covenant before he died. He was propounded 

42 History of Framingham. 

to join the Church, but was delayed, he being of a quick, passionate 
temper. Some litigations prolonged it till his sickness ; but had he 
recovered, the church was satisfied to have received him by finishing 

" He was sick and in great pain a whole year before his death." 
His "Confession," as given by Eliot,' indicates a pretty clear head, 
a quickened conscience, a good knowledge of Christian doctrine, and 
a fierce struggle with old ideas and habits, such as strong natures 
only are capable of. His conclusion is, " I thought it was good for me 
to pray to God ; and then I purposed to pray to Him as long as I 

His widow was alive in 1686, when she signed a deed of lands of 
her tribe in Salem. She probably died at the house of her son James 
Rumneymarsh in the bounds of Natick. 

Washakamaug. — The Indian name of the village-site near Farm 
pond was Ouschankamug or Washakamaug. The word signifies eel- 

Every Indian village-site had a name which was expressive, either 
of some marked natural feature, or some peculiar animal or vegetable 
product, or some available use in his daily life. 

In the late summer time, after the migratory fish had returned to 
the sea, and before the corn was matured, food was scarce with our 
natives, and at this time eels were a welcome source of supply. 
The southerly end of Farm pond and the northerly part of Washakum 
pond and the sluggish stream which connected the two ponds, were 
then a noted locality for this reptilian fish. Mr. Jonathan Fames 
informed the writer that in his boyhood more eels were found here 
than at any other place in the region. Hither then, at the season, 
gathered the natives from all the country round, to feast on the slimy 

This fish was a favorite food of the Nipnet Indians. The tribe had 
another noted place for catching them, just over the borders of 
Connecticut. And once it happened that the Narragansetts, living 
on the Rhode Island coast, invited this Connecticut clan to make 
them a visit and feast on clams. In return the Nipnets invited their 
hosts to come up and partake of their favorite roast. But the 
shore Indians greatly disliked the eels ; and in consequence of some 
expressions of disgust, a bloody fight took place, in which the 
eel-eaters triumphed. 

As was very common all through the country, our early English 
settlers, careless of the use of terms, applied the word Washakamaug, 

1 3 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., iv. 227. 

Indian Occupation. 43 

in a contracted form, to the southern pond, which the Indians applied 
to the whole village-site. 

When Thomas Eames settled on Mt. ^^'ayte, he found everything as 
the Indians had left them — if indeed they had abandoned the place. 
The adjacent fields were ready for the plow, from their previous 
cultivation by the squaws ; and the meadows were ready for the scythe, 
from the annual burning of the grass and underbrush by the natives. 
Fresh signs of savage life were scattered all about. The standing 
wigwam poles, or at least heaps of fire-stones, pointed out their living- 
places ; spots of blowing sand, which no skill of his could induce to 
turf over, indicated where had been a permanent cluster of cabins, or 
a burial-place ; the open granaries perhaps contained remnants of 
corn or nuts, and were a sore annoyance to man and beast \ hoes and 
axes, having their withe handles still attached, and all their various 
domestic utensils, were common. But they awakened a sense of 
insecurity, rather than curiosity; and were shunned and destroyed, 
rather than gathered up and preserved. 

The remains which have been found in modern times indicate that 
a large cluster of wigwams stood on the southeast slope of Mt. Wayte, 
and in the sheltered nook by the bridge leading to the camp-ground, 
and on the surrounding bluffs. One of the large-sized mortars for 
pounding raw corn, and some small mill-stones for grinding parched 
corn were discovered here, as well as ornaments, and large and small 
implements, all of which clearly point out long continued residence. 
The fort belonging to this settlement was probably on one of the 
bluffs, but no tradition of its exact location exists. Wigwams ap- 
pear to have been scattered along the plain between Farm and 
Learned's ponds. Heaps of fire-stones were plenty; and a large 
granary and sweating-pit were visible till a late date on land of Henry 
Eames, a little distance to the northwest from his house. The 
granaries have been already described. A sweating-pit was a circular 
hole in the ground, about four feet deep, in the bottom of which was 
placed a bushel or two of small stones, which could be heated by a 
fire built over them. The patient was placed within the mouth of the 
pit, and water thrown in small quantities on the hot stones and coals, 
which would generate the requisite amount of steam. 

The main burial-place of this clan was at the spot known one 
hundred years ago as " the Old Field," where is now the Common, in 
front of the Baptist meeting-house, including on the south, Nobscot 
block and the Richardson straw shops, and on the north, the Lovell 
Eames and Franklin Manson house-lots. The family tradition is, that 
Nathaniel Eames, when he built the Jonathan Eames house in 1693, 
found this spot clear of trees and underbrush, and easily worked, and 

44 History of Framingham. 

used it for his corn-field. The graves of their common people were 
smoothed over, and hardly distinguishable. The chiefs and their 
families were usually buried in a place by themselves, and mounds of 
earth or stone raised over them. Such graves usually contain valu- 
able ornaments and wampum. 

Directly under the Baptist meeting-house was found an Indian 
grave which contained, in addition to the bones of a skeleton, five or 
six new spear-heads, about seven inches in length. An Indian grave 
was found on the house-lot of Andrew Coolidge, in which was the rem- 
nant of a coarse kind of sacking. Another grave was opened in 
1873, near Gleason's pond, in which was found a set of tools for 
making wooden troughs, viz., an axe, two chisels and a gouge. They 
were about three feet below the surface, embedded in a deposit of 
dark friable mould, while the soil around was the natural light col- 
ored loam. The tools are of chloritic slate. From the appearance of 
things, the body was placed in a sitting posture. A stone bark-peeler, 
thirty inches long, was found in an excavation about four feet below 
the surface, near the Bennett house, now James Jordan's, clearly 
indicating the place of a grave. And it is an interesting and suggest- 
ive fact, that all the tools and implements found in Indian graves 
hereabouts, are either new, or bear evidence of having been newly 
sharpened and burnished. 

Scattered wigwam-sites are found in all this neighborhood. There 
is one on the west shore of Farm pond, on land of Mrs. John W. 
Moore ; there is another, near a spring, to the southwest of Washa- 
kum pond, and others can be traced on Pratt's plain. Probably 
our Indians had their summer and winter residences, which were 
interchanged to meet the necessities of food and comfort. The 
construction of their wigwams was such that they could be readily put 
up, wherever straight saplings were at hand, and only the covering 
mats were stripped off and carried away, when they moved. ^ 

The gorgets, hatchets, buttons and kettles, scrapers, drills and awls, 
and all the tools and ornaments found at the Indian village above 
described, and at the other wigwam-sites in this town, were manufac- 
tured from stone of various kinds ; nothing made of copper has yet 
been discovered. Possibly a more extensive examination of burial 
places might disclose some metal ornaments. Chloritic slate, largely 
used for chisels, hatchets, etc.; phonolite, of which was made their 
bark-peelers ; and quartz, for small arrow-points, are common in our 
hill-sides, as is the greenstone out of which the large mortars were 

1 Mr. Dunton, an English traveller, who visited Natick in 1685, says: "The wigwams or Indian 
houses, are no better than so many huts, made of poles covered with mats, and with a little hole 
upon the top which serves for a chimney." 

Indian Occupation. 45. 

fashioned. But jasper and porphyry, so commonly used for spear- 
heads and knives, was brought from abroad, the jasper probably from 
Saugus and Maiden. The potstone, of which kettles were made, must 
have come from Vermont. The peculiar flints discovered here have 
not been traced to any known locality. Professor Dana, who has 
examined them, is at a loss to determine whence they came. They 
are remarkable for hardness and toughness ; and from their shapes, 
and sharp or nicked edges, were evidently used in cutting jasper, 
basanite, phonolite, and other hard rocks. A peck or more of these 
flints, varying in size from a trade dollar to a man's hand, was found 
hidden in a mud-puddle at the north end of Farm pond. The 
deposit was close by a large heap of stone chips and other evidences 
of an Indian workshop. These flints are exactly similar to those 
described by Dr. Abbott, in his work on the Primitive Industry of the 
Native Races of the north Atlantic Seaboard, and are by him classed 
as " chipped flint implements." He states that such concealed 
deposits have been discovered in various parts of the country; but is 
unable to determine their age or use. Several of his figured speci- 
mens will answer well for those now in the writer's cabinet. 

Indian Village at Cochituate. — This word is spelled in official 
documents, Wachittuate, Coijchawicke, Catchchauitt, Charchittawick, 
Katchetuit, Cochichawauke, Cochichowicke, etc. As is so common 
with Indian place-words, modern usage has changed the original 
application of the term. Neither the Indians nor the early English set- 
tlers applied the name to the pond, but to the high bluff just south of 
the outlet. The exact Indian use of the term is given by Thomas 
Mayhew, Peter Noyes and Edmund Rice, in their record of the laying 
out of Mrs. Glover's farm in 1644: "The southwest bounds are the 
little river that issueth out of the Great Pond ai Cochituate.'^ 

The word signifies, "place of the rushing torrent," or "wild, dash- 
ing brook," referring to the outlet in time of high water. 

Of the original native owner of the land at this point and the 
immediate vicinity, we have no positive knowledge. This tract was 
included in the grant made by the General Court, under the right of 
eminent domain, to the Indians at Natick, after that plantation was 
established ; and the deeds to the English purchasers, all of which 
bear date subsequent to this grant, are signed by Waban, Piambow, 
Tom Tray and others. These names and some other reasons favor 
the inference that these lands were included in the inheritance of the 
tribe which dwelt at the Falls below, to be noticed hereafter. 

But fortunately for history, the village-site on the bluff was left un- 
touched by the plow, till a period within the memory of men now 

46 History of Framinghain. 

living; and the remains clearly indicate the permanent residence of a 
considerable clan. Mr. Joseph Brown, who was born near by, and 
was often on the spot, says, "I have been in the old Indian fort 
which stood on the highest point of the hill south of the outlet of 
Long pond, a great many times. It used to include about an acre 
and a half of land. A circular bank of earth with ditch outside, the 
whole about four feet high, enclosed it ; and there was a raised 
mound in the centre, made I suppose, for a lookout. There were 
several cellar-holes — 'granaries' — inside the bank. It was woods 
all around ; but this place was always bare. It was first plowed up 
by Col. James Brown, who levelled the bank, filled up the holes, 
sowed rye, and made it into a pasture. There was an Indian wier in 
the brook, at the foot of the bluff, a little way down from the outlet." 
To this clear statement, nothing need be added. 

Quite recently, two large mortars w^ere found here ; also abundance 
of pestles, gouges, spear-heads, and fragments of steatite kettles, etc. 
Six or seven large granaries are still visible. 

The size of the evidently strong fort indicates that the Indians 
regarded it as a place of importance, as well as a place of security. 
The land on the west slope of the hill was favorable for a planting- 
field. The height of the hill made it a good lookout-point. But 
the carefully constructed weir shows that the fisheries here were a 
prime factor in, native estimation. The number of large granaries 
shows that immense quantities of shad and salmon were caught, dried 
and stored here in the spring, for use in time of need. 

No excavations have been made here, to ascertain the place or 
mode of burial. 

Indian Village at The Falls. — The following deed, executed 
before the General Court had made formal grant of the land in 
question, is pretty conclusive evidence of aboriginal ownership on the 
part of the signers, and it goes far to establish a very early occu- 
pancy by the same parties. 

The Indian was tenacious of his rights, whether natural or acquired. 
When not under compulsion, he discriminated clearly in such matters, 
and a careful study of these early deeds of transfer, will show that 
(contrary to a prevalent idea) he claimed ownership only in lands to 
which he had rights, inherited either through his own or his wife's an- 
cestors, or acquired by habitancy. After the English authorities took 
formal possession of a given tract or township, with or without his 
consent, and restricted his rights to a particular reservation, as in the 
case of Natick and Ockoocangansett (Marlborough), all who settled 
upon such reservation and joined the confederacy, acquired a mutual 

Indian Occtipation. 47 

interest in the said reserved lands, and also an interest in all lands 
which had before been held by any one of them in severalty. This 
accounts for what would otherwise appear to be an assumption of title 
on the part of the Indians at Natick, who signed deeds to such widely 
separated tracts of territory. 

It is not always easy to determine from the description in a deed, 
what lands belonged to the grantors by aboriginal right, and what 
came through reservation and confederacy. But the land now to be 
described was never conveyed in any way to the Natick Plantation. 

" This witnesseth that William Boman, Capt. Josiah, Roger, & James, and 
Keaquisan, Indians, now liveing at Naticke the Indian Plantation neare 
Sudbury in the Massachusetts Bay in New England, ffor and in consideration 
of a valluable sume of Peage and other goodes to us in hand paid by John 
Stone of Sudbury aforenamed to our full content & satisfaction, before 
the signing and delivery hereof have given, granted, bargained & sould, 
assigned, enfeoffed & confirmed, and by theis presents do give, grant, 
bargain & sell, assigne, enfeoffe and confirme unto the said Jno. Stone, his 
Heyres & assignes, a parcell of Broaken up and ffenced in land, lying on 
the South side of Sudbury line, upon the Falls of Sudbury River, and 
bounded with the Common land surrounding. The said land conteyning by 
estimation about ten Acres more or lesse. To have & to hould the said 
land with the ffences and all other the privileges and Appurtenances thereof 
be the same more or lesse, to him the said Jno. Stone, his Heyres and 
Assignes forever, to his and their only propper use & behooffe. In witness 
whereof wee the above named Indians have hereunto put our hands & 
scales this 15th day of May 16 56. 

^T) /Q^ {^^/^^ ^ 

This deed of sale was acknowledged by the Indians above named, and 
with their full consent the said land is passed over the 15th of: 3. mo. 

48 History of Framingham. 

A part of these names are known to be those of Indians belonging 
to the northward, at Stow and beyond. This fact, and other circum- 
stances, lead to the belief that the place was under the jurisdiction of 
the Wamesitts, whose head-quarters was at Pawtucket Falls (Lowell) ; 
and there is a probability that the Indian village at Cochituate 
belonged to the same tribe, before it was given to the Natick 

Assuming that Boman and Roger were original proprietors, it is 
fitting that their names should be commemorated in the plain and 
brook which still mark the location of their ancient inheritance. 

Another signer, Capt. Josiah, whose Indian name was Pennahannit, 
was a native of Nashobah (Littleton). He was among those who 
were attracted by Eliot to Natick, and became an active supporter of 
the apostle. The inference is plain that, at an earlier date, he had 
lived at Saxonville, and possessed at least a quasi right in the lands 
here. When the Indians at Natick and the other Praying towns were 
organized into a confederacy, Capt. Josiah was made Marshal Gen- 
eral, and had his quarters at whichever town his duties called him. 
On the death of Ahatawance, the sachem of Nashobah, about 1670, 
he was elected chief of the clan, and thereafter made his home at 
Nashobah, though he continued to discharge the duties of marshal 
till the Praying towns were disbanded. 

The " Broaken up " land which these Indians sold to Mr. Stone, was 
their old cotn-field and village-site, which they were obliged to "fence 
in " when the English cattle were turned out to roam over these 
plains and meadows, by the Sudbury settlers. Probably the lot 
comprised nearer fifteen than ten acres. As described in the deed, 
it lay " upon the Falls of Sudbury River," at Saxonville, though most 
of it was to the northwestward of the Falls, and included the south- 
erly and, easterly slopes of the hill. The east bound was a line 
starting at the old dam, and running nearly north ; the south bound 
was the river and Soman's brook j the west and north bounds were 
"common land." It was about eighty rods long from east to west, by 
about thirty rods wide from north to south. It formed the southeast 
corner of what has since been known as " Roger's field." 

The wigwams included within this lot stood where Mr. Simpson's 
cottage and garden now are. 

" Indian William's meadow," which lay near the old cotton-factory 
dam, was probably named for William Boman. Very likely he had 
his fishing-weir at this point in the brook. The laying out of this 
meadow to Rev. Edmund Browne of Sudbury, is thus recorded : 
" Item, one smale parcell of three acres, formerly called Indian 
William's meadow, lying towards the falls of Chochittuat river." As 

Indian Occupation. 49 

this grant was ordered Oct. 18, 1654, the phrase "formerly called," 
carries us back as early as 1640, when the Glover farm was laid out, 
and indicates the ownership and perhaps residence here at that date 
of the Indian in question. 

The fort of this clan was on the east side of Sudbury river, on the 
point of the bluff opposite the foot of Mechanic street. The land is 
now owned by S. S. Danforth. It had a bold front and sides, and 
was easily defended. The spring of water on which the inmates 
could depend was on the southeasterly side. Their large granaries 
were where is now J. R. Entwistle's house-lot, and were plainly to be 
seen when he graded up the place. 

In the summer of 1877, while excavating for the road that runs on 
the easterly side of Mr. Entwistle's lot, at a point about twenty feet 
north from the northeast corner of the lot, Mr. Danforth came upon 
two skeletons, buried about two and one-half feet below the surface. 
They were in a fair state of preservation, but were carelessly handled 
and badly broken up. The position of the remains indicated that the 
bodies before burial were doubled up by bringing the knees against 
the chin, and laid upon the side. The heads lay towards the fort. 
It was the custom of some of the Indian tribes to bury their common 
people in this doubled-up position, and their chiefs and distinguished 
persons in a sitting posture. It is believed that this custom prevailed 
among our natives. Near these graves was found a sweating-pit, four 
feet deep, and three feet in diameter, with a lot of small stones jnixed 
with cinders, at the bottom. 

Remains of choice ornaments, and common domestic utensils, have 
been found in large quantities all along the top of the bluff here. 

The early deeds specify " The Indian Graves," as a well-known 
point in this neighborhood. Evidently they were mounds raised 
over the burial-places of noted chiefs. The spot was near the easterly 
line of the old Kendall, now the Capt. Bradbury, farm ; but modern 
cultivation has obliterated all traces of the mounds. 

In a deed to Caleb Johnson, of part of the Glover farm, dated Dec. 
12, 1698, there is mention made of "an old Indian field," which lay 
to the north of the old Johnson house (now Mr. Marr's). It is still 
marked by a spot of blowing sand, on the northerly side of the 
Wayland road. 

NoBSCOT. — A noted Indian trail ran from Cochituate, over the 
fordway at the old fulling-mill dam, thence to the foot of the bluff on 
which was the fort last described, thence across Sudbury river by 
the well-known fordway at Mechanic street, and thence westerly to 
North Framingham, where are evidences of a considerable number of 

50 History of Framingham. 

wigwam-sites. The spots of blowing sand, large quantities of stone 
implements, and piles of fire-stones, point unmistakably to native 
habitancy around the railroad station. Angler Potter found pieces of 
two or three large potstone kettles, forty rods north of the depot. 
There is another spot of blowing sand and other signs, a short 
distance southeast of Mr. Potter's present residence. A piece of 
plow-land to the southward of the Nathan Frost house, was formerly 
a rich repository of arrow and spear-heads. And at a point on the 
river bank not far from the mouth of Cherry meadow brook, there was 
what the early settlers called an " Indian oven." It was an excava- 
tion in the ledge of rocks — to all appearance artificial, — bearing 
a close resemblance to an old-fashioned brick oven, and was black- 
ened with soot, as if from long usage. 

But the most remarkable remains in this neighborhood are found 
on Nobscot and Doeskin hills. Well-authenticated tradition and 
official documents point out Peter Jethro's field and old Jethro's 
field — the former on the Berry farm (now George E. Slate's), and 
the latter some distance to the east ; and the apple-orchard, planted 
by Jethro, Sen., before the advent of the white settlers, has scarcely 
gone to decay. The great stone-heap is named in the records as early 
as 1654; and Jethro's cellar-hole, "granary," still remains just as he 
left it. [See ante, p. 25.] This stone-heap was a carefully-constructed 
cairn, situated on the highest point of Nobscot, about twenty rods 
from the town line. It was nearly round at the base, and about eight 
feet in diameter and five and a half feet in height, gradually tapering 
towards the top. It was made of the stones which could be found 
near at hand. These stones were selected and laid up with care, 
making very close joints. The outside course was composed of 
stones about two by one and a half feet in breadth, and four to five 
inches thick. The top was covered with a flat stone, which from long 
usage had become quite smooth. From the position and structure of 
this cairn, there can be no doubt that it was an Indian look-out. It 
commanded a view of an extensive tract of country, in which were 
plainly distinguishable not less than eight Indian villages. 

The Indian whose name is associated with these remains, and who 
resided here for a long term of years, was Tantamous, commonly 
known as Old Jethro. 

Probably the following minute, in the Massachusetts Colony Rec- 
ords, III. 225, refers to him: "May 22, 1651. Capt. Willard and 
Lieut. Goodenow are appointed to lay out the thousand acres of land 
at Isabaeth [Assabet] which Jethro the Indian mortgaged to Herman 
Garret, which land by this court is granted to Watertowne to pur- 
chase of Herman Garret," etc. This seems to fix his early residence 

Indian Occupation, 5 1 

or possessions at Assabet, and implies that he was a person of con- 
siderable importance. Herman Garret was a blacksmith, who had a 
house and land at Concord, and probably carried on his trade there 
before 1638. In his petition, dated May 19, 165 1, he says "that 3 
years since he obtained a verdict against Jethro of £\(i. 6. 4., and £\ 
costs, for damage in a mare and colt done by him to your petitioner, 
and that said Jethro mortgaged 1000 acres of his lands to secure said 
debt."i Which probably means that at some date before 1648 the 
Indian bought a mare and colt of Garret, and neglected to pay for 
the same. 

Gookin, in his history of the Christian Indians, p. 473, says : "There 
was one family of them [at Natick] about 12 in number, the principal 
man named old Jethro, with his sons and relations. . . . But this 
man and his relations were not praying Indians, nor did they live at 
Natick, only since the wars, but dwelt at a place near Sudbury, Nob- 
scot Hill, and never submitted to the Christian profession [except his 
son Peter], but separated from them, being sons of ill-fame, and 
especially the old man, who had the repute to be a powow." From 
this narrative it appears that Jethro and his kindred were a well-known 
family, whose abiding-place was at Nob scot ; that he was a powow, i. e., 
a medicine-man, who combined the offices of priest and conjurer, and 
was held in great veneration by the natives ; that he never attached 
himself to Eliot, but stood aloof from Christianity; that he was suf- 
ficiently versed in politics to see that in the struggle between the whites 
and Indians, which was precipitated by King Philip's adherents in 
the spring of 1675, ^^ would be safest to put himself under the civil 
jurisdiction and protection of the Christian plantation at Natick ; and 
that Eliot and the rulers there consented to his coming among them. 
This plain statement that " he dwelt at Nobscot Hill " is in agree- 
ment with all the traditions and affidavits in relation to his "field " and 
"orchard" and granary. The date of the General Court's order, 
above quoted, is consistent with his settlement on our hill as early as 
1640-45 ; and an apple-orchard planted at that time would be in full 
bearing in 1692, when George Walkup took up land just across the 
valley to the south. 

The circumstances of the case lead to the inference that he 
continued to live here till the spring of 1675, when for safety, and 
to show his confidence in the whites, he removed with his family to 

But the event proved that his confidence was " vain." The English 
colonial government kept no faith with Indians, whether Christian or 
heathen. In the fall of that year it was determined to seize, disarm, 

^ Mass. Archives, xxx. i8. 

52 History of Framiugham. 

and confine all the Indians dwelling in this neighborhood, without 
regard to character or allegiance. An order of the General Court was 
passed, forthwith to remove them unto Deer Island. To quote further 
from Gookin : " Caj^t. Prentiss accordingly went up to Natick, with a 
few men and 5 or 6 carts, to carry such things as were of greatest 
necessity ; and he declared to them the Court's pleasure for their 
removal, unto which they quietly and readily submitted, and came 
down with him at an hour or two warning, about 200 souls of all 
sorts. . . . But old Jethro and his family secretly ran away in 
the night ; . . . and were with the enemy." The next we hear 
of him, he was dwelling near Wachusett. His name is not associated 
with any acts of hostility against the whites ; but he threw in his lot 
with those -who committed atrocities during that bloody year. The 
next summer, after the death of Philip, he with other prominent In- 
dians was induced, by what he understood to be proposals of amnesty, 
to deliver himself up to the English at Cochecho (Dover, N. H.), 
where he was made prisoner, and soon after carried to Boston, where 
he was hanged Sept. 26, 1676. His family were sold into slavery. 

Peter Jethro was son of Old Jethro, and dwelt with the family for 
a time on Nobscot. The tract known as " Peter's field " was named 
for him. He was born about 1611. His Indian name was Hanto- 
mush. ^Ir. Barry says it was sometimes written Animatohu. 

In a deed, dated July 12, 1684, of the tract two miles in width 
adjoining Sudbury on the west and Marlborough and Stow on the 
east, which he signed, he styles himself " one of the ancient native 
hereditary Indian proprietors of the said land." This agrees with 
our inference that Old Jethro's early home was at Assabet. And it is 
a circumstance confirmatory of the opinion already expressed, that 
the Indian villages at Cochituate, at the Falls, and Nobscot, were 
settled by Indians frotn the northward. The well-worn trail connect- 
ing these villages, and extending southeasterly to Natick, and north- 
westerly to Stow and Nashobah, was then a bond of union, as well 
as means of communication. 

The earliest notice of this Indian is, that he witnessed the deed of 
sale of Musquitaquid (Concord) by Squaw Sachem to the English in 
1635, at which date he was living at Nashobah.^ 

He was living at Natick 1650; was one of Eliot's early converts, 
and received a good education. He was often employed, both by the 
Indians and the whites, to assist in drawing up important papers. In 
many of the treaties, the signatures of the Indians are in his hand- 
writing. It is evident that he was one of the more intelligent of those 
who joined the church at Natick, and made it his home there, and 

1 Midd. Deeds, ix. loo. 

Indian Occupation. 53 

was held in high esteem by the apostle. Gookin speaks of him as 
"a grave and pious Indian," whom he sent to be a teacher at Wesha- 
kim, near Nashaway (Lancaster). He carried the following letter of 
introduction: "Sept. 17, 1674. To Shoshanim, and the Indian peo- 
ple at Weshakim : With the concurrence of Mr. John Eliot principal 
Teacher unto the Indians, and the approbation of several of the 
rulers and teachers belonging to the churches of Natick and Hassa- 
namesit, I send unto you Jethro, a man approved in the church at 
Natick, to be a minister and teacher among you, and to instruct you 
in the good knowledge of the Lord God, and in the Gospel of his 
Son, our Lord Jesus Christ." He was residing here at the breaking 
out of Philip's war. 

While at Nashaway, he accompanied the Indians in their expedition 
against the English settlers on the Connecticut river ; was at the 
battle on Beers's plain in Northfield, Sept. 4, 1675, and in the night 
set free one of the white captives who was to have been burned the 
next day. 

Only one stain rests upon his character. After the defeat of Philip, 
and it became evident that his cause was hopeless, the chiefs of the 
Nipnets and others living near Wachusett were desirous of making 
peace with the English. Peter seems to have had the confidence of 
both parties, and was selected to bring about a reconciliation. The 
Indians, including his father, were induced to go to Cochecho, as they 
understood to make peace. On the first of September, 1676, there 
were gathered here at the garrison of Maj. Waldron about 400 mixed 
Indians, among whom were the aforesaid Nipnets and Jethro, Sen. 
Of the precise terms on which Maj. W. had accepted their submission, 
it is difficult to form a judgment. But that they regarded him as 
their friend, and trusted in his protection, is evident. 

At this juncture, two companies, under Capts. Hawthorn and Sill, 
were sent from Boston to the eastward, with orders to kill and destroy 
all Indians who had been concerned with Philip. They reached 
Dover Sept. 6. As several of the Nipnet chiefs were known to have 
been active in the destruction of English towns, Capts. Hawthorn and 
Sill determined to assault the whole body of Indians at once. But 
Maj. Waldron objected, and contrived to take them by stratagem. 
He proposed to the Indians to have a training the next day, and a 
sham fight after the English mode ; and summoning his own men, 
with those under Capt. Frost of Kittery, they, in conjunction with the 
two companies, formed one party, and the Indians another. Having 
diverted them awhile in this manner, and caused the Indians to fire 
the first volley, by a peculiar dexterity the whole body of them (except 
two or three) were surrounded, before they could form a suspicion of 

54 History of FrajJiingham. 

what was intended. They were immediately seized and disarmed, 
without the loss of a single man on either side. A separation was 
then made ; the Pennacook Indians, and others who had joined in 
making peace the winter before, wej-e peaceably dismissed ; but the 
strange Indians (as they were called) who had fied from the south- 
ward and taken refuge among them, were made prisoners, to the 
number of two hundred ; and being sent to Boston, seven or eight of 
them, who were known to have killed any Englishmen, were con- 
demned and hanged ; the rest were sold into slavery in foreign parts. 
Public opinion has ever been divided as to the propriet)^ of the whole 
affair. The remaining Indians, however, looked upon the conduct of 
Maj. ^^'aldron as a breach of faith, inasmuch as they had taken those 
fugitive Indians under their protection, and had made peace with 
him, which had been strictly observed. His treachery, as they termed 
it, was never forgiven ; and both he and Capt. Frost, after a lapse of 
many years, paid the forfeit of their lives, at the hands of the 
savages. ^ 

It has seemed proper to give this circumstantial account of this 
transaction, because of the relation it bears to our two Jethros. It is 
difficult for us to decide as to the precise agency of the younger 
Jethro in the death of his father. But the affair occasioned Dr. I. 
Mather to say of him : " That abominable Indian, Peter Jethro, 
betrayed his own father, and other Indians of his special acquaint- 
ance, unto death." 

In an attempt to justify himself, Maj. Waldron says: "I promised 
neither Peter Jethro nor any other of that company, life or liberty, 
etc. All that I promised was to Peter Jethro, viz., that if he would 
use his endeavors and be instrumental for the bringing in One-Eyed 
lohn, etc., I would acquaint the Governor with what service he had 
done, and improve my interest in his behalf, etc."- 

The following letter was in the handwriting, and was probably the 
composition of Peter Jethro, and will give an idea of his way of 
thinking and style of expression. It was sent in answer to a proposi- 
tion for the redemption of Mrs. Rowlandson and other prisoners, then 
in the hands of the Indians near Wachusett. It was received at 
Boston, April 12, 1676. 

" We now give answer by this one man, but if you like my answer send one 
more man besides this one Tom Nepanet, and send with all true heart and 
with all your mind by two men ; because you know and we know your heart 
great sorrowful with crying for your lost many many hundred man and all 

1 Belknap's History of New Hampshire. Gen. Reg. July, 1S49. 

2 Mass. Archives, xxx. 226. 

Indian Occupation. 55 

your house and all your land and woman child and cattle as all your thing 

that you have lost and on your backside stand. 

Signed by Sam, Sachem, 
KuTQUEN, and 
QuANOHiT, Sagaffiores. 
Peter Jethro, Scribe.''''^ 

July 7, 1683. Jeffrey Quaquoco-Noncanomon, "now of Weymeset, 
formerly an ancient planter at Massapaug on the north of Wachuset 
hill, conveys to Peter Jethro, my cousin of A\'aymeset, in whom I 
confide to supply my sufferings, etc., a tract of land six miles square," 
etc. On the same day, Peter Jethro conveys the same land to 
Jonathan Ting of Dunstable, " with whom I now inhabit." Peter 
represents himself as without children and not likely to have any.^ 
July, 12, 1684, he and other Indians, formerly living at Stow, executed 
a deed of the two-mile tract which was added upon the west line of 

In the fall of 1688, Peter Jethro and three other Indians went on 
an excursion to the upper valley of the Connecticut river, the object 
of which is not stated. No later notice of him has been found. 

CowASSOCK. — An Indian clan made it their camping-ground in 
spring and summer, on a knoll near the mouth of Cowassock brook, 
northeast of Addison Dadmun's. Until within a few years there was 
a large pile of stone chips here, which shows that it was a favorite 
place for manufacturing arrow and spear-points, and domestic utensils. 
And the abundance of these tools and weapons lately found on the 
two streams that converge at this point, shows that the neighborhood 
was a favorite hunting-ground. The mouth of these brooks was also 
a good place for spearing shad and salmon, in their ascent up the 
river, and perch and dace were plenty at all seasons. 

Another attraction to the Indians, here, was the large deposit of red 
ochre, near the spring a little way up Barton's brook, on the Badger 
farm. It is still abundant, and is of excellent quality ; making a very 
permanent pigment, of a clear red color, which was much affected by 
the natives. They had a way of pressing it into little elongated cakes, 
which could be readily carried wherever they went. Some of these 
cakes have lately been found near the spring, showing plainly the 
marks of the moulds in which they were pressed. On an island 
in the meadow near by, are still plowed up unique ornaments and 
weapons ; and there are evidences that the dead were buried at this 
spot. Was the sulphur spring here a place of resort for the natives, 
in such forms of sickness as needed cathartic and aperient remedies ? 

^ Drake's Bk. of the Indians, iii. 90. - Midd. Deeds, viii. 400. 

56 History of Fraininghain. 

A wigwam-site could be seen till recently, on a knoll on the farm of 
J. H. Temple, to the southeast of his house. The pile of fire-stones 
was in place, and indicated where the wigwam stood \ and near by 
was a granary, seven feet in diameter by five feet deep. Great num- 
bers of the smaller implements and weapons are found on this farm. 

The House Rock. — Perhaps the most curious natural object, 
which at the same time is associated with the Indian occupancy in 
'this town, was the " House Rock," which was situated about forty 
rods westerly from the Rugg house, now the Solomon Gates place. 
It was composed of two granite slabs, thirty feet long, which in the 
subsidence after an upheaval, met on their upper edges at an angle 
of about forty-five degrees, leaving underneath a cave, in shape pre- 
cisely like the attic story of a house. The slabs rested on the surface 
of the ground. The overlapping one was twelve feet wide by five feet 
thick ; the under one was seven feet wide by four feet thick. The 
cave inside was about five and one-half feet in height, so that a short 
person could stand upright. The seam overhead was so close as to 
shed rain perfectly. The whole interior was blackened by smoke. 
No traditions connect this cave with any particular clan of Indians ; 
nor is it likely that it was more than a temporary lodging-place, or 
snug winter quarters for a single family. The Indians from Natick 
used it as a shelter for a fortnight's sojourn, till within the memory of 
the writer. They would come in the eaidy summer to cut white ash 
and walnut trees for basket stufi^. It was understood by all land- 
owners, that the Indians had an hereditary or reserved right to such 

The two slabs were of pure granite, without flaw, and were wrought 
into mill-stones by Col. Jonas Clayes, since 1822. 

Indian Head. — This hill, prominent in our landscape to the north- 
east of the Centre village, and distant about half a mile, was known 
by its present name as early as 1682. The meadow lying at its 
eastern foot, known as jfacoh's meadow, and well-preserved tradition, 
leave no doubt that the hill was named for Old Jacob, an Indian of 
distinction who dwelt here. 

His Indian name was Upanbohqueen, sometimes written Apona- 
pawquin, and Ponnakpukun alias Jacob Muttamakoog. He appears 
to have been a relative of Awassamog, and to have had an interest in 
the lands inherited by him. He was among the first attendants on 
Mr. Eliot's preaching at Nonantum in 1646, and thereafter followed 
the fortunes of the apostle. 

In 1659, on Mr. Eliot's petition, a grant of land was made, for the 

Indian Occupation. 57 

establishment of a colony of mixed Indians at Magunkook (known as 
the seventh of the praying towns). After a time old Jacob became a 
resident here, and was more or less intimately connected with the 
fortunes of the place till 1675. Of his family, we only know that a 
daughter married John Dublet of Magunkook. 

In 1662, he united with John Awassamog, Sen., in signing the deed 
of lands at Mendon. 

On the breaking out of Philip's war, he with Netus and others left 
Magunkook, and was for a time among Philip's adherents. He was 
charged with being one of the party that assaulted the family of 
Thomas Eames, Feb. i, 1676; but the evidence in proof (if any was 
given) is not recorded in the records of the Court that tried and 
convicted others of that party. In July of that year, he was at or 
near Lancaster, and sent letters to the magistrates at Boston, suing for 
peace. In one of the letters he says, " When I was at Pennakook, 
Numpho John and others were very much angry that Philip did 
Engage so many peoJDle to him ; and Numpho said it were a very 
good deed that I should go and kill him that joined so many to him- 
self without cause. In like manner I said so too. Then had you 
formerly said, be at peace ; and if the Council had sent word to kill 
Philip, we should have done it. Then let us clearly speak what you 
and we shall do. O let it be so speedily, and answer us clearly."' 

The answer of the Council was : . . . . "Those that have been 
drawn into the war, and acting only as soldiers submitting to be 
without arms, and to live quietly and peaceably for the future shall 
have their lives spared." And at a meeting of the Council, Nov. 23, 
1676, it was ordered, " that Mr. Thomas Dean and Mr. James Whitcomb, 
upon receiving full satisfaction for one Jacob Indian, be desired to 
release the said Jacob, caution being given that the country be at no 
charge about him. James Speen, having engaged to the Council for 
the good behaviour of the said Jacob, and that he shall be faithful to 
the English. "2 

Mr. Eames' sons were greatly dissatisfied with the pardon of Jacob. 
They say, in a petition to the Court, " Two of those murderers, old 
Jacob, a chief man sometime at Natick, and Joshua Assunt, returning 
within the time limited by the proclamation, had their lives granted 
them, and they lived many years at Natick after their return."" 

In Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., iv. 198, is this account: "Old Jacob was 
among the first that prayed to God. He had so good a memory that 
he could rehearse the whole catechise, both questions and answers. 
When he gave thanks at meat, he would sometimes only say the 
Lord's prayer." 

' Drake's Bk. of the Indians, in. 84. - Mass. Archives, xxx. 22S. ^ Mass. Archives, xxx. 484. 

58 History of F^^aniinghain. 

Rev. Dr. Homer, in his historj- of Newton, says, " Old Jacob was 
among the earliest converts, cherished a singular memory, which he 
devoted to religious improvement. He died at ninety years of age, 
recommending union to his brethren at large ; and the most sacred 
and inviolable regard for the laws of equity, to the civil officers in 
particular. He declared himself satisfied with life, and departed in 

Capt. Tom's Hill. — Both tradition and history, and the memory 
of men living in 1850, point to the southern and eastern slopes of 
this hill and the adjacent plains, as the long-continued residence of 
Indian families or clans. But the site of the village was east of our 
town line, within the ancient and present bounds of Natick, and con- 
sequently a detailed account of it is omitted. The name of the hill is 
commemorative of an incident connected with the tragic fate of a 
native chief known as Capt. Tom. His Indian name was Wuttasa- 
componum. He was "of the chief sachem's blood of the Nipmuk 
country," was a man of energy and public spirit, born to command. 
He was among the early residents at Natick, and one of the most 
trustworthy of the Indian converts. His wife was Neepanum alias 
Mary of Pomposetticut (Stow), who, as his widow, was living there as 
late as 1684. Their eldest son was Nehemiah, of Natick. A younger 
son died at ^^'ennimisset, in the winter of 1676. They had other 

While at Natick, he received from the Massachusetts Colonial 
government a commission as captain of militia, and raised a 
company of Indians, which he commanded for some years. He and 
his company were accustomed to visit neighboring plantations, and 
exhibit their skill in military tactics. On his trial, John Partridge 
testified, " I did hear the very real voice of Capt. Tom, such a voice 
as I have heard when once he came with his Natick soldiers to 
Medfield, and commanded them, and that I have heard him pro- 
nounce at Natick." 

After the establishment of a praying town at Hassanamesit (Grafton) 
he removed thither, and was made ruler. Mr. Gookin, in 1674, says, 
"The chief man among those praying Indians who was also their 
ruler, was Capt. Tom, a prudent and I believe a pious man, and had 
given good demonstration of it many years." [History, p. 476.] He 
accompanied Messrs. Gookin and Eliot in their visit to the Indians 
living in the south part of Worcester county, and by his influence was 
of service in conciliating those clans. Under date of Sept. 17, 1674, 
Mr. Gookin writes, " My chief assistant (at Pakachoog, now in 
Worcester and Auburn) was Wuttasacomponum, ruler of the Nipmuk 

Indian Occupation. 59 

Indians, a grave and pious man, of the chief sacliem's blood of the 
Nipmuk country. He resides at Hassanamesit, but by former ap- 
pointment calleth here." 

This chief and his people at Grafton were in a largely prosperous 
condition, when the war-cloud appeared in 1675. Under the influence 
of local self government and Christianity, guided by wise and disin- 
terested men, like Gookin and Eliot, they had fairly started on the 
road of true improvement. And (with few exceptions) the Indians 
in all the older praying towns proved faithful to the English, till the 
English proved faithless to them. They either remained quietly at 
home, or volunteered to go against Philip's adherents. The arrest 
and imprisonment, on mere suspicion, of prominent friendly Indians 
at Wamesit, and the forcible transportation of the Indians at 
Natick to Deer Island, naturally awakened feelings of distrust and 
fear in all the other praying towns. But the Hassanamesit colony, 
"at the beginning of November, were engaged in gathering, threshing 
and putting up in Indian barns (as the manner is) a considerable crop 
of Indian corn, that grew at that place and parts adjacent," when 
about 300 of Philip's armed Indians made a sudden onslaught upon 
them. They were unarmed, and consequently at the mercy of their 
assailants. Two of them, James Speen and Job Kattananit, being at 
a little distance from the rest, made a shift to get away, but the 
others, about 50 men and 150 women and children, were made 
captives. Their captors told them that if they would go with them 
quietly, their corn should not be molested, and their lives would be 
spared. They also painted graphically to them the fate of their 
brethren of Natick, and the certainty of their suffering the same im- 
prisonment by the English authorities. Capt. Tom and his Indians 
yielded to these arguments, and to the power of their captors, and 
went with them to Wennimisset, near Quaboag, where they spent part 
of the winter. James Quannapohit, who was sent by the Council in 
January, as a spy to Wennimisset, says, "he saw Capt. Tom alias 
Wattasacomponum there, and his youngest son was there sick who 
afterwards died, and Capt. Tom himself was lame ; I heard him say 
that he was carried away from Hassanamesit by the enemies, though he 
was also afraid to go to Deer Island ; and I heard some of the enemy 
mock Tom and some others of the Indians carried captive that they 
cried when they were carried away, more like squaws than men. 
Capt. Tom also told me that he was weary of living among those 
wicked Indians, and greatly desired to be among the praying Indians 
and English again ; if he could find any opportunity to escape, and 
be accepted with the English. Moreover I saw Nehemiah his eldest 
son, among those Indians j who told me that he never had or would 

6o History of Framingham. 

fight against the English ; and he said in my hearing to some of the 
Indians that he came not among them to fight against the EngHsh. 
I further say and afifirm, that some of the Indian prisoners that we 
took at Washakum pond the seventh of this instant [June], told me 
that Capt. Tom and his son Nehemiah and his wife and children, 
had left them early in spring, and they thought they were escaped to 
the English. And this I further testify, that after Capt. Tom was 
taken, I spoke with him at Marlborough, and he told me that he and 
his son had withdrawn from the Indian enemy ever since that time or 
about that time that Maj. Savage and the army marched ujd to 
Wennimisset, which was about the first of March [for this witness 
was one of the pilots] ; and that ever since that time he and his son 
waited for a fit opportunity to get to the English with safety of our 
lives ; and to that end ha'd been about Natick, Magunkook etc. 
several weeks, hoping to meet with some English or Indians that they 
knew ; and once he or his son was at Capt. Prentice's farm-house to 
have spoken with him, but found no person there."' 

The first of June, Capt. Tom and part of his family were staying at 
the hill bearing his name. On the ninth, Nehemiah went off to get 
some fish, when a company of scouts sent out by Capt. Henchman came 
upon the father, son's wife, and two children, who without objection 
gave themselves up and were taken to Marlborough, then military 
head-quarters. Soon after he was carried to Boston, and June 19 was 
brought to trial for his life before the Council. Edmund Rice testi- 
fied that he saw Capt. Tom at Wadsworth's fight in Sudbury, about 
twenty rods off, walking with a long staff and limping as he went. 
Edward Cowell testified that the prisoner was there, as he knew by a 
grumbling sign or noise that he made. John Partridge testified : 
" When the Indians made the attack on Medfield I thought I did 
hear the very real voice of Capt. Tom, etc." And on this testimony 
he was condemned. It is a significant fact that neither Eliot nor 
Gookin was apprised of the time of trial, and consequently were not 
present. They would have pleaded for a full hearing of all the evi- 
dence in favor of as well as against the prisoner. Andrew Pittimee, 
in behalf of the eighty Indian soldiers then in the service of the 
English, petitioned the Council to spare his life. Mr. Eliot " entreated 
the Governor that Capt. Tom might have liberty to prove that he was 
sick at the time when the fight was at Sudbury, and that he was not 
there;" but without avail. In his Journal Mr. Eliot writes, under 
June 19, 1676 : " Capt. Tom was tried on his life : he was condemned 
upon Cowel's oath. 20. I went to the prison to comfort him. I dealt 
faithfully with him, to confess if it were true whereof he is accepted 
and for which he is condemned. I belief he saith truth." 

1 Mass. Archives, xxx. 172. 

Indian Occupation. 6i 

Warrant : To Edw. Mitchelson, Marshal General. 

You are to take notice that the Council hath condemned and sentenced 
Capt. Tom Indian and Jno. Auttuck Indian, enemies to be hanged on this 
day after the Lecture till they be dead. Which you are to cause and see the 
executioner to perform his office and execute them accordingly. 

Dated 22 June 1676. By order of the Council. 

Edw. Rawson Sec'y. 

Eliot further writes : "June 22. Boston Lecture. Afore the ser- 
mon the Marshall gave me a paper that is the printed order for the 
day of Thanksgiving, and after sermon he hurried away the prisoners 
to execution. I accompanied him to his death; on the ladder he 
lifted up his hands and said, I never did lift up hand against the 
English, nor was I at Sudbury, only I was willing to go away with the 
enemies that surprised us. When the ladder was turned he lifted up 
his hands to heaven prayer-wise, and so held them till strength failed, 
and then by degrees they sunk down." 

Mr. S. G. Drake, who examined the matter carefully, says, " Capt. 
Tom's case was one of most melancholy interest, and his fate will ever 
be deeply regretted ; inasmuch as the proof against him, so far as we 
can discover, would not at any other time have been deemed worthy 
of a moment's serious consideration." 

Probably John Auttuck, who was executed with Capt. Tom, was 
ancester of Crispus Attucks, of Revolutionary fame. 

Indian Village at Magunkook. — This village was located on 
territory which belonged to the Framingham plantation, and conse- 
quently should have a record in our history ; though the site long since 
passed under the jurisdiction of Hopkinton, and is now a part of 
Ashland. And the events connected with the Indian occupancy here 
are of important histosical interest, as well as intimately associated 
with our own social affairs. Fortunately, cotemporary documents are 
extant for a pretty full account of the place. 

The name has commonly been written Magunkaquog, and Magun- 
kook, sometimes Makunkokoag. But Mr. Eliot, who was instrumental 
in first settling the place, and who knew the Indian language better 
than any one else, writes it Magwonkkommuk. This word means 
" place of the great bend." And this signification agrees with the 
fact in the case, and with cotemporary records. In early grants it is 
described as lying within the great bend of a branch of Sudbury 
river and a brook (Cold Spring) running into said river. 

The village site was on what were denominated "country lands," 
i. e., lands unappropriated to white men, and lay to the west of the 
bounds of the Natick plantation. Later, by an exchange of lands 

62 History of Framingham. 

with Sherborn, the bounds of Natick were extended in this direction, 
so that its west line crossed Magunkook near its centre. The spot, 
situated on the "old Connecticut Path" (to be described hereafter), 
was selected by Mr. Eliot for the seventh of the old praying towns. 
He gathered the Indians, from various quarters, into a clan here in 
1659 or 1660, and organized them into a civil community, after the 
model of Natick plantation, though no church was formed then or 
subsequently. Each family had its own wigwam, granary, and cattle, 
and caught and cured its own fish. All united — after the then preva- 
lent fashion of the whites — in fencing in a common planting-field, 
though each squaw had her separate lot in the field. 

The wigwams stood on what is kiiown as the Aaron Eames place, 
now owned by William Enslin. The fort was built on the knoll where 
]\Ir. E.'s barn now stands, handy to the spring at the foot of the 
knoll, a few rods to the south. [Indian forts were of necessity always 
placed near a living spring or stream.] The burial-ground was on a 
sandy knoll sixty rods to the southwest. The spot was crossed by 
the Central turnpike, and then and afterwards many skeletons were 
brought to light, being buried not more than three feet below the 

At first the Indians selected a planting-field on the rolling land near 
their wigwams, and built a fence around it ; but it did not prove 
fertile. And in 1669 Mr. Eliot sent the following petition to the 
General Court : " The humble Petition of John Eliot in the behalf of 
the poor Indians of Magwonkkommuk, this 14th day of October, 1669. 
Shewith — That whereas a company of new praying Indians are set 
down at the westernmost corner of Natick bounds called Magwonk- 
kommuk, who have called one to rule, and another to teach them, of 
whom the latter is of the church, the former ready to be joined ; and 
there is not fit land for planting, toward Natick, but westward there is, 
though very rocky — these are humbly to request that fit accomoda- 
tions may be allowed them westward." On this petition Ens. John 
Grout and Thomas Eames were appointed a committee to view and 

On their report, a grant of land, not to exceed looo acres, was made 
to this plantation, to be laid out westerly of the old Natick bounds, 
including the whole of what is now known as Magunka hill. Their 
new planting-field was on the top of the hill directly west of their fort. 
Their barns were set in the slope of the hill, a little north of east of 
the field. Some of them may still be seen in an old orchard now 
owned by Russell Eames. 

Thus established, the town flourished for about fifteen years. Of its 
condition in 1674 we have the following account, written at the time 

Indian Occupation. 6 


by Major Gookin, Superintendent of Indian affairs: " Magunkaquog 
is the seventh of the old Praying Towns. It is situated partly within 
the bounds of Natick and partly upon land granted by the country. 
It is near midway between Natick and Hassanamesit. The number 
of inhabitants are about ii families, and about 55 souls. There are, 
men and women, 8 members of the church at Natick, and about 
15 baptized persons. The quantity of land belonging to it is about 
3,000 acres. The Indians plant upon a great hill which is very fertile. 
These people worship God, and keep the Sabbath, and observe civil 
order, as do the other towns. They have a constable and other offi- 
cers. Their ruler's name is Pomhaman, a sober and active man, and 
pious. Their teacher is named Job, a person well accepted for piety 
and ability among them. This town was the last settling of the old 
Towns. They have plenty of corn, and keep some cattle, horses and 
swine, for which the place is well accomodated." 

In the spring of 1675 our Indians planted their cornfield as usual. 
But the sudden breaking out of the war with King Philip, June 24, 
spread consternation among the whites ; and the measures adopted by 
the Massachusetts authorities spread consternation among the Indians, 
especially those of the praying towns. The plantations at Natick, 
Magunkook and Punkapaug, were required to raise a company for 
an expedition against Philip's country, and they readily responded. 
Fifty-two Indians enlisted, and were sent to Mount Hope, where they 
behaved gallantly. They were in the service twenty-five days, and 
some of them for a much longer period. 

But the Indians in all these towns were suspected ; were watched 
and worried, and put under severe restrictions ; and though many of 
them proved true to their Christian profession, yet some of them did 
as watched and worried Indians might be expected to do — as watched 
and worried men always do, — they returned suspicion for suspicion, 
and evil for evil, and became secret or open enemies. Major Gookin, 
who was in a position to know all the facts as they transpired, writes : 
"The hard treatment of the Christian Indians constrained some of 
them at Magunkog and Hassanamesit to fall off to the enemy." 

This disaffection of our Indians happened about the middle of July 
[1675]. Pomhaman went to Quaboag ; some of the other warriors 
went to the Nashaways, near Lancaster. But most of the women and 
children, and a part of the men, went to Marlborough, and "put them- 
selves under the English wing." "They built a fort upon their own 
land, which stood near the English meeting-house ; where they hoped 
to be secure, as well as helpful to the whites." [Gookin, Hist. Pray. 
Ind., p. 443.] 

On the night of August 29, Capt. Moseley and his company, then 

64 History of Framingham. 

on a scout, suddenly surrounded the fort, and in the morning de- 
manded their arms and ammunition. These they readily surrendered. 
The captain then ordered his men to seize fifteen of the principal 
men in the fort. The Indians made no resistance ; were pinioned, and 
fastened with lines from neck to neck, and sent under a guard to Bos- 
ton, where they were put in prison. The occasion of this summary 
arrest was that, a week before, i.e. August 22, the Indians had killed 
eight persons at Lancaster, which murder was charged upon our pray- 
ing Indians of Marlborough. But upon trial they all proved their 
innocence — proved that they attended meeting in Marlborough that 
day, which was the Sabbath ; and it was afterwards ascertained that 
the murder was committed by Indians from Nashaway. Some of 
these prisoners were released ; some were kept in prison ; some were 
sent to Deer Island, "for preventing future troubles of a like kind ;" 
and one was sold into slavery. 

It is not easy to keep track of the Magunkooks for the next two 
months. Some of them were at Hassanamesit ; some were hiding 
from the English soldiers, and living as best they could ; and perhaps 
the larger part were living at Natick. By an order of the ]\Iassachu- 
setts Council they were restrained from hunting in the woods, and 
from looking after their cattle, and gathering the corn which they left 
growing at their plantation. They were thus reduced to great suffer- 
ing for want of food, and were greatly embittered against the English. 

October 26. Troops were sent out to Natick, who seized all the 
Indians there, and scoured the country to the north and west, col- 
lecting the scattered families — no distinction being made of age or 
sex, or long-tried fidelity, or established Christian character, — and all 
were hurried down to Boston ; and at midnight, Oct. 30, the tide 
favoring, they were put on board of three vessels and taken to Deer 
Island. They were kept here, in great privation and suffering, 
owing to want of shelter, clothing, and food, during the winter. 

November 30 (^1675). The following order in Council was issued: 
" Whereas the Indians belonging to Natick are for their own and the 
country's security removed from their dwellings to an Island, and 
some of their cattle and other estate is left still on the places — It is 
hereby declared that it shall not be lawful for any person to take 
away any part of their said estate, burn or destroy the place, or their 
wigwams, fences or forts, under any pretence whatsoever, unless by 
order from authority justifying their act; on penalty of being reputed 
transgressors of the law, and be liable to satisfy for the same as in 
case of theft." \_Mass. Archives., xxx. 185]. 

It appears that a part of the warriors of the Magunkooks escaped 
the vigilance of the English troops, as did Old Jethro and his family. 

Indian Occupation. 65 

For on the last of January (1676), six of these Indians, in company 
with five others, returned to their plantation, in search of the corn 
left there in the fall. Not finding any, the party under the lead of 
Netus (once a ruler at Natick, but not a resident of Magunkook) 
took the well-worn trail to the northerly end of Farm pond in 
Framingham, where they burnt the buildings and killed or captivated 
the family of Thomas Fames. 

After the close of the war, /. ^., in the spring of 1677, such of our 
Indians as survived, returned to their home at Magunkook, reset 
their wigwams, and replanted their corn-field. But in midsummer a 
report was spread that the Mohawks (Macquas) were on the war-path, 
among our defenceless clans ; and our Indians took refuge at Natick, 
where a fort was still standing. " In September, a party of Macquas 
took two widow squaws captive, being at Hassanamesit to make cider. 
The same party, or another came down within half a mile of an 
English house belonging to Sudbury, and murdered a very honest 
Indian named Josiah Nowell, who was going to his weir. This man 
had a wife and four small children. His brother-in-law, James Speen, 
parted from him not half an hour before he was slain." [Gookin's 
Hist. p. 519.] Our Magunkooks returned to their plantation the 
next spring. In June (1678), some of the Macquas killed three, and 
carried away captive twenty-four of our friend Indians into their 
country, without the least provocation made known, Commissioners 
were sent to Albany to secure their release, but so far as appears, the 
object was not accomplished. The Macquas sent a girdle'of wam- 
pum to some of Natick Indians, "to put out a fire which they had 
kindled by some injuries that had been done by some of theirs."^ 

Of the eleven families composing the Magunkook plantation, the 
names of seven or eight are known, as follows : Pomhaman, some- 
times written Pumapene and Pomham, Job Kattananit, William 
Wannuckhow alias Jackstraw, his two sons Joseph and John alias 
Apumatquin, Jackananumquis alias Joshua Assalt, Old Jacob, and 
John Dublet, son-in-law to Jacob. 

The two last mentioned have already been noticed. Joshua Assalt 
joined the English army in April, 1676, was in the service as late as 
August, and no more is known of him. The Jackstraws, father and 
two sons, probably originated in the southwest part of Marlborough. 
They will be noticed hereafter. Pomhaman was the ruler or head 
man of the plantation. The place of his birth is not known. He 
received instruction at Natick, and had the confidence of Mr. Eliot, 
though he did not join the church. His administration of civil affairs 
at Magunkook appears to have been wise. But in the summer of 

1 Ply. Col. Records, ii. 390-8. 

66 History of Franiinghmn. 

1675, he left and joined the enemy. He was at Quaboag the next 
winter. In May, he was staying near Wachusett. In August he 
joined with others in a letter to the Council at Boston, asking peace 
and pardon. Probably he was one of the large company that were 
drawn to Cochecho, and shared in the fate of the rest. 

Job Kattananit was teaching elder at Magunkook. He was an 
honored member of the church at Natick, and as no church organiza- 
tion was effected at Magunkook, he continued his relations there. 
This man ever maintained a consistent Christian character, and was a 
true and tried friend of the English j but he was distrusted, because 
he was an Indian. Probably he was born at or near Grafton. As 
his communications — either written by himself or taken verbatim 
from his narrative — prove, he was well educated, and a man of 
strong sense and quick comprehension. His wife died before the 
fall of 1675, leaving him three small children ; and when Pomhaman 
deserted Magunkook, he and his children removed to Hassananiesit. 
His after fortunes and misfortunes are highly interesting. The 
following account is compiled from Gookin's History of the Christian 

As already stated, when the Indians at Hassanamesit were made 
prisoners by Philip's adherents, the first of November, 1675, J°b ^""^ 
another made shift to escape, and brought tidings of the affair to the 
English at Mendon. On the thirteenth of November, Job "applied to 
Maj. Gookin, superintendent of Indian affairs, and desired a pass to go 
into the woods to seek for his children, and endeavor to get them out 
of the enemy's hand ; alleging that his affections were so great for 
them (their mother being dead) and he in a widowed estate, was 
willing to venture his life among the enemy in order to their recovery, 
and possibly, said he, if God spare my life, I may bring you some 
intelligence of the residence and state of the enemy which may be 
very useful to the English." Maj. Gookin gave him the following 
pass: "These may certify that the bearer hereof. Job of Magunkog 
is a trusty Indian, and therefore if any Englishmen meet him it is 
desired that they will not misuse him, but secure him and convey him 
to the Governor or myself, and they shall be satisfied for their pains. 

"Dated the 13th of the 9th month 1675. 

(Signed) Daniel Gookin, Sen." 

" The design of this certificate was innocent and more respected 
the Indian's safe conduct at his return, than to secure him at his 
forthgoing. But it met with hard construction, and the person that 
had it, with much sufferings ; and consequently, the projection to 
gain intelligence of the state of the enemy was frustrated, which 

India7i Occupation. 67 

was a matter tlie English greatly needed at this time, being inland 
with a great expedition against the enemy. The providence of God 
so ordered this matter, that this Job, at his going forth, met with 
some of Capt. Henchman's scouts, not far from Hassanamesit, whom 
the Indian saw before they discovered him, and he could easily have 
concealed himself (as he told me), but he, not fearing to speak with 
the English from whom he was sent with a pass, stood in open view j 
and when the English saw him, they rode up to him, and some of 
them said 'let us kill him !' but others said, 'he is a lone man, let 
us not kill him but carry him to our captain to be examined.' This 
latter council prevailed ; and then they seized him, and disarmed 
him, and took away his clothes, so that his gun and some clothes 
were then plundered, and he never had them again to this day. So 
they carried him to Capt. Henchman, who examined him, for the 
Indian spoke good English ; the Indian told him all the truth of 
matters, and showed him his certificate, but the captain being ignorant 
of the design, sent both him and his pass to the Governor at Boston, 
who, more to satisfy the clamors of the people than for any offence 
committed by this man, he was committed to the common jail, and 
there remained under very great sufferings for three weeks' time ; 
for there were many Indians there in a small prison, which was very 
noisome. After three weeks' time, when the clamor was over, he was 
discharged from prison, and sent to Deer Island, unto the rest of his 
suffering countrymen." 

The last of December, it was deemed best to do just what Maj. 
Gookin had done the middle of November previous, and what Capt. 
Henchman had frustrated, viz., to send Indian spies into the enemies' 
country to learn of their state and intentions. Job Kattananit, and 
James Quannapohit, both then at Deer Island, were pitched upon, 
and agreed to go, with the understanding that if they returned and 
were successful in their mission, they should receive five pounds 
apiece. They found the Indians encamped at Wennimisset near 
Quaboag. After a three weeks' stay with them, James returned 
January 24th, and reported in full the designs of the hostile Indians, 
which report proved true, and thus settled the question of his 
fidelity. Job, from policy, staid behind, and returned not till the 
ninth of February ; and then about ten o'clock in the night came 
to Maj. Gookin's house in Cambridge. He brought tidings of the 
enemy's intention to burn Lancaster, etc., all of which proved true. 

Feb. 14th, Job sent the following petition to the Governor and 
Council : 

"The humble petition of Job Kattananit. 

*' Whereas your poor suplyant hath been abroad in your Honours 

68 History of Framiiigham. 

service among the Indian enemies, and have given a true and faithful 
account of what I could learn among them according to my Instruc- 
tions ; And in my Journey I found my three children with the enemy, 
together with some of my friends that continue their fidelity to God 
and to the English, and do greatly mourn for their condition, and 
long and desire to return to the English if you please to let them live 
where or how you will please to appoint : And to this end some few 
of them have agreed with me to meet them at Hassanamesit about the 
full of the moon, and to endeavor to bring my children with them — 
My humble request and supplication is that you will please to admit 
your poor servant : (And if you please to send an Englishman or 
two with me I shall be glad, but if that cannot be done, then to admit 
me and James Speen, to go forth to see and meet and bring in my 
poor children and some few Godly Christians among them; and if 
they do escape we shall meet them and return within 3 or 4 days, if 
God please ; but if we cannot meet them then I shall conclude they 
cannot escape, and so shall immediately return ; and if your Honours 
please shall go forth with the army to the enemies' quarters, or to do 
any other service I can for your Honours and the country and go to 
the hazard of my life and shall be very thankful to your Honours for 
this favor." ^ 

"By vote of the council, the within is granted, and it is left to Maj. 
Gookin and Mr. Thomas Danforth to order the method of effecting 

But through the machinations of Capt. Mosely and some of the 
military men the plan was frustrated, and Job was sent back to Deer 

About the first of March, orders were issued that Maj. Savage, with 
600 men, should go against the Indian enemy in the central part of 
the State. He requested that six Indians from among the most 
trusty of the Christian Indians at Deer Island, should be selected to 
go with him as guides. Among those chosen as best fitted for the 
service, was Job Kattananit, who was furnished with arms and 
other necessaries, and conducted to Marlborough, from whence the 
army was to march. 

"But before the army set forth from Marlborough, there fell out a 
matter of trouble and disquiet to them, occasioned by the motion of 
Capt. Mosely, one of the officers of the army, of whom it hath been 
once and again declared that he was no lover of the praying Indians. 
It happened on this wise : Job Kattananit, in answer to his petition 
(before quoted) had obtained leave of the Governor and Council, to 
go and meet his friends in the woods, and endeavor to regain his 

' Mass. Archives, xxx. igo. 

hiciiau Occupation. 69 

children. In pursuance of this order, on his arrival at Marlborough, 
Maj. Savage (with the consent of Major General Dennison who was 
then at M.) gave liberty to Job to go alone to the place appointed 
near Hassanamesit, about twelve miles distant, to meet his friends 
and children, and bring them in to the army at the rendezvous at 
Quabage. Not long after Job was gone, the captain aforesaid, 
hearing of it, made a very great stir at headquarters at William 
Ward's, in M., where the army was drawn up in order to their march. 
He spake words reflecting greatly upon Maj. Savage's action in 
sending away Job, alleging that he would inform the enemy of the 
army's motion, and so frustrate the whole design. This fair pretence 
was managed in a mutinous manner by others of like spirit and 
temper, inasmuch that the army was under great disquiet. But 
Major General Dennison and Maj. Savage were fain to calm this 
storm by gentle means and soft words, and forthwith ordered to send 
away Capts. Wadsworth and Syll, who offered themselves with James 
Quannapohit, to follow Job on horseback hoping to overtake him and 
prevent that which was feared. Accordingly they were speedily 
despatched to pursue Job ; which had a tendency to compose the 
heats that were begotten upon this occasion. But Wadsworth and 
Syll did not .overtake Job nor meet him till he was returned to the 
army; nor yet did Job meet with his friends, but found signs where 
they had lately been ; for those poor creatures had shifted their 
quarters for fear, because the time was expired that Job promised to 
meet them, if he were admitted. But Job missing his friends, 
faithfully fulfilled his promise in returning to the army, whom he met 
upon a road about 20 miles westward of Marlborough ; and so 
proved himself an honest man, and that those suspicions of him 
were groundless. Those poor Christian Indians before mentioned, 
although Job could not meet with them, yet were met by Capt. 
Benjamin Gibbs and a small party of horse under his command, who, 
scouting the woods as the army were upon their march to Quabage, 
took those poor creatures (supposing they had got a prize) ; they 
were but two men, old deacon Naous and his son Tuckapawillin the 
minister, both of Hassanamesit ; three women, one the wife of the 
minister ; and six children, three of them Job's children. The 
soldiers that seized them took from them all those few necessaries 
they had preserved ; as two rugs, two brass kettles, some dishes, and 
a pewter cup that the minister had saved, which he was wont to use at 
the administration of the sacrament of the Lord's supper, being given 
him by Mr. Eliot for their use ; in a word the soldiers took all the 
little they had, and told many stories concerning them, that so they 
might not return their things again. But yet God so ordered it, that 

70 History of Framiiigham, 

they hurt not their bodies, but brought them in to jNIaj. Savage at the 
rendezvous, who understanding they were Job's friends and his 
children, he treated them civilly, and forthwith sent them with a 
guard back to Marlborough to be conveyed to Boston. But when the 
poor creatures came to Marlborough, they being quartered there one 
night or two by the constable's order, until an opportunity served to 
send them on to Boston, there came some people of the town 
(especially women) to their quarter, some of whom did so abuse, 
threaten, and taunt at these poor Christians, and they being thereby put 
into great fears, that in the night the minister's wife and his eldest 
son, a lad of 12 years old, and another woman, a widow that had 
carefully kept and nourished Job's children, with her daughter, being 
four of them in all, escaped into the woods ; the minister's wife left a 
nursing infant behind her with her husband, which affliction was a sore 
trial to the poor man, his wife and eldest son gone, and the poor infant 
of about three months old with no breast to nourish it. I heard a 
prudent gentleman, one Capt. Brattle of Boston, who was then at 
Marlborough, (for he heard the people's taunts and threats to them) 
say, that he was ashamed to see and hear what he did of that kind, 
and if he had been an Indian and so abused, he should have run away 
as they did. Not long after, this poor minister, Tuckappawillin, and 
his aged father Naous, a man of about eighty years old, both good 
Christians, with three or four children of the minister's, and Job's 
three children, were all sent to Boston, where they were kept a night 
or two, and then sent to Deer Island, where God provided a nurse 
(among the Indians) to preserve the life of the sucking infant; and 
about two months after, his wife was recovered, and brought in by 
Tom Dublet, one of our messengers to the enemy ; but his eldest son 
before mentioned, died, supposed to lose his life by famine. The 
other widow who Avent away at that time from Marlborough, and her 
daughter, were also recovered. This widow Job afterwards married, 
not knowing how better to requite her love showed in nourishing his 
three children when they were among the enemies, and they now 
lived comfortably together ; so that after all the troubles, sorrows, 
and calamities this man Job underwent, God gave him all his children 
in safety, and a suitable wife ; and vindicated him from all the 
calumnies and aspersions cast upon him, and by good demonstrations 
cleared his integrity and faithfulness to God's cause and the English 
interest, and hath made him very serviceable and victorious since, in 
the war against the enemy." 

To resume the history of Magunkook : — In 1662, the General 
Court made a grant of 500 acres of land within the great bend at 
Cold Spring to Col. William Crowne; and in 1687 his heirs conveyed 

Indian Occupation. 7 1 

all his right and title in this tract to Savil Simpson ; and June 20, 
1693, the Indian owners gave Simpson a deed of the said land. The 
balance of the Magunkook territory was held by the Indians of 
Natick plantation, by virtue of the right they acquired in their 
exchange of lands with Sherborn. June 11, 1711, the following 
petition was sent " To his Excellency, Joseph Dudley : The humble 
petition of the subscribers [living in Framingham] sheweth. That 
there being a Tract of land belonging to the Indians of Natick, 
situated on the southerly or southwesterly part of the Township of 
Framingham, a part of which is commonly called Megonchuk, to 
which there are other lands adjacent belonging to the said Indians 

" And there being at present no prospect that those lands remaining 
as they are can be any ways profitable either to their owners or the 

" Your humble petitioners therefore pray that they may have liberty 
to purchase 4,000 acres of the said lands ; Or that they may hire the 
same for such a term of years as may be profitable to the Common- 
wealth, to the said Indians, and to us. Signed Thomas Drury, Isaac 
Learned, David Rice, Thomas Gleason, John Town, Nathaniel Stone, 
Nathaniel Stone Jr., John Stone, John Gleason, Isaac Glesen, 
Daniel Pratt, Ebenezer Learned, Daniel Bigelow, Thomas Walker, 
Samuel Wasson, Eben"" Stone." ^ 

July 20, 1715, the trustees of "The Hopkins Donation" peti- 
tioned the General Court for license to purchase of the Indian 
inhabitants of Natick, "a tract of waste land commonly known by the 
name of Magunkaquog." This petition was granted. 

Natick, Sept. 24, 1715, the Indian proprietors met and "voted, 
that the lands at Magunkook be sold to the trustees of Mr. Hopkins' 
legacy." And Oct. 11, a deed of these and other adjoining lands 
was executed by the said Indians. This tract, and the lands to the 
westward were incorporated March 25, 1724, into a township by the 
name of Hopkinton. An annual rental of a part of these lands appears 
to have been due to the Indians at Natick; and as late as 1752, they 
employed an agent, Jonathan Richardson "to procure their rent 
money of their Magunkook lands, and pay it to each proprietor, 
according to his proportion." 

Murder of Thomas Fames' Family. — Reference has already 
been made in this chapter to King Philip's war, which broke out in 
June, 1675 > ^^^ incidentally, the relation of individuals among our 
Indians to this war has been developed in the preceding biographical 
sketches. The event however, of most direct consequence to 

' Mass. Archives, xxxi. 84. 

72 History of Frainingham. 

Framingham, is the destruction of the home and family of Thomas 
Eames, Feb. i, 1675-6. 

Mr. Eames had taken up lands and built a house on the southern 
slope of Mt. Wayte, in 1669. He seems to have pitched here by the 
consent of Mr. Danforth, with whom he was well acquainted, but had 
taken no lease. It should be noted here that his house-lot was on 
the land which Mr. Danforth bought of Richard Wayte, and not on 
the land which he (Eames) afterwards received by grant and purchase 
of the Indians. His nearest neighbors were the two Stone families 
at Saxonville, John Bent, whose house was on the Albert G. Gibbs 
farm, and Henry Rice, who lived a short distance to the south of 
Salma D. Hardy's. 

His family then consisted of a wife and not less than six children 
of his own, and probably four children of his wife by a former 
marriage, varying in age from twenty-four years to seven months. 
Two children were born to him in Framingham. His eldest son 
settled in Watertown ; and before the summer of 1675, it appears that 
one or two of his wife's children were away at service, so that at the 
date of the assault eight or nine of his own, and one or two of his 
wife's children were living at home. This accords with Mr. Fames' 
own statement that he had lost a wife and nine children, and also with 
the statement of his sons, that five of their father's children were 
slain, and only four of those taken returned from captivity, implying 
that some remained in the Indians' hands. And the fact is known 
that one daughter at least was held in captivity a considerable time 
after the taking. Some of the published accounts differ from this, 
and from each other ; but it has been deemed safe to follow the 
statements of Mr. Eames and his sons, who certainly knew the facts. 

As soon as hostilities broke out, the Council at Boston sent four 
soldiers to guard the scattered families on the Framingham planta- 
tion. The farmers were required to furnish them food and lodging 
in return for the protection afforded. Probably two soldiers were 
quartered on Mr. Eames. "July 22, 1675, it was ordered, that two 
of the four men ordered to guard Eames and the farmers, be 
forthwith and hereby are remanded to guard Mr. [Rev. Edmund] 
Browne's house [at Sudbury], and the other two to remain as they are 
till the Court take further order."^ 

As Mr. Eames was " maimed in his limbs," he was not liable to be 
pressed into the service ; but his horses were not exempt. And 
Sept. I, 1675, he sends the following petition : 

To the Hond Council now sitting. 

Divine providence having cast my lot in a place both remote from 

1 Mass. Archives, lxvii. 226. 

Indian Occupation. 73 

neighbors in the woods, betwixt Marlborough and Medfield, and in a place 
of no small danger in this day of trouble, when God hath so signally let 
loose the heathens against his people everywhere. And it is my duty to 
seek by all lawful means to preserve my family from the rage of the enemy, 
and to provide for our welfare both at home and in our journeyings from 
place to place : which I cannot do with any comfort without the horses I 
continually use ; My humble petition therefore to this Hond Council is, that 
I may have my horses freed from the press, to which they are continually 
exposed whenever I travel to the neighboring towns, nay so that I cannot 
pass on a Sabbath, which in every respect is grievous to me 
who am 

Your humble petitioner 

Thomas Eams. 

" The Council grant the petitioner freedom from the impress of his 
horses at such times as he and his family coming to the public 
worship of God in Marlborough or Sudbury."^ 

The guard seems to have been withdrawn from his house ; and on 
the last week in January, Mr. Eames went with his horses to Boston, 
to procure help and a supply of ammunition. February i, a party of 
eleven Indians came suddenly upon the defenceless family, burned 
the barn, cattle, and house, killed the mother and five children, and 
carried off five or six children and such plunder as they needed. 

The family tradition is, that the mother had expressed the 
resolution never to be taken alive by the savages ; and that, true to 
her word, she courageously defended her home, using hot soap and 
such weapons as were at hand in the kitchen. According to the 
confession of one of the murderers, the party — comprising six of the 
former residents at Magunkook — had returned thither for some corn 
which was left in their granaries, and finding that it had been 
destroyed, started at once, partly for food and partly for revenge, 
towards the nearest English settler. And it is probable that the stout 
resistance of the brave woman so provoked them that they left 
nothing alive. 

The children were carried to the neighborhood of Wachusett, and a 
part of them to Wennimisset. Three of them found means to escape 
from their captors, and returned in the course of a few months. 
One of these was with the party of savages that attacked Sudbury the 
twenty-first of April. The escape of another is thus related : " On 
the next day (May 12), a youth of about eleven years made his escape 
from the Indians, who was taken prisoner when his father's house 
was burnt and his mother murdered on the ist of February last ; and 
though the boy knew not a step of the way to any English town, and 
was in continual danger of the skulking Indians in the woods, and far 

1 Mass. Archives, lxvii. 245. 

74 Histo7y of Framingham. 

from the English, yet God directed him aright, and brought him to 
the sight of Plantain (the herb which the Indians call ' English Foot,' 
because it grows only amongst us and is not found in the Indian 
plantations) ; whereupon he concluded he was not far from some 
English town, and accordingly following of the plantain he arrived 
safe amongst us."^ 

Of the girls taken, some authentic accounts are found. Thomas 
Reed, a soldier taken captive- at Hockanum April i, escaped from 
the Indians who were in camp at Turner's Falls, May 14, 1676, 
reports : " There is Thomas Eames's daughter and her child [younger 
sister], hardly used."^ Aug. 14, Joseph Wannuckhow in his exami- 
nation states : " That about two months since he inquired concerning 
Goodman Eames's two daughters, and understood they were at a great 
hill about middle way between Wachusett and Pennacook, (Concord, 
N. H.), and were in good health and not in a starving plight." 
"William Jackstraw [same date] saith, that Mattahump [sachem of 
Quaboag] hath one of Goodman Eames's daughters, and Pumapen 
[former ruler at Magunkook] the other, and they were alive at 
planting time, and he thinks they may yet be towards the — at 
Auranea (Albany)." 

There is evidence that these girls, and perhaps one boy, were 
carried to Canada, where the youngest, Margaret, was found by the 
agents sent by the Colonial Government to effect the release of 
captives, and redeemed, and returned home. The author agrees with 
Mr. Barry, that " It is quite probable that one or more of the children 
remained in Canada ; a not uncommon event, and in some cases the 
result of preference on the part of the captives, who became so 
accustomed to their change of life, as to lose all attachment to their 
English society and friends. Hutchinson states in his History 
(11. 140) that the captives who have been carried to Canada have 
often received very kind usage from the French inhabitants." 

The following inventory exhibits the particulars of the loss 
sustained by Mr. Fames, as he valued them. 

An Inventory of the loss of Thomas Eames, when his house was fired by 
Indians at Framingham near unto Sudbury in the county of Middlesex, the 
first of February 1675-6. 

Imprimis — A wife and nine children. 

Item — A house 34 feet long, double floores and garret, 
and cellar, and a barn 52 foot long, leantir'd one side 
and two ends, _j^ioo. 00.00 

It. 4 oxen 024.00.00 

It. 7 cows fair with calf ...... 028.00.00 

1 Old Ind. Chronicle, p. 258. 2 Letter o£ Rev. Mr. Russell, of Hadley. 

Indian Occupation. 






2 yearlings 

1 bull .... 

2 heifers fair with calf 

1 heifer .... 
8 sheep fair with lamb . 
30 loads of hay in ye barn at 8s. per load 
ID bush, wheate at 6s. p. bush. 
40 bush, rye at 4s. 8d. p. bush. 
210 bush, of indian at 3s. p. bush 
Hemp and flax in ye barn 
Fire arms with other arms and ammunition 
Butter 20s., cheese 40s., 2 barrels and a half of 

Pork and 4 flitches of bacon . . . . 
Carpenter's and joyner's tooles . . . . 

2 great spinning wheels and 2 small wheels 4s. 
4s. for cards ....... 

6 beds 3 of them feather beds and 3 flock, 6 rugs, 
12 blankets ........ 

I chest of lynen, with ye sheets and shifts 

A livery cupboard with what was in it . 

My wife's linen and wearing apparel, and chil- 
dren's cloathing, and my own cloathing, with 
cloathing that was my former wife's . 

Pewter, brasse, and Iron ware . . . . 

Churns, and other dairy vessels, with other wooden 
lumber ......... 


12. 00 
GO. 00 
00. 00 
00. 00 

00. 00 

013. GO. OG 
005. GO. 00 


012. OG. GO 
002. 00. OG 

025. GO. GO 
014. GO. 00 

GO5. 00. OG 

Total 330. 012. GO 
This was a large estate for those times, and comprised all he pos- 
sessed, except the two horses and vehicle, and what money he had 
with him. As indemnity, the General Court granted him 200 acres 
of land. He also sued the Indians at law, and obtained from them, 
with consent of the Court, the tract of 200 acres lying near where 
his former habitation stood. He also recovered three of his own 
children, Samuel, Margaret, and Nathaniel ; and one of his wife's 
children, Zechariah Paddleford. 

According to a list in the handwriting of Thomas Danforth, now on 
file in the State Archives, the Indians accused of participation in the 
murderous assault were as follows: Netus, Anneweaken, Aponapaw- 
quin alias Old Jacob, Acompanatt alias James, Pakananumquis alias 
Joshua Assalt, William Wannuckhow alias Jackstraw, Joseph Wan- 
nuckhow, Apumatquin alias John, Pumapen, Awassaquah, and Aquit- 
ekash. Of these, six were former residents at Magunkook ; and the 
fate of two of them, viz.. Old Jacob and Pumapen, has already been 
narrated. Anneweaken was killed before the time of their trial. He 
was son of Dea. Naous, and brother of Tuckapawillin, the minister ; 

76 History of Framingham. 

and, according to Mr. Gookin, was at one time ruler at Hassanamesit. 
He was the "another man" who, with Netus, was charged by the 
Jackstraws with killing Mrs. Eames and her children, as will pres- 
entl}^ appear. 

August II, 1676. Mr. Danforth issued a warrant commanding the consta- 
ble to apprehend Joshua Assalt, John Dublet, WiUiam Jackstraw and two 
of his sons Joseph and John, also Jackstraw's wife, all of them late of Ma 
gunkook, and bring them before me to answer the complaint of Thomas 
Eames for killing, burning, etc. In case you can enquire out Peter Ephraim's 
wife, warn her to come to me forthwith. Endorse jueftt. I have apprehended 
and taken William Jackstraw and his wife and two of his sons Joseph and 
John, and also John Dublet, and warned Peter Ephraim's wife to come, but 
Joshua Assalt is as I understand at Marlborough with the army. 

Job Hide, Constable. 

Of Joshua Assalt and Awassaquah, Mr. Danforth wTites to Gov. 
Leverett : "They confess that they were accessories ; but the latter is 
at the Ponds sick, and the former is with Capt. Hunting at Marl- 
borough. Goodman Eames is very earnest that he may be attached. 
I am in some doubt about the expediency of it while abroad. Let me 
entreat you to give me your advice in the case. Dated Aug. 14, 1676." 

William Jackstraw and his two sons were examined before Mr. 
Danforth August 14. His minutes of the examination are as follows : 

"Joseph Indian, son of William of Mogoncocke, being examined do 
say & confess that himself with these others named in the margent 
[see list above] were the persons that destroyed Thomas Eames' 
family in the beginning of Feb. last: that the same was occasioned 
by their missing of corn which they expected to have found at Mogun- 
cocke, & by that means were provoked to come & do that spoil, kill- 
ing of some & carrying captive of the rest, and burning house, barn 
and cattle ; and do confess that he carried away on his back one of 
Eames's sons. 

" Apumatquin alias John, being examined, do confess the same 

"William Jackstraw, being examined do confess the same thing as 
above : owns that his sons Joseph and John were present at the 
desolation of Goodman Eames's family and that himself was of the 
company, but kept at a distance a little way off in the cornfields. 

" Isaac Beech being present at this examination do say Joseph 
above named confessed the same thing to him and Jno. Prentice. 

"for encouragement to Joseph who was first examined to tell the 
truth (they at first denying all) I told him I would speak to the 
Governor to spare his life in case he would tell me plainly how all 
this said matter was acted. 

Indian Occupation. ' 'j'] 

" Taken the clay and year above said, Before Thomas Danforth, John 
Speen Interpreter. 

"Confessions were owned by the prisoners at the barr, i8, 6, 76. 

E. R. Sec." 

Copy of liidictniciit. "We the grand jury for our Sovereign Lord the 
King do present and indict Joseph Indian of Maguncog by the name of 
Joseph Indian, for that he not having the fear of God before his eyes and 
being instigated by the devil did with other his accomplices on the beginning 
of Feb. 6 last burn the house and cattle of Thomas Eames and killed his 
wife and children, contrary to the peace of our Sovereign Lord the King his 
crown and dignity, the laws of God and of this jurisdiction. 

" The Jury fBnds this bill, and have him to fforthwith tryal. Richard 
Colicott fforeman for the name of the rest of the Jury." 

William, the father, and John were also indicted ; and the three 
were tried August 18, and convicted. 

Sept. 5, they sent in the following petition. It has much historic 
value, as showing the method of procedure in this case ; and also 
as throwing light on the proclamation of conditional amnesty, issued 
June 19, which is referred to in the petition of Thomas Eames' sons 
\ante p. 57], and referred to in the case of Old Jethro and others 
that surrendered at Cochecho [««/(? p. 52.] 

To the Hon. Court of Assistants sitting in Boston, Sept^ the 5th 1676. 

The humble Petition of William Wannuckhow, Joseph Wannuckhow and 
John Appamatahqeen, all prisoners at the barr : Humbly imploreth your 
favor to hear and consider our application. We know that your Honours 
are men of truth, fearing God, and will faithfully perform your promises 
especially when it concerns so great a matter as the lives of men. You 
were pleased (of your own benignity) not for any desert of ours, to give 
forth your declaration dated the 19th of June, wherein you were pleased to 
promise life and liberty unto such of your enemies as did come in and 
submit themselves to your mercy and order and disposal within a time 
limited which afterwards was enlarged to a longer time, and tidings thereof 
sent by James Prentice unto us, which offers of grace, as soon as we heard 
of it, we readily embraced it, and came in accordingly ourselves wives and 
children, as Capt. Prentice and his son, with others, to whose house we were 
directed to come, are ready to testify ; and those orders of yours are upon 
record, the copies whereof we are ready to present. If it should be said 
that we are known to be notorious in doing mischief to the English, we 
answer, none can so say in truth, or prove any such thing against us. 
Indeed we do acknowledge that we were in company of those that burnt 
Goodman Eames his house. But we did not act in it. It was done by 
others, who were slain in the war, and so have answered God's justice for 
their demerits ; as for our part we came along with that company upon 
a necessary and just occasion, to get our corn which we had planted 
gathered and put up at Magunquog. But finding our corn taken away, we 

78 • History of Framingham. 

intended to return. But Netus and another man that were our leaders 
earnestly moved to go to Goodman Eames's farm for to get corn, and they 
said ihey did believe he had taken our corn. But we were unwilling to go. 
But they by their persuasion and threatening carried us with them. But as 
we said before, we neither killed nor burnt nor took away any thing there. 
But were instrumental to save Goodman Eames his children alive, one of 
us carried one boy upon our backs rather then let them be killed. This is 
the truth of things, so that we cannot be reckoned among such as have 
been notorious in doing mischief. Indeed we were enemies, being tempted 
to go among them by the example of our choice men Capt. Tom and others. 
But we had no arms and did not hurt the English as many others have 
done, that upon their submission to your mercy are pardoned. Besides it 
was a time of war, when this mischief was done ; and though it was our 
unhappy portion to be with those enemies yet we conceive that depredations 
and slaughters in war are not chargeable upon particular persons, especially 
such as have submitted themselves to your Honours upon promise of life, 
&c. as we have done. 

Therefore we desire again to insist upon that plea, that we may receive 
the benefit of your declarations before mentioned. Our lives will not be 
at all beneficial to Goodman Eames. Those that slew his wife and 
relations and burnt his house have already suffered death, and the satisfac- 
tion of Goodman Eames in our death will not countervail the honour and 
justice or authority of the country that may be blemished thereby. ^ 

"The testimony of Thomas Prentis Sen. aged about 55 years, doth 
testify and say that Wm Wannuckhow alias Jackstraw, and his son 
Joseph with his wife and the rest of his children came into my house 
and submit themselves to the Council's order the twentyeth of July 
last which was some few days after the return of James Prentis and 
Nehemiah who told me they had left some Indians behind that desired 
to come in and submit, but were hindered." 

The following entry in Judge Sewall's diary, indicates the end of 
these three men: "Sept. 21, '76. Stephen Goble of Concord w^as 
executed for murder of Indians — Three Indians for firing Eames 
his house and murder. The weather was cloudy and rawly cold, 
though little or no rain. Mr. Mighil prayed ; four others sat on the 
gallows, two men and two impudent women, one of which, at least 
laughed on the gallows, as several testified." 

Netus, the leader of the marauding parly, did not survive to be 
brought to trial. He was killed March 27, at Marlborough, by a 
party of English soldiers under the command of Lieut. Jacobs. His 
history is in many respects an interesting one. His name was often 
written Nataous, but he was commonly called William of Sudbury, 
from the fact that he lived there a number of years, and owned land 
there. He was a Nipnet, whose original home was in Grafton. The 

1 Mass. Archives, xxx. 217. 

Indian Occupation. 79 

historian, Hubbard, speaks of him as " very familiar with the whites," 
which impHes that he spoke the English language tolerably well, and 
fell in with English customs. He was for a time an attendant on the 
ministry of Rev. Mr. Browne of Sudbury, and was converted to a 
belief in the Christian religion by his preaching. He was in the habit 
of trading with the Sudbury settlers ; and either they had so much 
confidence in his honesty, or the temptation to drive a good bargain 
was so strong, that they " trusted " him, when he could not pay cash 
down. In 1659 the Court records mention a suit for debt entered 
. against him by Sergt. John Parmenter of Sudbury. 

When the Society for Propagating the Gospel in New England 
made arrangements with schoolmaster Corlett, of Cambridge, to edu- 
cate Indian youths in preparation for college, a son of Netus was sent 
to him for instruction. It appears that there were charges connected 
with the tuition of this boy which the English Society failed to pay ; 
and Mr. Corlett obtained leave of the General Court " to purchase of 
Netus, the Indian, so much land as the said Netus is possessed of 
according to law, for the satisfaction of the debt." The original 
amount due was £\. 10; interest and charges raised it to £1. 10. 
Under the Court's order, Edmund Rice, Sen., and Thomas Noyes 
laid out to said Corlett, from the lands of said Netus, a farm of 320 
acres. This farm lay " about three miles off the Indian Plantation 
Hassanamiscox, at Nipnap Hill," in the northeasterly corner of Graf- 
ton.' In 1685 Mr. Corlett sold this farm to Alice Thomas, widow, 
and Benj. Thompson, her son; and Sept. 12, 1699, Benj. Thompson 
and wife Prudence sold to Peter Goulding, saddler, of Sudbury, " for 
one negro wench called Nanny, delivered at ^25. 10, and £\o in 

Netus joined the Christian Indians at Natick, where he resided for 
some years. Gookin (1674) speaks of him as "among the good men 
and prudent who were rulers at Natick." 

When, a year later, these Indians were forced from their plantation, 
and taken to Deer Island, he and some others escaped into the woods. 
The evidence already given in full, goes to show that he heartily joined 
the enemy. The sequel has been told. 

It should be added, that the wife of Netus, and the wife of Aquita- 
kash, accused of complicity in the murder of the Eames family, were 
sold into slavery. 

' Midd. Deeds, xii. 370. 


First Coming of the English — Old Connecticut Path — Beaver 
Dam — Land Grants, and Early Settlements by the Whites — 
Mr. Danforth's Leases and Will. Covering our History as a 
Plantation, 1633-1699. 

FHHE first coming of the English upon this territory, so far as is 

known, was in the year 1633. In that year a company of four 

men started from Watertown to go to the Connecticut river. 

The party consisted of John Oldham, Samuel Hall and two others, 

who went to look out a place for a new settlement at that then distant 


The main obstacle to travel across the country, at that date, was not 
the forests, but the rivers and swamps. The annual burning of the 
grass and underbrush by the Indians, kept the dry uplands pretty clear 
of all except the old timber ; so that men on horseback could readily 
pass over the open country. But wet swamps were secure against the 
fires, and were impenetrable ; and large streams could be passed only 
at natural ford ways. 

The only way from Cambridge to Hartford, where the path would 
not cross any considerable stream of water, was up the northerly bank 
of the Charles river, to Waltham Centre, thence to the northerly end 
of Cochituate pond, thence following a southwesterly course through 
the village of South Framingham, into what was the northwest part of 
Sherborn, then turning more west, through Hopkinton, and following 
the upper south slope of the watershed of the streams that ran into 
Narraganselt Bay and the Sound. The route was somewhat circuit- 
ous, but comparatively safe. 

Probably Mr. Oldham and his party had a limited knowledge of the 
geography of the country. They were induced to travel this way by 
one of those circumstances, trival in themselves, which prove to be 
pivots on which turn the destiny of individuals and communities. 
Three years before, in the fall after the arrival of Gov. Winthrop, his 
colony fell short of supplies. The news was carried — perhaps by 
some of our more enterprising Washakamaugs — to the Wabbaquassets, 
a Nipnet clan living at [now] Woodstock, Ct., that the English at the 

Old Coiinecticiit Path. 8i 

Bay were in great want of corn, and would pay a good price for it. 
The hill-sides at Woodstock were famous for their bountiful crops of 
Indian corn ; and the old chief of the Wabbaquassets, from his full 
granaries filled large sacks with the precious commodity, and with his 
son and other Indians carried the heavy burdens on their backs to 
Boston, " when there was but one cellar in the place, and that near 
the Common."^ These Wabbaquassets were related by tribal affinity 
to our Washakamaugs. From previous journeys, they knew the best 
way to tramp with their burden. And the white explorers, being 
acquainted with this trading expedition, which happened in 3630, 
followed three years later their track, partly because they knew it 
was the native trail, and also because they had information that it led 
near several Indian villages scattered along in the route. The chronicle 
of the time says that Mr. Oldham and his party " lodged at Indian 
towns all the way." \Winthrop, i. iii.] 

The next year [1634] some Watertown people made a journey to the 
Connecticut river, erected a few huts at Pyquag (Wethersfield), in 
which a few men made a shift to winter. \TrumbuU, i. 48.] 

In the summer of 1635 some pioneers went on to make prepara- 
tions ; and Oct. 15, about sixty men, women and children, with their 
horses, cattle and swine, started for the Connecticut valley, where they 
arrived in about two weeks. Finding there was too many for their 
accommodations and provisions, twelve of the number started, about 
the middle of November, to return. Though light loaded, they were 
ten days on the way, got lost, one of them died, and all would have 
perished but that they lighted on some Indian wigwams, where they 
got food and directions for the way. 

But the most distinguished company of early travellers on this route, 
was that of the Rev. Messrs. Hooker and Stone, who with a party 
of one hundred of their church members and their families took their 
departure from Cambridge for Hartford, in the beginning of June, 
1636. The path had become better defined, and with the aid of a 
compass they made good progress. The historian says : " They had 
no cover but the heavens, nor any lodgings but those which simple 
nature afforded them. They drove with them one hundred and sixty 
head of cattle, and by the way subsisted on the milk of their cows. 
Mrs. Hooker was borne through the wilderness upon a horse-litter. 
The people generally carried their packs, arms, and some utensils. 
They were nearly a fortnight on their journey." \Trumbull, i. 55.] 

An Indian horse-litter was merely two long ash poles, with slats 
fastened across the middle, the forward ends attached to the horse's 
saddle-girth, and the hind ends dragging on the ground. Probably 

1 Larned's Hist, of Windham County, p. 2. 

82 History of Framinghafii. 

the litter on which ]\Irs. Hooker was borne had two horses, one 
forward, to draw, the other behind, to push. 

This way, which these several parties of adventurers travelled, was 
known, for the next half century, as the " Old Connecticut Path." 
And this path, thus established, as we shall soon see, became an 
important factor in the first settlement and the early fortunes of our 
town. From Watertown to Mr. Dunster's farm, it is named on the 
Sudbury town records as a highway, in 1643, and was formally laid 
out in 1649. From the north end of Cochituate pond, the path 
followed the present road to the house of Joseph Brown, where it 
turned more to the west, crossing Cochituate brook at the fordway, 
where was afterwards the fulling-mill dam ; thence by a southerly and 
southwesterly course to a point about thirty rods east of Hollis 
Hasting's ; thence on nearly a straight line to the Para rubber-works, 
and across the railroad, when it turned slightly to the west, going 
past the south school-house site, and from thence bearing to the left 
nearly as the road now runs into Sherborn, and round the southerly 
side of the Quinneh meadow, just shunning the marshy lands, ^ and 
turning more west crossed Cold spring brook about thirty rods above 
its junction with Hopkinton river, thence westerly to the cold spring 
on the Frankland place in the west part of Ashland, and so through 
Grafton^ in this State, and Thompson, Ct. 

As already indicated, the general course of this path was determined 
by the conformation of the land; but its exact course at the south 
bounds of Framingham, was decided by that curious structure, which 
figures so largely in our early annals, viz., the Beaver Daf/i. This stood 
at the point where the highway crosses the stream, to the south of the 
house of Joseph Phipps. It is called in our earlier records the 
•'Beaver Dam," and sometimes the " Indian Bridge," showing that it 
was in use by the natives when the country was first visited by the 
whites. It is mentioned as a bound-mark of land grants as early as 
1658 ; and is perpetuated in the name of the stream on which it stood. 

It must have been built at a very remote date by those sagacious 
animals. It was put in at the most available point for setting back 
the waters coming from the hills and springs, as well as the autumn 
overflow of Washakum pond, which would thus flood the meadows, 
and give the beavers safe winter quarters. As is well known, the 
beaver cuts two or more large trees in such a way that they shall fall 
across the stream, or outlet of a swamp, for he seems to understand 
either the leaning of trees or the force of winds, or both. He then 
sets sharpened stakes upright in the soft bottom, and fills the spaces 

^ See Russell's Grant, Mass. Col. Rec, iv. pt. i, p. 370. 

' " Hassanamesit is near unto the old road-way to Connecticuc." Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., i., 1S5. 

La7td Grants, 83 

with brush, grass and mud. The dam in question had, in the course 
of centuries, received the accumulations of vegetable and earthy 
matter; had widened and hardened till it became a safe bridge for 
men and horses. It served our ancestors as a way to meeting in 
Sherborn for twenty years before Framingham was incorporated. 
The first county road in that part of the town was laid out over it. 

Early Land Grants. — In the early days of the Massachusetts 
Colony, the General Court exercised the right to dispose of all the 
lands within her bounds. These grants were freely made, in part to 
persons holding official position, and in part to such as had rendered 
important service to the infant colony, or had contributed money to 
defray the costs of adventures. And in these grants, no respect was 
paid to Indian ownership and occupancy, further than to allow the 
grantee to purchase, at the best advantage he could get, whatever 
right and title the natives possessed. 

Until a place was pitched upon for a town site, lands had only a 
nominal value, and were bestowed on public favorites with a lavish 
hand. And it not unfrequently happened that grants to different 
individuals overlapped, or that two grants covered the same territory ; 
and to save itself from liability in such cases, the General Court was 
careful to insert this significant proviso: "Provided it be not formerly 
disposed of by this Court, and be not prejudicial to any plantation." 
Most of the grants which were located on our territory contained such 
a saving clause. 

Mrs. Glover's Farm. — The earliest grant of land within our town 
limits by the General Court, was made in 1640, to Mrs. Elizabeth 
Glover, widow of the Rev. Josse Glover. The action of the Court 
is as follows : 

"June 6, 1639. It is ordered that Mr. Mayhew & Mr. Flint shall 
set out Mrs. Glover's 600 acres, where it may not prejudice any plan- 
tation, on the west side of the river of Concord." 

Oct. 7, 1640. "The 600 acres formerly granted to lye on the west 
side of Sudbury river is now granted her on the east side of the said 
river, without the last addition to the bounds of Sudbury, & between 
the said bounds & the great pond at Cochituate." 

" Wee, whose names are under written, have laid out Mrs. Glover's 
farm as followeth, viz : Sudbury line is the northeast bounds ; the 
northwest bounds thereof is the great river ; the southeast bounds the 
river that issueth out of the great pond at Chochichowicke ; the 
southeast bounds from the place where the little river runs out of the 
great pond, till you come to the northeast end of the said pond, & so 

84 History of Framingkam. 

to the northwest end of the little pond, & from thence to the north- 
east end of the said little pond, and from thence to the nearest place 
of Sudbury line, according to the marked trees. Witness hereunto 
the 7th of the loth mo. 1644. Tho. Mayhew, Peter Noyes, Edmond 

This farm, laid out as 600 acres, was found on measurement to 
contain 960 acres ; embracing all that land lying between Sudbury 
town line (now Wayland) on the north, Sudbury river on the west, 
Cochituate brook on the south, Cochituate pond on the east, and from 
the northeast point of this pond to the nearest point of Dudley pond, 
and so by this pond to its northeast corner, and from there north 
direct to the old Sudbury line. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Glover was the widow of Rev. Josse Glover, rector 
of Sutton in Surry, England, who made a contract June 7, 1638, with 
Stephen Day, of Cambridge, Eng., printer, to come over with wife and 
children in the ship John of London, at the expense of Glover, with 
the design of setting up a printing-press in New England. He em- 
barked in 1638, or early in 1639, ^^^ died on the passage, and was 
buried at sea. 

Mr. Glover was a warm friend of the Massachusetts Colony, and 
had in various ways helped forward the settlement ; and his printing- 
press was intended to be set up at Cambridge, the seat of the incipi- 
ent university. These facts indicate the reason for the public grant 
of lands to his widow. 

Mrs. Glover married, June 22, 1641, Henry Dunster, the first presi- 
dent of Harvard University. She died Aug. 23, 1643, before the 
actual laying out of the granted land. 

Rev. Mr. Glover had by his first wife, Sarah Owfield, .Roger, who 
died in Scotland ; Elizabeth, who married Adam Winthrop ; Sarah, 
who married Deane Winthrop ; and by his second wife, Elizabeth 
Harris, Priscilla, who married, Oct. 14, 165 1, John Appleton, of 
Ipswich, Mass. ; yohii, who graduated at Harvard, 1650, studied med- 
icine, and died unmarried in London in 1668. On the death of Mrs. 
(Glover) Dunster, President Dunster was appointed guardian to the 
minor children and administrator of the Glover estate. Sept. 29, 1647, 
John Glover, then a member of college, and President Dunster his 
guardian, leased for the term of ten years, to Edmund Rice, the whole 
farm of said John Glover inherited from his mother. By the terms 
of the lease, Edmund Rice contracted to make a fence between the 
two farms of John Glover and Henry Dunster,^ easterly, and so all 

1 Dunster's farm was a tract of 600 acres of land, granted in 1640 to President Dunster, lying to the 
south and east of Mrs. Glover's farm, to which it joined, and bounded on the west by Cochituate 
pond. It was frequently called the "Pond farm." In 1642, and again in 1653, Mr. Dunster leased 
this farm to Edmund Rice; and June 24, 1659, Mr. Rice and his son Benjamin bought it of the 
executors of Mr. D.'s will. Midd. Deeds, 11. 146. 

Land Grants. 85 

the lands encompassed either by Cochituate brook or the great river 
westerly ; and also to keep in good repair the fences already on the 
farm between the great pond and the river. It was further stipulated 
that Mr. Rice should build on the premises, " during the first five or 
six years, a dwelling-house, thirty foote long, ten foote high stud, one 
foote sill from the ground, sixteen foote wide, with two rooms, both 
below or the one above the other : all the doores well hanged, and 
staires, with convenient fastnings of locks or bolts, windows glased, 
and well planked under foote, and boarded sufficiently to lay corne in 
in the story above head. He was also to build a barn fifty foote 
long, eleven foote high in the stud, one foote above ground, the sell 
twenty foote if no leantes, or eighteen foote wide with leantes on the 
one side, and a convenient threshing-floare between the doares." 

The exact location of these buildings is not easy to determine. 
Mr. Barry concluded that they were placed within the present limits 
of Framingham. But a careful study of the earliest deeds of sale of 
the Glover lands leaves little doubt that they stood near Dudley pond? 
within the present limits of Wayland. The following affidavit, dated 
1656, refers to the house in question : " Edmund Rice, aged about 62 
years, testified that the house where Robert Wilson now dwells, Mr. 
Dunster's tenant, was built by John Glover." In 1697 the house was 
occupied by Dennis Headly, who purchased the same, with eighty 
acres of land, of Thomas Drury in 1701. 

On the final settlement of Mrs. Glover's estate, the farm in ques- 
tion fell to John Glover and his sister, Priscilla Appleton. John 
willed his part to his sister, who thus held the title to the whole 
in her husband's name. It remained in the family, and was known 
as the "Appleton farm" for a long term of years. June 17, 1697, 
John Appleton, Jr., and his wife Elizabeth sold the estate, then called 
960 acres, for 440 pounds. New England currency, to Thomas Brown, 
Thomas Drury and Caleb Johnson, all of Sudbury. These three 
owners parcelled the farm out among themselves. Brown and Drury 
sold Dec. 12, 1698, one-third to Johnson; and same date, Brown and 
Johnson sold one-third to Drury. Brown retained as his share of 
the uplands 200 acres on the northerly side, lying mainly in Framing- 
ham ; Drury took 200 acres on the southerly side in Framingham, and 
100 acres at the northeasterly corner in Wayland ; and Johnson held 
the 200 acres of upland in the middle. The meadows were divided 
into small lots, and set off to each according to conveniency and value. 
Johnson built on his part, where is now the Marrs' house. Drury 
had already located at Rice's End. Brown never occupied his part. 
Brown sold his 200 acres of upland in 1701-2 as follows: 115 acres 

86 History of Framingham. 

on the northerly side to Daniel Stone, Jr., his son-in-law, and 85 acres 
l3'ing next to Caleb Johnson, to EInathan Allen. Allen, or his son 
Obadiah, built where is now the Bradbury house, and after some years 
sold to Benjamin Farley (of Billerica and Roxbury), whose widow, 
Anna, sold 1723, to Caleb Johnson, Jr. Caleb and his brother Solo- 
mon (who had inherited their father's lands here) sold this Allen lot, 
together with the original 200 acres, in 1729, to Thomas Kendall, 
whose heirs held it till a recent period. 

Drury's sons settled on his 200 acres, which ultimately came into 
possession of Dea. William Brown and others. 

Thomas Mayhew's Farm. — "Oct. 17, 1643. Mr. Mayhew is 
granted 300 acres of land in regard to his charge about the bridge by 
Watertown mill, and the bridge to belong to the country." \Mass. 
Col. Rcc, II. 51.] 

"The above said Grant of 300 acres, I Thomas Mayhew, for me, 
my heirs executors and administrators, do assign and grant to John 
Stone and Nathaniel Treadway executors to the last will of Edward 
How, To have and to hold the same to them, & their heirs forever, etc. 
And is in consideration of a greater sum due to the said Stone and 
Treadway as executors to the last will of said Edward How deceased. 
Signed and Sealed Sept. 15, 1666." 

" In obedience to this grant and assignment. Now laid out this 
i8th day of June 1708, said 300 acres to the heirs of John Stone 
and Nathaniel Treadway : This land lying between Marlborough, 
Magunkook and Framingham, and so bounded : This land is some 
good, some bad, some pine and some oak land, and some meadow 
in it, as may appear from the plat of the same surveyed by David 

"Marlborough Oct. 13, 1708. This may certify whom it concerns 
that we the subscribers being inhabitants of the town of Marlborough, 
do acknowledge that there is a strip of land lying between the River 
and our bounds, southerly of our line, which we do not claim nor own 
to be ours. Signed, John Woods Sen., Isaac Amsden Sen., John Bel- 
lows, Joseph Newton, James Woods, Nathaniel Joslin Sen." 

"fframingham Oct. 18, 1708. These may certify whom it may 
concern that we the subscribers do acknowledge that this little strip 
of land here platted lyes between Marlborough and the River and Mr. 
Danforth's land. Signed, Peter Clayes, Benj. Bridges, James Clayes, 
Michael Pike." \Ancient Plans, i. 225.] 

The heirs of the assignees petitioned the General Court for accept- 
ance of the foregoing plat and return. Under date of June 5, 17 11, 
is the record : " This plat is not accepted, the land therein contained 

Land Grants. 87 

being challenged by Capt. Joseph Buckminster, under Mr. Danforth, 
who also presented a Record dated May 29, 1644, upon request of 
Mr. Mayhew the original Grantee, ordering the laying out 300 acres 
of land to him about Nashaway and Sudbury." Buckminster carried 
his point, and held the land in question ; and three years later pro- 
ceeded to lay out tliis Mayhew Grant, near Whitehall in Hopkinton, and 
petitioned the General Court for an act of confirmation — with what 
result the record shows : "In answer to the petition of Joseph Buck- 
minster of Framingham, for confirmation of a certain tract of land of 
300 acres laid out in a place free from all other grants, lying between 
the towns of Framingham and Mendon, upon a grant made to Mr. 
Thomas Mayhew in the year 1643, purchased by the petitioner of those 
deriving from the said Mr, Mayhew, a plat thereof being laid before 
this Court — 

" Ordered, that the prayer of the petitioner be granted. Provided the 
Plat exceed not the quantity of the grant, nor interfere with any other 
grant. Consented to, J. Dudley." 

"June 24, 1714." 

The tract first described above, is the one which, in later times, has 
been known as "Fiddle Neck," and which in Gore's Plan of Framing- 
ham Plantation, i6gg, is laid down as included in said plantation, 
though it was not included within the bounds of Mr. Danforth's grant. 
It was regarded as a part of Framingham till 1727, when it was set 
off to the new town of Southborough. 

Thomas Mayhew was a distinguished merchant, who lived in Med- 
ford and Watertown, and took an active part in public affairs for many 
years. He obtained, in addition to the 300 acres above named, a grant 
of Martha's Vineyard, where he ultimately settled, and where he was 
a successful preacher to the Indians for thirty-three years. 

Grants to Edmund Rice. — "Oct. 23, 1652, Edmund Rice of 
Sudbury preferring a petition for the grant of three little pieces of 
meadow containing about 20 acres, and 30 acres of upland, lying a 
mile from Cochituate brook, hath his request granted." This fifty 
acres was located to the southeast of Salma D. Hardy's, and became 
the nucleus of what has since been known as Rice's End. Edmund 
deeded this tract to his son Henry, who settled upon it, and who ob- 
tained a deed from the Indians, March 10, 1672-3. His descendants 
held this and adjacent lands till a recent date. 

In 1655, Edmund Rice petitioned the General Court for another 
parcel of land " near the path leading to Connecticut ; " and June 3, 
1659, is the record: "Laid out, the farm of Mr. Edmund Rice of 
Sudbury, in the place appointed by the Court, that is, beginning at a 

88 History of Framingham. 

hill leaving Conecticott path on the north or northwesterly of it, and a 
brook on the south of it, and two hills and a little piece of meadow on 
the east of it, with fiv-e acres of meadow lying on the east side, being 
part of the same grant ; also the said tract of land being bounded 
with the wilderness on the west, all of which said tract of land con- 
taineth eight}'^ acres." 

This eighty acres lay between Beaver dam brook, Gleason's pond 
and Gleason's hill; the southwest corner bound being a tree at the 
Beaver dam. Edmund Rice gave a deed of this farm to his son Ben- 
jamin ; and Benjamin and wife Mary sell, Sept. 29, 1673, the northerly 
one-half thereof to Thomas Gleason, and the southerly one-half to 
John Death. \^Midd. Deeds, vi. 378, xiv. 419.] 

Rev, Edmund Browne's ]\Ieadows. — Oct. 18, 1654, the General 
Court granted twenty acres of meadow to Rev. Mr. Browne, first 
pastor of the church in Sudbury. This was laid out in 1658, in 
several pieces, as follows: " A long and narrow meadow lying upon a 
small brook southward of Doeskin hill, containing by estimation ten 
acres. Also one small parcel of meadow containing an acre & half, 
with a parcel of four acres lying upon the brook that issueth out of the 
former small piece. [This lay south of the Corlett farm.] Also, one 
small parcel of 3 acres, formerly called Indian William's meadow, 
lying towards the falls of Chochittuat River." [Mass. Col. Rec., iv. 
pt. I, 329.] 

Stone's Grants. — An account has already been given in a 
previous chapter of the purchase of eleven acres of land from the 
Indians in 1656, by iSIr. John Stone. (See ante p. 47.) This purchase 
was confirmed by the Court in May, 1656; and at the same time a 
grant of fifty acres more was added thereto. This fifty acres was 
laid out May 26, 1658, "joining to Sudbury river at the falls of the 
sartd river, twenty acres of the said fifty being southward joining to 
the lands of John Stone which said lands were purchased of the 
Indians, and after confirmed by the honoured Court; also the other 
thirty acres of the said fifty lying northward of the aforesaid purchased 
land, and joining to it." 

In addition to this lot of sixty-one acres, Mr. Stone bought other 
considerable tracts of land upon the river below the falls, and 
elsewhere. Dec. 13, 1661, he bought the Corlett farm of 200 acres. 
He also purchased of Mr. Danforth twenty acres of meadow lying on 
Baiting brook, and extending from Worcester street to the lands of 
Charles Birchard. He owned the meadow on the easterly side of 
Sudbury river, from the Agricultural grounds to a point a short 

La7id Grants. 89 

distance north of the old turnpike. His south line butted on the 
Thomas Eames grant, and his east line was the blufiE or highland; so 
that he took in the Odiorne and Crane estates, and reached nearly to 
the Ellen K. Stone house. 

f'h (^^ 


Russell's Grant. — "May 15, 1657, Mr. Richard Russell having 
binn very serviceable to the countrie in his publicque imployment of 
Treasurer for many years, for which he hath had no annuall stipend, 
this Court doth graunt him five hundred acres of land, in any place 
not formerly graunted, upon Nipnop River, at his choice." This grant 
was laid out May 6, 1659, and is thus described: "Laid out unto Mr. 
Richard Russell, Treasurer, five hundred acres of land, lying in the 
wilderness, upon both sides of the path that leadeth from Sudbury 
toward Nipnop, & is bounded on the northeast with Washakam Pond, 
and a swampe adjoyning thereto, and on the west by a marked tree 
and the west side of an ashen swampe, and on the south with the 
upland adjoyning to the southerly or southwest point of that meadow 
which lyeth on the westerly side of the aforesaid meadow, and on the 
north extending on the north side of the aforesaid path, and is 
surrounded with the wilderness. Edmund Rice, Tho. Noyes." 

This tract was purchased by Governor Danforth, to whom the 
Indians gave a deed of quitclaim, Oct. i, 1684. 

Richard Russell came from Herefordshire, England, 1640, and 
settled in Charlestown; merchant; member of the Artillery Co. 1644; 
representative, 1646 and after; speaker, 1648; Treasurer of the Colony 
for many years; assistant, 1659 to his death; died May 14, 1676. 

Wayte's Grant. — "May 25, 1658, In answer to the petition of 
Richard Wayte, one of those that were first sent out against the 
Pequotts, & for severall services, the Court judgeth it meete to graunt 
him three hundred acres of land." 

The record of the laying out of this grant is as follows: "Laid out 
unto Richard Wayte, marshall, three hundred acres of land in the 
wilderness, between Chochittuate and Nipnop, in manner following, 
viz. there being a necke of land about two hundred & twenty acres, 
more or less, & is surrounded with Sudbury River, a great pond, & a 
smale brooke that runneth from the said pond into the river, and 
from the southerly end of the said pond running to the river againe 
by a westerly line; and on the westerly side of Sudbury River to 
extend his bounds from the said river twenty pole in breadth so farre 
in length as his land lyeth against the said river; also, on the 

90 History of Framinghain. 

northerly & northeast of the said brooke & pond, he hath fivepatches 
of meadow, containing about twenty acres more or less, being all 
surrounded with wilderness land; also, on the northeast side of 
Washakum Ponds he hath sixty acres, being bounded with the said 
pond on the southwest, and an Indian bridge on the east, and 
elsewhere by marked trees, the wilderness surrounding. 

"Oct. 20, 1658. Thomas Danforth, Andrew Belcher." 

This tract covered what was afterwards known as " Mellin's Neck." 
The sixty acres north and east of Washakum pond was leased by Mr. 
Danforth to the Whitneys and Isaac Bowen, who built where is now 
the Sturtevant homestead. 

This grant was purchased by Mr. Danforth, who received a quit- 
claim from the Indians, Oct. i, 1684. 

Richard Wayte was admitted to the church in Boston in 1634; 
member of the Artillery Co., 1638; marshall or sheriff, 1654; Gov- 
ernor's Guard, 1660. His gravestone in King's Chapel Burying 
Ground is inscribed : " Richard Wayte, aged 84 years, died ly Sept. 


Natick Plantation Grants. — A considerable tract within our 
bounds was included in the lands granted to the Indian plantation at 
Natick, in 1659 and 1660. For a full account of these grants, see ante 
p. 7. 

Corlett's Grant. — "Oct. 18, 1659. In answer to the petition of 
Daniel Weld and Elijah Corlett, schoolmasters, the Court considering 
the usefulness of the petitioners in an employment of so common 
concernment for the good of the whole country, and the little 
encouragement that they have had from their respective towns for 
their service and unwearied pains in that employment, do judge meet 
to grant to each of them two hundred acres of land, to be taken up 
adjoining to such lands as have been already granted and laid out by 
order of this Court." 

" May 28, 1661, laid out to Mr. Elijah Corlett, schoolmaster of 
Cambridge, his farm of 200 acres, situate lying and being about a 
mile distant from the southwest angle of the lands formerly granted 
to Sudbury; also having a parcel of meadow granted to Mr. Edmond 
Browne teacher to the Church in Sudbury, on the south, also being 
about half a mile distant northerly from the river which runneth to 
Sudbury, also being about a mile and a quarter distant west-north- 
westerly from the now dwelling house of John Stone; the said farm 

Land Grants. 91 

for the most part bordering upon the wilderness, and laying in a long 
square, the longest lines running west and by south five degrees 
southerly; and also two small parcels of meadow near adjoining to 
the south line of the said farm, and is a part of the two hundred 
acres. Thomas Noyes." 

This farm lay directly south of the Lynde farm, to be described 
hereafter, and included the Nathan Frost homestead. 

Mr. Corlett sold, Dec. 13, 1661, to Thomas Danforth, who, same 
date, conveyed the farm to John Stone. 

Elijah Corlett was a graduate of Lincoln College, Oxford, England. 
He came over and settled in Cambridge as early as 1641, where he 
was for upwards of forty years teacher of the grammar school. In 
New England's First Fruits, he is noticed as one who has very well 
approved himself for his abilities, dexterity and painfulness. Cotton 
Mather describes him as " the memorable old schoolmaster in Cam- 
bridge, from whose education our college and country have received so 
many of its worthy men, that he is himself worthy to have his name 
celebrated in our church history." The Society for Propagating the 
Gospel among the Indians made arrangements with him to instruct, 
with a view to admission to college, such Indian youths as should 
apply and prove worthy. The compensation he received from Netus 
for teaching his son, has been stated in a previous chapter. (See ante 

P- 79-) 

Probably Hutchinson refers to him, and to this transaction, when 
he says of Ezekiel Cheever, " He is not the only master who kept his 
lamp longer lighted than otherwise it would have been, by a supply of 
oil from his scholars." Corlett died Feb. 25, 1686-7 in his seventy- 
eighth year. 

Danforth's Farms. — "Oct. 16, 1660. Whereas at the request of 
this Court, Mr. Thomas Danforth hath attended the service of this 
Court in surveying the laws at the press, and making an index 
thereto, this Court judgeth meet as a gratuity for his pains, to grant 
him two hundred and fifty acres of land, to be laid out in any 
place not legally disposed of by this Court." This was laid out 
joining Sudbury town line, on the west side of Sudbury river, adjacent 
to the land already occupied by John Stone. 

"May 7, 1662. The Court judgeth it meet to grant to Mr. Thomas 
Danforth two hundred acres of land, adjoining to some lands he hath 
between Conecticot path and Marlborough, and appoint Ensign Noyes 
of Sudbury, with old Goodman Rice and John How to lay it out, with 
other lands granted to him by this Court; and the act of any two of 
them to be accounted valid, both for quantity and quality." This 200 

92 History of Fra^ninghani. 

acres was laid out adjoining to and west of the former grant of 250 

On the same day, i.e.. May 7, 1662, " It is ordered., that for and in con- 
sideration of Mr. Thomas Danforth his furnishing the Commissioners 
to York, /. e.., Major General Denison and Maj. Wm. Hawthorn, with 
ten pounds money, shall have granted him as an addition to the two 
hundred acres of land granted him by this Court in 6th page of this 
Session, so much land lying between Whipsuflferage and Conecticutt 
path, adjoining to his farm, as old Goodman Rice and Goodman How 
of Marlborow shall judge the said ten pounds to be worth, and they 
are impowered to bound the same to him." 

"Oct. 8, 1662. Laid out unto Thomas Danforth Esq. a parcell of 
land lying betweene Marlborough and Kenecticut Path, and is bounded 
easterly by Sudbury lands adjoinind to that part of their bounds neere 
Lannum, the land of John Stone, and a part of Natick Plantation ; 
southerly by the lands of the said Thomas Danforth and Natick lands ; 
northerly with the other part of Sudbury bounds towards Marlbury ; 
and westerly with the country lands, the said west line being limited 
by a pine tree marked with D and standing on the north side of that 
branch of Sudbury river that cometh from Marlbury [Stoney brook] 
and on the west side of Angellico brook, and from the said pine con- 
tinuing a southwest line unto the other branch of Sudbury river that 
is the bounds of Natick plantations [Hopkinton river] ; and from the 
said pine tree northerly continuing unto Sudbury bounds, running by 
a tree marked in the highway that leadeth from John Stone's house to 
Marlbury ; in which tract of land bounded as abovesaid is contained 
two hundred acres of land belonging unto John Stone [the Corlett 
Farm] and is excepted out of that laid out unto the said Thomas 
Danforth ; also four hundred and fifty acres of land granted by the 
General Court in two several grants to the said Thomas Danforth ; 
and the remainder thereof is for the satisfaction of moneys disbursed 
by the said Thomas Danforth for the use of the country, by the appoint- 
ment of the General Court. Given under our hands the 27th of May, 
1662. Edmond Rice, 

John How. 
"At a County Court held at Cambridge, Oct. 7, 1662, Edmond Rice 
and John How, appearing in Court, acknowledged this above written 
to be their act, according to the appointment of the General Court. 

Daniel Gookin, 
Symon Willard, 
Richard Russell. 
"The Court allows & approves this return."^ 

' Mass. Col. Rec, iv. pt. 2, pp. 67, 68. 

Land Grants. 93 

This grant covered most of the Framingham territory on the westerly- 
side of Sudbury river, and between the river and Southborough line. 

Thus it appears that for the ten pounds money paid out, Mr. Dan- 
forth received a tract of about 14,000 acres. Adding the 450 acres 
previously set off to him, and the Wayte and Russell farms, he held 
in all, by gift and purchase, not less than 15,500 acres of land within 
the limits of the old Framingham plantation. 

As a matter of historical curiosity, the deed given by the Indians to 
Mr. Danforth is here inserted. So far as is known, it is the only 
release of lands he received from them, and covers only the Wayte 
and Russell farms. As before stated, these farms were included in 
the Natick plantation, and consequently are signed by the leading 
Indians then dwelling there. 

To all people to whom these presents shall come, greeting: Know yee 
that wee Great John, alias Wuttaushauk, John Mooqua, John Awoosamug, 
Senr and his sons Thomas Awoosamug, Samuel Awoosamug, Joshua 
Awoosamug and Amos Awoosamug, Thomas Waban son of old M"" Waban 
deceased, John Speen Sen^ and his sons, James Speen and Abram Speen ; 
also wee the daughters of Robin Speen deceased, vizt Sarah the wife of 
Daniel the Minister, Betty the wife of Pahanumpanum, Mary the wife 
of Samuel Williams, Hannah the wife of Samuel Uptowanum, Also wee 
the sons of Thomas Speen deceased, vizt Thomas Speen Sen"" and his 
brother Thomas Speen Jun"", Indians all of Natick in the County of 
Middlesexx and Massachusetts Colony in New England, for and in con- 
sideration of the sum of forty shillings in current money of ye New 
England, to them in hand payd at and before ensealing and delivery of 
these presents by Thomas Danforth Esq"" of Cambridge in the above 
Colony and County, have granted bargained and sold, aliened Enfeoffed 
and confirmed and by these presents do grant bargaine and sell, alien 
enfeoffe and confirme unto him the Said Thomas Danforth, all that tract of 
land to him the said Thomas Danforth belonging and appertayning, Scitt- 
uate, lying and being on the Southerly or South Westerly Side of Sudbury 
River, counting by Estimation Eight hundred acres more or less, and was 
the grant of the General Court of five hundred acres part thereof to Richard 
Russell Esqr deceased, and three hundred acres to Marshall Richard 
Wayte, late of Boston deceased, to him the said Thomas Danforth, to have 
and to hold the above granted tract of land and every part and partes 
thereof, together with all the priviiedges and appartenains thereunto be- 
longing or in any wise appertayning to him the said Thomas Danforth, 
his heyrs and assignes forever to his and theire only proper use and 

Signed etc, this first day of October in the year of our Lord sixteen 
hundred eighty and four. 

Nicholas Danforth, the father of Thomas, was a native of 
Framlingham, Suffolk County, England, who came over to New Eng- 

94 History of Framinghani. 

land in 1634, bringing with him six children. His wife, Elizabeth, had 
died in England in 1629. He settled in Cambridge; was admitted 
freeman March 3, 1635-6; was an original member of the church in 
Cambridge; was chosen representative in 1636 and 7, and died April, 
1638. His children were Elizabeth^ born in 1618, married Andrew 
Belcher, Sen., of Cambridge, and was grandmother of Governor 
Jonathan Belcher; Anne, married Matthew Bridge, of Cambridge, and 
was great-grandmother of Rev. Matthew Bridge, second pastor of the 
church in Framingham; Thomas; Samuel, born September, 1626, 
graduated at Harvard University, 1643; '^^^^ pastor of the church in 
Roxbury, colleague with the apostle Eliot; Jonathan, born February 
29, 1628, settled in Billerica; Lydia (perhaps next younger than 
Thomas), married William Beaman. 

Thomas Danforth, son of Nicholas, was born 1622, and came 
over with his father in 1634. He was admitted freeman 1643; was 
representative from Cambridge, 1657 and 8; was chosen one of the 
assistants, 1659 until 1678; was Deputy Governor from 1679 to 1686, 
and again after the close of Andros' usurpation, till 1692 ; was 
president of the Province of Maine, 1679-80; and associate Judge of 
the Superior Court, 1692 till his death. In addition to these political 
and civil offices, he held others of honor and trust. He was presi- 
dent of the Board of Commissioners of the United Colonies; was 
treasurer of Harvard University, 1650-1669. He died November 5, 
1699, leaving no descendants in the male line, but leaving two 
daughters, sixteen grandchildren, and three great-grandchildren. 
Hutchinson speaks of him as one who had " a great share in managing 
the public affairs in the most difficult times." jfudge Sewall describes 
him as "a very good husbandman, and a very good Christian, and a 
good counsellor." " He had, as Judge of the Court, a chief hand, 
under God, in putting an end to the troubles under which the country 
groaned in 1692." The comprehensive plan which he projected, for the 
advantage and prosperity of the settlers on his Framingham lands, and 
the town as a corporation, and which was in part frustrated by his 
death before these provisions and reservations had been fully carried 
into effect, evinces a man of large views, generous impulses, and great 

Mr. Danforth married Feb. 23, 1644, Mary, daughter of Henry 
Withington, of Dorchester; she died at Cambridge, Mar. 26, 1697. 
Their children were: Sarah, born Apr. 16, 1645, died Oct. 29, 1645; 
Sarah, born Nov. 11, 1646, married Rev. Joseph Whiting, of Lynn, 
and Southampton, L. I, ; Mary, born Apr. 20, 1649, ^^^^ young; Mary, 
born July 28, 1650, married first, Solomon Phipps of Charlestown, 
second, Thomas Brown, of Sudbury; Samuel, born Oct. 5, 1652, 

Land Grants. 95 

graduated at Harvard University, 167 1, died unmarried, of small-pox, 
in London, Dec. 22, 1676; Thomas, bofn Dec. 16, 1654, was probably 
killed in the great Narraganset Swamp fight, Dec. 19, 1675; 
J^onatha?i, born Feb. 27, 1657, died in a few weeks; yonaihan, born 
Feb. 10, 1659, graduated at Harvard University, 1679, died unmar- 
ried, at Cambridge, Nov. 13, 1682; Joseph, born Sept. 18, 1661, died 
Oct. 2, 1663; Benjamin, born May 20, 1663, died Aug. 23, 1663; 
Elizabeth, born Jan. 11, 1665, married Oct. 3, 1682, Francis Foxcroft, 
of Cambridge; Bethia, baptized June 16, 1667, died next year. 

The surviving children and heirs of Governor Danforth will come 
into prominent notice, at a later date in our history, as plaintiffs in 
suits against Joseph Buckminster, for violating the terms of his lease 
in regard to reserved lands. 

William Crowne's Grant. — " Oct. 8, 1662. This Court, as an 
acknowledgment of the great paines of Col. William Crowne in behalf 
of this country when he was in England, judge meete to grant him 
five hundred acres of land in any place not legally disposed of." 

" Layd out, in the year 1663, by me, underwritten, & exactly 
measured according to rules of art, the five hundred acres of land 
granted unto the Hon^' Col. Wm. Crowne, at a place neere the cold 
spring, neereunto the roade which leadeth from Sudbury unto Con- 
ecticot, on the south side of a branch of Sudbury River, being about 
nine miles from the toune of Sudbury, at a place called by the Indians 
Magnaguncok Hill, beginning at the south side of the said hill, and 
from thence a line upon a north northwest point three hundred rods, 
butting on a branch of Sudbury River; and from thence a line upon 
a south southeast point by the river's side three hundred and sixty 
rods; and from thence a circular line by the said river and by a 
brook one hundred and sixty rods, a line from the said brook upon 
a west northwest point two hundred and forty rods; and from thence 
a line upon a south southwest point one hundred and fifty rods, and 
from thence a line upon a west northwest point one hundred thirty 
four rods, ending where we began, adding four acres of meadow upon 
the said brook, and three acres of meadow joining to the south line of 
the said farm, and all which said land and meadow so butting and 
bounded as is described by a plat under, make up the full complement 
of the above said five hundred acres. 

* " Signed Thomas Noyes, Surveyor. 

"The Court approves of this returne. May 25, 1665." 

This farm, which lay on the southerly side of Hopkinton river, and 
covered what is now the village of Ashland, was included in the 
Framingham plantation and town, till it was set off to Hopkinton, at 

96 History of F'ramingham. 

the incorporation of that town, Dec. 13, 17 15. The heirs of Col. 
Crowne sold it for £2,0, July 4, 1687, to Savil Simpson of Boston, 
cordwainer, to whom the Indians gave a deed of release June 20, 

Col. William Crowne came to Boston 1657, bringing a patent, in 
conjunction with Sieur de La Tour and Col. Thomas Temple, of the 
territory of Nova Scotia. He was to have in the division of this 
grand province of Acadia, all west of Machias for thirty leagues 
including Penobscot, and up Machias river 130 leagues on its west 
bank. This country being ceded to the French by the treaty of 
Breda, the patentees were obliged to surrender all claim to it. He 
was made freeman in 1660; and was in Boston at the restoration. 
When Goffe and Whalley arrived there, it is related that they were 
visited by the principal persons of the town, and among others they 
take notice of Col. Crowne's coming to see them. On returning to 
England, he rendered important services to the Colony of Massachu- 
setts. Lord Say and Seal, writing to the Governor in 1661, says: 
" I must say for Mr Crowne, he hath appeared as cordially and really 
for you as any could do; and hath allayed ill opinion of your cruelty 
against the Quakers, etc. Wherefore I must request you will really 
own and accordingly requite Mr. Crowne his love, care and pains for 
you." It was in consequence of this service, and this letter, that he 
received from the General Court the grant of 500 acres of land. 
He died at Pisquataqua about the year 1686. 

Grants to Thomas Eames. — "Oct. 17, 1676. The Court, having 
read and considered the petition of Thomas Eams, doe order & 
appoint Major Daniel Gookin, Capt. Daniel Fisher & Capt. Goodenow 
to be a committee to view the place desired by the petitioner for 
his accommodation with a habitation, & make returne to the next 

"May 23, 1677. This Court, on sundry considerations them mooving 
thereunto doe grant unto Thomas Eams two hundred acres of land, 
to be laid out in any free place, not prejudicing the laying out of a 

The following, copied from the MS. Court Records of June 2, 17 15, 
tells the history of this grant: "Upon reading a petition of John 
Brigham of Sudbury, praying a confirmation of 200 acres of land 
granted by this Court in the year 1677, to Thomas Eames, and 
purchased by him of John Eames son and heir of said Thomas Eames, 
and laid out by the said Brigham in the year 1686, viz.. Laid out 200 
acres of land in the wilderness adjoining to Lancaster line being the 
southerly bounds at an Old Indian Field, northerly of a pond 

Land Grants. 97 

commonly called Rocky Pond, as it is signified in the Plat, as is 
bounded every way by the country land only as it adjoins to 
Lancaster line. 

" Ordered that this Plat be allowed and confirmed as the 200 acres 
of land granted by this Court to Thomas Eames of Framingham the 
23^^ of May, 1677 — provided it doth not interfere with any former 
grant. Consented to J. Dudley." 

Jan. 24, 1676-7, Mr. Eames asked the Court for a grant of the 
Indian lands at South Framingham, near his former home. The 
following deed recites all the particulars of this grant: 

Whereas in Court at Nonantum January 24th 1676 Thomas Earns pro- 
pounded to have a parcel of land belonging to Natick that is encompassed 
by ye lands of Mr. Thomas Danforth, John Death and John Stone on three 
parts, and the Indians then consented that in exchange of lands between 
Sherborn and Natick the above said parcel of land desired by Thomas 
Earns should be included in ye lands that Sherburn men have in Exchange 
from Natick, as attested by a copy of that Court record under ye hand of 
Major Daniel Gookin deceased: Also whereas in answer to a motion made 
by Thomas Earns to ye General Court held at Boston ye 28^11 day of May 
1679 the Court did there allow and confirm the grant and Exchange made 
of ye lands above mentioned, as appeared by ye record of ye said Court : 
Also whereas Sherburn in ye Exchange by them made with Natick did omit 
to include the above said lands therein, so that to ye day of ye date hereof 
ye said Natick Indians have had no consideration in money or lands for 
their above said lands that was propounded by Thomas Eames as above : 
Also whereas Thomas Eames before his decease was peaceably seized of 
said lands, and did settle ye same by disposeing some part thereof to his 
children that now are dwelling thereon with four families, and did also sell 
to others sundry parts thereof that are now dwelling thereon, all which to 
dispossess would be very great injustice ; Xow know all Dien by tJiesc 
presents, that we Peter Ephraim, Thomas Waban, Daniel Tonawampa 
Minister, Jonas Mottahant, Joseph Tabamomoso, Indians of Natick with ye 
consent and by the order of the rest of ye Indians of that plantation, for 
and in consideration of the premises, as also not forgetting the great 
suffering of ye said Thomas Eames by those Indians that burnt his house, 
barn and cattle, and killed his wife and three children, and captivated five 
more, whereof only three returned, who are now dwelling on ye said lands, 
whome now to mine a second time by turning them off those lands we are 
not willing to be any occasion thereof ; Also, we well knowing, that 
although the above said Thomas Eames by reason of his being impoverished 
as above said, did not procure a legall conveyance of ye said lands, yet for 
sundry years, until his death did give releife to John Wansamug Cheife 
proprietor of those lands ; We the above named Peter Ephraim, etc. for 
and on ye behalfe of ourselves as also the rest of ye Indians, that can claim 
any right or title in ye above said tract or parcell of land ; for and in further 
consideration of Ten pounds, current money, to us in hand paid before ye 

98 History of Frmniugham. 

sealing and delivery hereof by John Eames son of ye above named Thomas 
Eames deceased, who dwelleth upon part of ye said lands, the receipt 
whereof we do acknowledge by these presents ; as also for twelve pounds 
more current money for ye use of ourselves, and ye rest of ye Indians of ye 
said plantation to be by us disposed of as the Governor or Leiut Governor 
for the time being shall order, for ye true payment of which twelve pounds, 
the said John Eames hath given a specially under his hand and seal bearing 
date with these presents ; have given, granted, bargained, sold, enfeiffed and 
confirmed, and do by these presents, freely, fully and absolutely give, grant, 
bargain, sell, alien, enfeiffe and confirm unto him ye said John Eames and 
his heires and assignes, forever, all that tract and parcell of land that ye 
said Thomas Eames did propound to have at ye Court held at Nonantum 
as above said January ye 24'h 1676, with all ye rights and priviledges 
thereunto belonging, To Have and to Hold and enjoy the same ajid every 
part and parcell thereof, more or less to him ye said John Eames and unto 
ye only proper use, benefit and behoofe of him and his heirs and assignes 
and other ye assigns of his father before his decease, and to their heires 
and assignes respectively from ye day of ye date hereof forever. And we 
ye above named Peter Ephraim, etc. Indians belonging to Naiick, do for 
ourselves and our heires &c covenent, promise and grant to and with the said 
John Eames, and his heires and assignes, by these presents in manner and 
form following, and with and to ye assignes of his father, Thomas Eames, 
deceased, that the premises and every part thereof, are free and clear and 
clearly acquitted and discharged of and from all former grants, titles and 
incumbrances whatsoever, and the same to warrente and defend against 
every person that shall lawfully claim any right, title or interest in or unto 
ye same, or any part or parcell thereof. In witness whereof we have 
hereunto set our hands and seals on this seventeenth day of April, in ye 
Seventh year of the reign of our Soveraign Lord William, by the grace of 
God of England, Scotland France and Ireland, King, Defender of ye faith 
&c, And in ye year of our Lord Christ one thousand six hundred, ninety and 

Signed, sealed and delivered Peter Ephraim, his mark and seal. 

by ye above named Indians in Thomas Waban " " 

presence of us. Daniel Tapawampa " " 

Joseph White ) Jonas Mattahant " " 

Jonathan Rice V Joseph Tabamomoso " " 

r. goulding. j 

On this Seventeenth day of April 1695 Peter Ephraim, Thomas Waban, 
Daniel Tabawampa, Jonas Mattahant and Joseph Tabamomoso appearing 
did own this deed or conveyance to be their act and deed. 

Charlestown, August: i: 1695 before me Thomas Brown, Justice of ye 
peace. Entered by Samuel Phipps, Recorder.' 

This farm was bounded north by Sudbury river, from the point 
where the Eames brook enters to a point near the north side of the 
Agricultural grounds, thence the line ran easterly to the northeast 

' Mass. Archives, xxx. 366. 

Land Grants. 99 

corner of the State Muster grounds; the east Hne ran from this point 
by a southerly course to Beaver Dam brook, which brook was its 
southerly bound ; the west bound was the Wayte meadow and Farm 
pond. The eighty acres already granted to Edmund Rice was 
excepted out of the grant, under the title vested in John Death. 

Mr. Eames also received a grant from the town of Sherborn, of a 
home-lot of thirty acres. This was located on Chestnut brook, about 
half a mile up the stream from the Hunt place, and adjoined the 
home-lot of Thomas Awassamog. 

The Belcher or Lynde Farm. — This was not a grant from the 
General Court, but a gift from Thomas Danforth, dated Mar. 6, 1672- 
3, "to his loving kinsman " Andrew Belcher, Jr. The farm contained 
150 acres, and was bounded south on the Corlett farm, north on the 
highway, east and west on Danforth's own land. The northwest 
corner bound, which became historic in after years, was situated a 
short distance to the southwest of the old Frost house, which stood 
near the west line of what is now Liberty Chadwick's farm, and about 
twelve rods from the Joel Tayntor house. Belcher sold this farm to 
Simon Lynde, of Boston, whose son sold, May, 1703, to Joseph 
Buckminster, who sold. Mar. 16, 1704, ninety acres to Capt. Isaac 
Clark. " Lynde's Rocks," just west of Brackett's Corner, is a well- 
known ledge in the northerly line of this farm. 

GooKiN AND How's PURCHASE. — In a deed dated May 19, 1682, 
is this description and sale : " To all people, etc. Know ye that we, 
Waban, Pyambow, Tom Tray, John Magos, Peter Ephraim, John 
Awassamug, John Macqua, all now inhabitants of Natick, for and in 
consideration of a valuable sum of money secured to be paid to us by 
Samuel Gookin of Cambridge, and Samuel How of Sudbury, do, with 
the consent and approbation of the rest of the proprietors, by these 
presents acknowledge to be fully satisfied and contented, and thereof 
and every part thereof, do fully, clearly and absolutely acquit, exoner- 
ate and discharge them, the said Samuel Gookin and Samuel How, 
their heirs, executors and administrators forever, by these presents 
have granted, bargained and sold, aliened, enfeofed and confirmed, 
. , . . a parcel of land lying and being in the bounds of Natick, 
containing by estimation 200 acres, more or less, bounded with 
Sherborn line southerly, with John Bent and David Stones land 
northerly, Henry Rices land and Catchechauitt Pond easterly, to 
have and to hold the above granted premises, be the same more or 
less, with all the privileges and appurtenances to the same appertain- 
ing." .... 

lOO History of Frainingham. 

This deed was duly executed and acknowledged. And a committee 
of the General Court, specially appointed to oversee the transaction, 
report: "We being at Xatick the 19th of May, there was presented 
unto us the deed of sale hereunto annexed, from the principal men of 
Natick, which they acknowledge before us, made to Samuel Gookin 
and Samuel How, for a parcel of remote and waste lands belonging 
to the said Indians, lying at the utmost westerly bounds of Natick, 
and as we are informed, having seen the plat thereof, is for quantity 
about two hundred acres more or less, being mean land, and for the 
most part encompassed with lands belonging to the English; and 
having inquired into the matter, we conceive it will be no prejudice to 
the Indians or their plantation of Natick to sell- the same to the 
persons concerned, which, at request of both Indians and English, we 
offer to the Court for their confirmation of the said sale. 

Signed William Stoughton 
Joseph Dudley 

"The Court doth allow and confirm what is above desired, as here 

thus recorded 

Edw. Rawsox, Secret." 1 

It will be noticed that the westerly bound is not specified in the 
deed, and the clause " 200 acres more or less," when applied to " waste 
land," was understood to give the purchaser a wide latitude. And 
under this deed and grant Messrs. Gookin and How took possession 
of all the unoccupied lands lying between Cochituate pond on the 
east, Cochituate brook and Sudbury river on the north, Sudbury river 
on the west, the Eames land and Sherborn line on the south. They 
sold as opportunity offered from time to time, considerable parts of 
the tract to bona fide purchasers, who built upon and occupied the 

But the Indians became dissatisfied; and in a petition to the 
General Court, dated Dec. 13, 1695, complained that encroachments 
had been made on them by Messrs. Gookin and How in taking a 
large quantity of land over and above what was granted in the deed 
of 1682. In answer to the petition, the Court says: "To the intent 
that the Indians may not have cause to complain of their suffering 
wrong or injury, it is ordered that Capt. Joseph Morse of Sherborn, 
Left. David Fiske of Cambridge and Joseph Sherman of Watertown, 
be a committee to survey all that tract of land claimed by the said 
Gookin and How, and others deriving from them by virtue of any 
grant or grants from said Indians, and to set forth unto the said 
Gookin and How and their assigns, the 200 acres expressed in their 
deed full measure. . . . And all those that have made any im- 

1 Mass. Col. Rec, v. 354. 

Land Grants. 


provement upon the said lands, or that now hold and enjoy the same, 
Be and hereby are licensed to agree with and purchase the Indians' 
right and title thereto, by the assistance and consent of the said 
committee (at a reasonable and equal value) who are to receive the 
moneys to be paid for the same, which shall be employed by direction 
and order of the Governor and Council, firstly to reimburse the said 
Gookin and Hov/ so much as they have advanced unto the Indians 
with reference to the said lands more than the purchase consideration 
for the 200 acres, and the charge of this committee; and the 
remainder to lye as a Fund for the relief of the Poor of the said 
Plantation of Natick." 

The committee notified all parties in interest to appear before them. 
Gookin and How presented the deed of 1682, and also a writing under 
the hands of some of the Indians for a further enlargement of the 
said grant, and for moneys received in consideration thereof. They 
also presented the following paper: 

An Accompt of payments to several Indians by direction of my 
Honored Father (Maj. Gen. Daniel Gookin) and Mr. Eliot for a parcel of 
land bought of the Natick Indians in the year 1682, viz. 
To Waban 42s. id. To Piambow 42s. J no. Magos 47s. 4d. 

To Jno. Moqua 47s. Anthony Tray 35s. 8d 

To Nehemiah 25s. 6d. James Speen 25s. 6d. Abra. Speen 

25s. 6d 

To Andrew Pittame 27s. Nehemiah for his father 25s. 

To Capt. Awassamug 43s. Peter Ephraim 25s. 

To Sam Nawonot for himself and father 

To Jno. Speen 20s. Great James for himself and son . 

To Ben Boho i8s. Tom Waban 15s. Tom Dublet lis. 

To James Rumneymarsh 23s. Jno. Nasconit i8s. 

To Israel Rumneymarsh los. Jno. Awassamug Jr. los. 

To Joshua Awassamug los. James Acouche 9s 

Sam Umpetomen i8s. Eleazar Pegan 31s 

To Zacheriah Abraham 17s. Job 5s. iid. 

To Nanehunto 15s. lod. Jno. Pakenumpamitt i8s. 3d. 

To Jno. Sompeegun lis. 6d. Daniel the Minister iis. 6d. 

To Sam Roman 20s. Jno. Aquiticus 9s. 6d. . 

To Paul Awassamug 26s. 5d. ...... 

Allowed Jno. Magos being the principal actor to make the 
bargain by the Indians order ..... 

My partner Samuel How saith he hath paid more . 
Said How paid to Maj. Gookin per order of an Indian . 

^60 I 6 

By my Fathers order who had the care of the Indians committed to him, 

I was with my horse two weeks to help defend the Natick Indians from 

the Macquas who killed some of them at Magungog and never had any 


1 1 



































I02 History of Framing kavt. 

allowance from any of them. Besides many a journey by my Fathers order 
and at Mr. Eliot's request who promised large allowance, but their death 

prevented the performance ^5 o o 

To several journeys about the land and money expended . 300 
Besides the above said sum, I paid several widow squaws per 
order of my Father, to the best of my remembrance 
about .......... 2 ID o 

Samuel How expenses and time spent about the premises . 800 

^81 II 6 
Signed Samuel Gookin. 

After a hearing of the case and a survey of the land in question, 
the committee report : "We have measured said land, and we find of 
the land which said Gookin and How have sold and disposed of to sev- 
eral persons 1700 acres full measure, which by information that we have 
had the said Gookin and How^ have sold to the value of 156 pounds, 
which we account the full value of the said land. We have also 
measured the land betw^ixt the aforesaid land and Sherborn line, 
which we have been informed has been claimed by said Gookin and 
How, and not disposed of, which we find to measure 1000 acres, 
which we value to be worth 60 pounds. We have set out to the said 
Gookin and How 200 acres, according to the Court's order, adjoining 
to Sudbury river at a place called Indian Head. 

"We have also propounded to the several persons that have pur- 
chased land of said Gookin and How to pay something to the Indians 
for a confirmation of their title, but they refuse to do any thing 
because they have paid to the full value already, as their deeds will 
show." Dated Feb. 11, 1696. 

As there was no evidence of bad faith on the part of either buyer 
or seller ; and as the account of moneys paid the Indians, and 
expended by order of Maj. Gookin and Mr. Eliot was not questioned; 
and as the purchasers under Messrs. Gookin and How were in 
peaceful possession of the lands, the Court, by an order dated Nov. 20, 
1696, confirmed to Messrs. Gookin and How and the tertenants hold- 
ing under them, 1700 acres of the lands in question, which embraced 
the tract lying north of the old Worcester turnpike. The claim to the 
1000 acres lying east of the Eames land and south of the turnpike, 
was not allowed, but remained in possession of the Indians at Natick 
and became an important factor in the subsequent controversy between 
Sherborn and Framingham, as will appear in the next chapter. 

This tract thus confirmed to Gookin and How included the cele- 
brated Indian Head Farm, which they had sold Feb. 11, 1694, for £^2 
to Matthew Rice. The farm as laid out by the committee contained 
200 acres, but as previously deeded to Mr. Rice, 300 acres, the 

Land GT-aiits. 103 

northerly and southerly bounds being different. The south half, 150 
■acres, of this farm was sold by the heirs of Mr. Rice, May 19, 1719, to 
Joseph Stone for 270 pounds New England currency; the north half 
was purchased by John and David Bent, Eliezer Kendall and others. 
The tract comprised the lands now owned by A. S. Lewis, the 
Kendalls, F. A. Billings, W. H. Mellen, J. L. Wilson, E. A. Wyeth, 
the Joseph Sanger heirs, etc. 

Samuel Gookin was son of Maj. Gen. Daniel Gookin, the Indian 
Commissioner, and friend and coadjutor of Eliot, in all his plans and 
labors for the good of the natives. The son, like the father, resided 
in Cambridge. He was sheriff of Middlesex County, and a man 
largely engaged in public affairs. 

Samuel How was of Sudbury; a man of energy and public spirit. 
He was father of John, Samuel and Daniel, who settled in Framing- 
ham, and whose descendants now live in town. 

Besides these public grants, there were other tracts of land, set 
apart by, or given by lease or otherwise to individuals or the town by 
Mr. Danforth, which became historic, and deserve mention in this 

The Common. — This large tract of land was reserved by Mr. 
Danforth in his lease to Joseph Buckminster, and set apart to public 
uses, in the following terms: "One Neck of land bounded by 
Sudbury river southerly, southwesterly and southeasterly, and a 
branch of said river northerly, and Marlborough line is the west 
bounds thereof; which said Neck of land the said Danforth reserveth 
to lye in common for the accommodation of those that do or shall 
occupy other the lands of the said Danforth, as for the tenants and 
farms of him the said Joseph Buckminster, in manner as he the said 
Danforth shall appoint and order." And a highway twenty poles wide 
was reserved, for conveniency of passage of cattle to the said neck. 

The west bound of this common land was Marlborough, now 
Southborough line ; the north bound was Stoney Brook ; and it was 
bounded on all other parts by Sudbury and Hopkinton rivers. The 
purpose of Mr. Danforth in reserving and setting apart this tract 
was plain, viz., to furnish wood and pasturage for all his and Mr. 
Buckminster's tenants; thus offering a strong inducement to settlers, 
and enhancing the value of the remaining lands. How his purpose 
was frustrated, will appear in the course of our narrative in a future 

The Six Hundred Acres on Nobscot and Doeskin Hill. — 
This reservation is thus described in Mr. Danforth's lease to 
Buckminster : " Also the said Danforth reserveth 600 acres of land 

I04 Histoiy of Framingham. 

to be laid out adjoining to Sudbury line, containing Nobscot and 
Doeskin Hill, to be laid out in one entire piece and to bound 
southerly upon the path leading from Deacon Stone's to Marlbo- 
rough." This 600 acres is named in a schedule annexed to Mr. 
Danforth's will, to be disposed of for the benefit of his heirs at law. 
It was the occasion of an interesting episode in our town history, to 
be detailed hereafter. 

Ministerial Land. — This tract was laid out by Mr. Danforth and 
Mr. Buckminster, in conjunction, before the lease to Buckminster 
was executed, and is thus named and reserved in said lease : " Also 
for the accommodation of the Meeting house and settlement of the 
Minister, said Danforth reserveth 140 acres, and is laid out in two or 
more places as they the above named Danforth and Buckminster have 
ordered and appointed." This land was located east and south of 
the centre village. The west line was identical with the present 
west bounds of I. S. Wheeler's farm (the original Parson Swift place). 
From the summit of Bare hill the line ran northeastly, to a point on 
the banks of Sudbury river " about due north " from the old cemetery, 
and then followed the river to the southwest corner of the Swift farm. 
It was called 140 acres, but contained about 175 acres. The south 
part was set apart for the " settlement of the ministry," and the 
northerly part, thirty-five acres, for the " accommodation of the 
meeting house," How it was in part diverted from its consecrated 
uses will appear in a subsequent chapter. 

The Half-Mile Square. — In a lease of a farm of 300 acres to 
Messrs. Winch and Frost, Mr. Danforth reserved to himself and his 
heirs a tract, " to be laid out, half a mile square." This was laid out, 
under Mr. Danforth's direction, to the east of Nobscot, bounded on 
the north by Sudbury line, the northeast corner bound being the 
famous " T. D. Oak " then standing where the railroad crosses the 
town line (and destroyed by the company when they built the road) ; 
and the southwest corner bound was a walnut now standing on land 
of Moses Ellis. This 160 acres was leased by Mr. Danforth to 
George Walkup, who built a house on the westerly part. Jan. 10, 
1704-5, Samuel Sparhawk and wife Sarah, heirs of Mr. Danforth, 
sold the entire piece to Mr. Walkup for thirty pounds. Mar, 10, 
1705-6, Walkup sold the east half of the tract to Jonas Eaton, for 
twenty pounds New England currency. 

The College Lands. — In a codicil to his will, Mr. Danforth, 
under the heading "Deeds of gift," specifies: "To the College three 

Land Grants. 105 

tenements on lease. to Benjamin Whitney, John Wiiitney, Isaac Bowen, 
situate at Framingham, on such conditions as I shall name." These 
three tenements were the sixty acres granted to Richard Wayte, and 
purchased of him by Mr. Danforth, lying northeast of Waushakum 
pond, and extending to the Beaver dam. This tract was leased by 
Mr. Danforth to the parties above named, who built three houses near 
each other, on the road northeast from the pond. The Sturtevant 
house occupies the place of Benj. Whitney's, which was the middle 
one of the three. After Mr. Danforth's decease the lessees paid the 
rents to Harvard College. Mr. Bowen sold his lease to Moses Haven, 
who (or his sons) bought out the Whitneys. Prof. Pierce, in his 
History of Harvard College, states that the College sold its Framing- 
ham lands to Mr. Haven for ;^ioo in 1764. But in the valuation of 
1771, Dea. Moses Haven is taxed £,t^ on College land; and in 1772 
the town voted that the constable be directed not to distrain those 
persons that occupy College land for their Province tax levied on 
said lands, till further orders from the town. This vote was reversed 
at the May meeting same year. 

The Centre Common. — This was laid out in 1735 for a meeting- 
house site and training field. In this year William Pike sold ''for 
;^I4, to Joseph Buckminster, Isaac Clark, John Gleason, Jeremiah 
Pike, Jr. and Caleb Bridges, feoffees in trust for the whole town of 
Framingham, four acres of land, including the spot whereon the said 
town, on the 25th day of March 1734, voted to erect a new meeting 
house ; bounded northerly, easterly and westerly by lands of said 
Pike, and southerly by land of Benj. Treadway, lying in a trapezia or 
four-sided figure, having for boundaries at the N. E., N. W., and S. E. 
corners each a pine tree marked, and at the S. W. corner a stake and 
stones ; reserving eight of the largest pine trees standing thereon." 
This four acres comprised the east central part of the present 
Common ; the northeast corner was at a point in Elm street westerly 
from Mr. Boynton's northwest corner; the southeast corner (which 
was a sharp angle) was on the east line of the street between the 
house of Mrs. Cyrus Bean and the parsonage of the First Parish. 
The meeting-house stood near the northeast corner; the training-field 
was at the west side in front of the present school buildings. 

But the Common of 1735 bore little resemblance to the present one. 
In 1771, Joseph Buckminster, who had purchased the Treadway land, 
deeded to the town "for good will and five shillings in money," a half- 
acre of land at the southerly end of the original four acres. This 
half-acre was in the form of a triangle, the long point being at the 
east end. In 1796, the town bought of Thomas Buckminster one acre 

io6 History of Framingham. 

lying easterly of the original four acres, extending from the old south- 
east corner bound, northerly as the house-lots now front, to the turn 
of the street near the house of John Cloyes. In 1800, Abner Wheeler 
and John Houghton sold the town five-eighths of an acre which lay at 
the present southerly part of the Common. The land which now 
forms the southwesterly part, was bought by the town of Eliphalet 
Wheeler in 18 18. The northwesterly part of the present Common was 
land owned by the proprietors of the Framingham Academy, which 
was cut in twain when the road was laid out in 1819-20. 

This description and history does not include the spot where the 
Unitarian meeting-house stands ; this and the Academy land will be 
treated of in their proper order of time. 

When the Common was laid out, all this land, and, indeed, the 
whole village site, was covered with a heavy growth of wood, mostly 
pine. The spaces for the meeting-house and sheds, and training-field 
were partially cleared ; as was later the spot where the work-house 
was placed (a little to the northwest of the present town hall). 

May 6, 1800, the town voted that all persons be prohibited from 
tying horses to the trees upon the common field around the public 
meeting-house, or in any way damaging said trees, under the penalty 
of one dollar. Aug. g, 1808, Capt. Richard Fisk, Eli BuUard and 
Abner Wheeler were chosen a committee to dispose of as many of the 
trees now standing upon the public common as they may think 
proper ; and also the manure where the old meeting-house stood ; and 
expend the proceeds in setting out ornamental trees in such places as 
said committee may think proper. In 1820, John Ballard, 2d, who had 
built a house where Mrs. Cyrus Bean now lives, was agreed with to 
subdue bushes on the east side of the common. April 4, 1825, the 
town authorized the selectmen to appoint a committee to get the 
common fenced. Two sets of fences have been built since that date, 
and been removed or have gone to decay. And not less than $1,000, 
about $700 of which was raised by private subscription, has been 
expended in planting trees, and making improvements on the common, 
till now it is an ornament to the village, and the pride of the town. 
To Maj. Benjamin Wheeler and his brothers Abner and Eliphalet, 
Josiah Adams, Esq., and Nathan Stone, the town is largely indebted 
for their public spirit, good taste, and persistent efforts in securing 
the improvements on the common, and the planting of shade trees 
along our streets. 

The Centre Common fund of $450 is the proceeds of the sale by 
the town to Lothrop Wight, April 20, 1850, of the strip of land where 
now are the homesteads of Henry W. Allen, Mrs. Julia Wight and 
Mrs. Louisa Shaw. This was a part of the land purchased of 

Land Grants. 107 

Eliphalet Wheeler in 1818, the deed of which contained the restriction 
that no building should ever be erected thereon ; which restriction 
Mr. Wheeler released, "on condition that the said $450 shall be and 
remain a perpetual Fund, the income of which shall be used for repairs 
and improvements of the Centre Common and for no other purpose 
whatever." \_Midd. Deeds, dlxxxv. 247-50.] 

The South Common. — An article in the town warrant, Aug. 1820, 
" to see if the town will purchase a piece of land by the South 
Meeting house in this town, to be used as a Common," was referred 
to Jona. Maynard, Benj. Wheeler and Luther Belknap, who reported 
Nov. 6, in favor of the project, "on Mr. Abel Adams making a deed 
of sale of about three-fourths of an acre of land to the town for the 
aforesaid purpose." This report was accepted. The next year the 
town voted to buy the whole of the land intended for a common at 
Park's Corner, to be used as a common forever, reserving the privi- 
lege of selling shed lots, and granted $100 to pay for the same. Mr. 
Adams' (and wife Mary) deed to the inhabitants of the town is dated 
May 14, 1 82 1, and conveys three-fourths of an acre of land, bounded 
on the west and south by the two highways, east on land of the First 
Baptist Society, north on said society's land and land of said Adams 
to the highway, giving to the town the right to sell shed lots on the 
northerly side for a distance of eight rods from the northeast corner, 
and contains the condition, " provided said premises shall forever be 
used as a common, and shall never be incumbered with lumber or any 
materials that shall be inconsistent with the decent appearance of a 
meeting house Common." 

The Boston and Albany railroad now runs through the said common. 

First Settlers. — Only a part of the men who received grants of 
land within our territory became actual settlers. The first man to 
build upon our soil was John Stone, who removed from Sudbury (now 
Wayland), and put up a house at Otter Neck on the west side of 
Sudbury river, in 1646 or 1647. -^Y what right he held or claimed 
the land here is not known — probably that of squatter sovereignty, — 
but so far as appears no one questioned his title. 

The next settler was Henry Rice, who received a deed and built a 
house on his father's grant in 1659. John Bent bought land of Henry 
Rice, came on in 1662, and built near the fordway over Cochituate 
brook, on the west side of the Old Connecticut path. Thomas Fames 
settled near Mt. Wayte in 1669. Joseph Bradish was here at this 
date, but his location is unknown. Two of John Stone's sons, Daniel 
and David, settled near their father as early as 1667. And these 

io8 History of Frainingha^n. 

were probably all the inhabitants living within our limits when Philip's 
War broke out and put a stop to settlements. These families were 
all from Sudbury, and are denominated in deeds and other official 
documents, " Sudbury Out-Dwellers," or '• Sudbury Farmers." 

The first recognition of the place by the colonial government as in 
a sense a distinct plantation, is in 1675, when Framingham was taxed 
a country rate of one pound, and was required to furnish one soldier 
for the country's service. 

The death of King Philip in 1676, and the killing in battle or 
hanging of the princij^al hostile chiefs, and the destruction of the 
Indian villages and strongholds, gave assurance of a permanent peace, 
and settlers began to come on in considerable numbers. But for 
twelve years the new-comers were Sudbury people, and (except the 
Stones) located on the east side of the river, and on the Fames, Rice, 
and Gookin and How grants. John Death bought one-half of the 
Benj. Rice land in 1673, but did not build till 1677. His house stood 
near the Beaver dam. Thomas Gleason had bought the north half of 
the same land in 1673, and located near the pond which bears his 
name, in 1678. In 1677 or 1678 John Fames and Zacheriah Paddle- 
ford took up lots on their father Fames' grant, and with their father 
became inhabitants. John Pratt and Thomas Pratt, Jr., settled on 
Pratt's plain at the same date; and in 1679 Isaac Learned settled 
south of Learned's pond. 

About 1687, when Mr. Danforth had matured and made known his 
plans for disposing of his lands by long leases, settlers began to locate 
on the west side of Farm pond, and on the west side of Sudbury river. 
The Whitneys and the Mellens, from Watertown, settled on Danforth 
land in 1687 or 1688 ; George Walkup, Stephen Jennings and John 
Shears were in possession of lands near Nobscotin i68g ; the Havens, 
from Lynn, came on in 1690; Samuel ^^'inch was here at that date; 
Thomas Frost built south of Nobscot as early as 1693 ; the Nurse, 
Clayes, Bridges, Flliot and Barton families settled at Salem Fnd in 
the spring of the same year. All these located on Danforth land. 

And these last named, as well as the settlers for the next ten years, 
came on largely in groups. The Salem End families came from 
Salem Village (Danvers) ; the Pikes, Winches, Boutwells and Eatons 
came from Reading ; Bowen, the Hemenways, Seaver, Pepper, Heath, 
etc., came from Roxbury. John Town, the first to locate near the 
Centre village, was from Essex county, and was allied by marriage 
to the Salem End families. 

John Stone, and the settlers on Rice, Gookin and How, and Fames 
land, took deeds for titles ; while all who settled on Danforth land 
took leases running 999 years from date. 

Land Grants. 109 

Several of the men who at this date and a little later, became 
inhabitants of Framingham, were grantees of a new plantation at 
Quinsigamaug (Worcester), before 1674; but were turned from their 
purpose of building a town there by the Indian troubles. Among 
these grantees were Simon Mellen, Thomas Pratt, Jona. Treadway, 
Thomas Brown, and John Provender. 

The following Framingham names are found on the rolls of the 
expedition to Canada in 1690 : John Jones, Francis Moquet, Daniel 
Mack Clafelin, Joseph Trumbull, Caleb Bridges, Daniel Mixer, Daniel 
Stone, Jr., Samuel Wesson, Jacob Gibbs. They enlisted in the 
Sudbury company, and were sharers in the grant known as the 
Sudbury Canada Grant of 1741, which was located in Maine, embrac- 
ing the present towns of Canton and Jay. The survivors of this 
company, while prosecuting their claim in 1741, met several times at 
Mr. Moquet's Tavern in Framingham.^ 

Early Paths. — The particular location of these early settlers was 
largely influenced by the early bridle-paths and roads, which followed 
the Indian trails. The Old Connecticut path, which traversed our 
territory from N. E. to S. W., has been already described. And up to 
about 1690, the great majority of settlers built on or near this path. 

The next line of travel to be opened to our lands was a path which 
struck off from the Old Path in " Happy Hollow " (Wayland), and 
ran a little to the north of west to the fordway some distance below 
John Stone's old house, and so on nearly the same course past the 
house of Dea. Eben Eaton, to the north side of Nobscot, where it 
joined the road from Sudbury to Marlborough. This was laid out 
from Watertown on the line of the Connecticut Path to Mr. Dunster's 
Farm in 1649, '^'^^ ^^^ opened as a highway to Nobscot and beyond 
in 1674, when a cart bridge was built over the Sudbury river to take 
the place of the old horse bridge. " At a County Court holden at 
Charlestown Dec. 23, 1673, John Stone Sen. of Sudbury, John Woods 
of Marlborough, and Thomas Eams of Framingham, together with 
John Livermore of W' atertown (or any two of them) were appointed 
and impowered to lay out an highway for the use of the country 
leading from the house of said Livermore to a Horse Bridge (then 
being) near the house of Daniel Stone Jun. and thence the nearest 
and best way to Marlborough and thence to Quaboag." The road 
was laid out and built that winter, and the return made to the next 
Court, Oct. 6, 1674.- The bridge was built by Samuel How, who lived 
on Lanham, and has since been known as the " New Bridge." In the 
County records, under date of April 7, 1674, is the following: "In 

^ Gen. Reg., xxx._ 192-4. -Court Files. 

iio History of Framingham. 

answer to the petition of Samuel How, referring to some allowance to 
be made him for his expenses about the bridge he had lately erected 
upon Sudbury river, above the town, he is allowed to take toll of all 
travellers, for a horse and man 3 d., and for a cart 6 d., until there be 
an orderly settling of the Country highway, and some provision made 
for repayment to him of his disbursements." A fork from this path 
was very early constructed on the south side of Nobscot, which met 
the other above the old Nixon place. John Shears went this way to 
his house on Doeskin hill. 

Before 1662 a road was marked out, leaving the Connecticut path 
near the present house and store of John Hamilton, and running 
northwesterly, crossed the bluff just south of J. R. Entwistle's, and so 
over the river at the well-known fordway at the foot of Mechanic 
street in Saxonville, and so by the Falls to Brackett's Corner and 
west to Marlborough. This is referred to in the laying out of Mr, 
Danforth's farms as " the highway leading from John Stone's house 
to Marlbury," showing that Mr. Stone had at this date built near the 
Falls. This road was known as the " South path to Marlborough." 
It accommodated the Stones, and the Winch, Frost, Boutwell, Walkup, 
Buckminster, Lamb, Clark, Trowbridge, Heath and other families, 
and also for a distance the Pikes, Belknaps and Wrights, who struck 
off to the southwest through Pike Row. This branch was ultimately 
continued to Charles Capen's and the town farm, and so to South- 
borough. The Bruce, Hemenway, Waite, How, and Mixer families 
followed this path. 

The Mellens and Collar, in 1687, took the path which was an 
Indian trail, and left the Connecticut path on Pratt's plain, and ran 
past the site of the old Fames house, to their farm. This path 
extended across the river by the fordway west of Joseph A. Merriam's, 
and by Addison Dadmun's, and so over the common to Hopkinton. 

About 1692, a path was opened from the north end of Pratt's plain, 
following Sucker brook, crossing Sudbury river on a bar where is now 
Warren's bridge, and so following nearly the present way round the 
south side of Bare hill, and from Charles J. Frost's westerly to the 
fordway where is now the bridge over Reservoir No. i, and so to 
Salem End. A branch left this path at the north end of the bridge 
and ran northwesterly, following the gravelly ridge and crossing 
Stoney brook at the northeast corner of J. H. Temple's original farm, 
running west through said farm, and so to John R. Rooke's and the 
brick-yard. John Singletary, Jonathan Rugg and Samuel Lamb 
located on this path. 

The cross highways were laid out after the meeting-house was built 
and the town incorporated. 

No Village-Site. 1 1 1 

No Central Village-Site. — A peculiarity of our town is, that 
there is no central point marked out by nature, as the village-site, to 
which all material and social interests easily gravitate. The geo- 
graphical centre was broken, swampy land, inconvenient for roads 
and uninviting for settlement. The original meeting-house site, in 
the old cemetery, was pitched upon, because it accommodated the 
more thickly settled out-districts, viz.. Rice's End, Pratt's Plain, 
Park's Corner and Salem End ; and because it was nearer to Sherborn 
Row (now South Framingham) than the Sherborn meeting-house was, 
and thus. would bring these families within the statute which required 
all settlers to seek civil and religious privileges in the town to whose 
meeting-house their residence was nearest. The site of the present 
Centre village was selected as a compromise of conflicting interests, 
with which nobody was quite satisfied. The lands most eligible for 
homesteads and for cultivation were distant from this point, and were 
distant from each other. And what added to the difficulty of 
centralizing and uniting our early population, was the fact that these 
detached clusters of settlers were each a little centre of its own in 
previous associations and social ties. The Stones were a power by 
themselves, and were given places of honor in Sudbury church and 
town, to which they were strongly attached. The same was true of 
the families at Rice's End. The Pratt's Plain settlers had received 
like favor from Sherborn church and town. The Bigelows, Learneds, 
Whitneys and Mellens had common associations formed while they 
lived in Watertown. The Havens were large land-holders, and were 
somewhat isolated. The Salem End families had been mutual 
sufferers from the witchcraft delusions and judicial trials at Danvers, 
and had taken refuge and found a peaceful home in this then 
wilderness land. The Reading and the Roxbury colonies, which 
located in the northerly part of the plantation, had each its separate 
interests and ties. The selection by Col. Buckminster of his home- 
stead farm in the upper valley of Baiting brook, naturally brought his 
old neighbors to locate near him, and to consult his wishes and follow 
his lead. 

And the fact that the settlers on the east side of the river held 
their lands in fee simple, while the settlers on Danforth lands had only 
leases, was a circumstance, perhaps trivial in itself, but which had its 
influence in separating interests. The leased farms held certain 
valuable rights in common, from which the east-side settlers were 
debarred. Mr. Danforth was a man of large views and well-defined 
aims. He planned to build up a township of enterprising men by 
leasing the land on easy terms, and securing to each tenant a right of 
pasturage and fuel in the large reserved commons. 

1 1 2 History of Framingham. 

And this leads to a narrative of 

How Mr. Danforth disposed of his Lands. — Reference has 
already been made in this chapter to the commons and reserved 
lands, set apart by Mr. Danforth for public uses. 

It was evidently his intention to superintend personally the settle- 
ment of his Framingham farms. And when responsible parties would 
engage to occupy and cultivate a given tract as a homestead, he 
encouraged it by giving a parole lease, without rent for a few years. 
And when it became certain that the occupant had ability to fulfill 
his contract, and was content to remain, a written lease was executed. 
Some men who made engagements with Mr. Danforth, did not get 
their leases till after his general lease was made to White and 
Buckminster, and the contract was executed by them. Among these 
were John and Nathaniel Haven, whose lease from White and 
Buckminster bears date Mar. 23, 1694, though they took possession 
of their 500 acres at Park's Corner as early as 1690. 

Probably Benjamin and John Whitney came upon the lands near 
Washakum pond, and Simon and Thomas Mellen and John CoUer 
took possession of the lands west of Farm pond in 1687. But leases 
were not given to the former till 1693, and to the latter till 1696. 
The lease to the Whitneys has not been found on record. The rents 
and reversion of this estate were devised to Harvard College, as 
before stated. 

The material parts of the lease to the Mellens is here copied, as a 
sample of the forms of conveyance used at that date, and as a 
specimen of Mr. Danforth's prudence and exactness in his business 

"This Indenture made the twenty fifth day of March, 1696, 
between Thomas Danforth of Cambridge in the County of Middlesex, 
Esq"" of the one part, and Simon Mellen of Framingham in the 
County aforesaid, yeoman on the other part, Wittnesseth that the said 
Thomas Danforth, for himself, his heires and assignes on the condi- 
tions and covenants hereafter expressed, hath demised granted let & 
to Farm letten, to the s^ Simon Mellen & Thomas Mellen and to 
theire heires Exec"^^ Adm""* and assignes, all that his messuage or 
tenement now occupied by them situate lying and being within the 
Township of Framingham aforesaid, containing two dwelling houses, 
one barn & orchard plow lands, meadow lands and pasture lands 
adjoining, by estimation three hundred acres, be the same more or 
less, being butted & bounded on the East by a pond, called Farm 
Pond, Northwardly by a brook coming out of said pond, and running 
into the river, Westwardly by lands demised by said Tho^ Danforth to 
Joseph White & Joseph Buckminster as run by the line, Southwardly 

Lease to Me liens. 113 

by lands of Jn° Collar & Jn° Haven or however otherwise bounded; 
also six acres of medow land, lying upon Marlborough Brook or 
river that leads into Sudbury river, whereof the said Simon Mellen & 
Tho^ Mellen are now also possessed, as also priviledge in common 
with the rest of the inhabitants of said Framingham upon all those 
lands which said Tho^ Danforth hath reserved to lye for free common- 
age of herbage Wood and timber for the use of all those who are his 
tenants in said Framingham : To have and to hold the above letten 
messuage or tenement & lands, with all the priviledges & appurten- 
ances to the same belonging, to them the said Simon Mellen & Tho^ 
Mellen, and to their heires, & assignes, from the said twenty fifth day 
of March in the year aforesaid unto the full end and terme of nine 
hundred and ninety and nine years to be from thence fully compleat 
& ended, to their only proper use and behoof. Rendering Yeilding & 
Paying during s'^ term and until the same be fully compleated and 
ended, to him the said Tho^ Danforth, his heirs and lawfull assignes, 
or to some or one of them, seven pounds pr annum, the one moiety 
or half part of each annual payment to be made on or before the last 
day of October annually, the other moiety or half part at or before 
the twenty fifth day of March next following, and the place of 
payment to be the now dwelling house of said Tho^ Danforth in Cam- 
bridge, unless the said Tho^ Danforth, his heires or assigns shall 
otherwise assign, and all the said annual rents shall be paid in money; 
and in default of money, said tennants shall or may pay said annual 
rent in good merchantable corn (not exceeding one sixth part in Indian 
corn or oats) butter, well fatted Beife and Pork (boars and bulls 
excepted) at the currant money price, as he the said Tho^ Danforth,. 
his heirs or assigns can do or may put off the same for money at the 
time of payment, and to be delivered in like manner, as is above 
provided, without charge or trouble to him the said Tho^ Danforth, his 
heirs, or assigns. 

"And the said Simon Mellen and Thomas Mellen joyntly and 
severally, for themselves, their heirs, and assigns by these presents do 
covenant, promise and grant to and with the said Thomas Danforth, 
his heirs and assigns that the said Simon Mellen and Tho^ Mellen or 
their heirs exec, adm""^ or assigns or some or one of them shall and 
will from time to time during all the said nine hundred, ninety and 
nine years, well and truly make payment unto the said Tho^ Danforth 
his heirs, or assigns or some or one of them the annual rent as is 
above conditioned, and provided, without any defaulcation, deduction 
or abatement of any part or parcel! thereof for any tax or taxes, 
assesments, rates, contributions or other impositions or charges 
whatsoever ordinary or extraordinary. And further the said Simoa 

114 History of Framingkam. 

Mellen and Thomas Mellen, for themselves, their heirs, and assigns, 
do covenant, promise and grant to and with the said Tho^ Danforth 
his heirs and assigns, that if it shall happen, that the said rent in 
manner as is above conditioned to be annually paid, be behind and 
unpaid more than the space of six weeks next after any of the days on 
which the same ought to be paid as aforesaid, that then and so often 
the said Simon Mellen & Tho^ Mellen and either of them, shall forfeit 
and pay unto the said Tho^ Danforth his heirs and assigns for each 
defect of every payment not satisfied and paid as is above provided 
and covenanted, forty shillings in lavvfull money of New England to 
be paid over and above the annual rent as is above conditioned and 
covenanted; and the said Simon Mellen and Thomas Mellen do 
further for themselves, their heirs joyntly and severally covenant 
promise and grant to and with the said Tho^ Danforth his heirs and 
assigns, that whensoever and as often as the said yearly rent or any 
part thereof shall be behind and unpaid or in arrears, that then and 
so often and from time to time it shall and may be lawfull to and for 
the said Tho^ Danforth, his heirs and assigns, into and upon the said 
messuage or tennement and lands and all the above letten premises, 
to enter and distrain for said yearly rent and arrearages thereof and 
for the said penalty and forfeiture of forty shillings or for any or 
either of them the distress or distresses so found, to take, lead and 
drive away impound and distrain till said sum or sums for which said 
distress shall be taken be duly and fully satisfied and paid with 
satisfaction and payment for all the trouble and charge expended in 
travel, taking and driving and making sale of said distress when so 
taken ; or it shall be lawfull for the said Tho^ Danforth his heirs and 
assigns or any one of them to recover said arrears in a course of law, 
as to him or them shall seem most meet. And in case said Simon 
Mellen and Tho^ Mellen their heirs, or assigns or some or one of 
them do not within four days, next after such distress is taken and 
impounded as above, make full payment of all arrears then due and 
behind, as also for the forfeiture and penalty of forty shillings, as is 
above conditioned and provided, then it shall be lawfull for the said 
Tho^ Danforth, his heirs and assigns to make sale of the distress so 
taken, for the payment thereof, and for all costs trouble and expenses 
for taking and impounding said distress, and for the taking, driving, 
keeping and disposing thereof, and the overplus coming by the sale 
shall return to them from whom it was taken. And further the said 
Simon Mellen and Tho^ Mellen for themselves, their heirs and assigns 
do covenant promise and grant to and with the said Tho^ Danforth, 
his heirs and assigns, that in case said yearly rent be behind and in 
arrears for the space of half a year after the day limited for the 

Lease to Me liens. 1 1 5 

payment thereof, and no distress be found upon the lands above letten 
and demised, and tender thereof made by the said Simon Mellen and 
Tho^ Mellen their heirs or assigns, upon the demand of said Tho^ 
Danforth, his heirs and assigns, that then and from thenceforth it 
shall and may be lawfull to and for the said Tho^ Danforth his heirs 
and assigns into the said demised and letten premises to enter, and 
the same to have and hold, possess and enjoy in the former estate, 
any thing above written to the contrary notwithstanding. And the 
said Tho^ Danforth for himself, his heirs & assignes doth covenant, 
promise and grant to the said Simon Mellen and Tho^ Mellen theire 
heirs and assignes, that it shall and maybe lawfull to and for the said 
Simon Mellen and Tho^ Mellen theire heirs and assigns and their 
lessees, farmers and under tenants from time to time and at all times 
hereafter during the term, to have and take in and upon the said 
demised premises, competent and sufficient house-boot, plough-boot, 
Cart-boot hedge-boot and live-boot to be spent, expended and em- 
ployed in about and upon the same premises and not else where. 
And further the said Tho* Danforth for himself, his heirs and assigns, 
doth covenant promise and grant to and with the said Simon Mellen 
and Tho^ Mellen, that in case the said lessees, their heirs and assigns 
shall by force or violence of a common enemy be driven off from 
improvement and dwelling upon said demised premises, the rent 
becoming due during the time of war and violence shall be abated, 
and not required, and the said lessee shall have liberty to return to 
the same again when such force shall be removed, upon the same 
conditions as above is covenanted and agreed." 

The tract leased as above, and known as Mellen's Neck, extended 
southward as far as the south line of the Woolson farm, lately owned 
by Thomas B. Wales, Jr., now owned by David Nevins, and incorpo- 
rated into his estate. The reversion of this Mellen estate was, by 
deed of gift dated June 10, 1699, made over to John Whiting, Mr. 
Danforth's grandson. 

The Winch and Frost Farm. — Mr. Danforth's lease to Samuel 
Winch and Thomas Frost, bears date Mar. 25, 1693. Mr. Winch 
had taken a parole lease several years before, and had built a house 
on the easterly part of the premises. The house stood where is now 
the cellar-hole, known as the Stearns place, on the north road from 
below Samuel Cutting's to the new bridge. Mr. Frost had just built a 
house on the extreme west part of the tract. It was situated about 
sixty rods up the hill from Liberty Chadwick's, and several rods back 
from the road. 

1 1 6 History of Framingham. 

The lease ran for 999 years, at a yearly rental of four pounds ten 
shillings, and the terms were similar to those of the Mellen lease. 
The farm was bounded " on Sudbury line northerly, on the river and 
Dea. John Stone's land easterly, on Mr. Danforth's own land south- 
easterly, on the Lynde farm southerly, and on the 600 acres of 
reserved lands westerly — the southwest corner bound being the 
Northwest corner of Mr, Lynde's land." It was called 300 acres 
more or less, and embraced " all those two messuages and tenements 
wherein they the said Samuel Winch and Thomas Frost do now 
dwell, containing two dwelling houses, out houses and lands adjoin- 
ing." It took in what is now North Framingham, from the west line of 
Liberty Chadwick's farm to the old Dadmun farm on the east, and 
included the old Belcher farms, part of the Matthias Walker farm, and 
so by a northeasterly line joining on to the Stones land to the river. 
The highway was the south bounds. 

As before narrated, the " Half-mile Square" was excepted out of 
the leased estate. 

The reversion of this estate was held by the heirs at law of Mr. 

The White and Buckminster Lease. — Having disposed of so 
much of his lands, and created two distinct centres of settlement at 
widely separated points, Mr. Danforth, on account, probably, of the 
pressure of public trusts on his time and attention, in May, 1693, 
made over by lease for 999 years, the balance of his Framingham 
farms to Messrs! Joseph White of Roxbury, and Joseph Buckminster 
of Muddy river. They at once made sale of large portions of the 
estate, in some cases executing written leases, but in most instances 
giving possession by verbal contract only. 

For various reasons, especially failure to pay the annual rental to 
Mr. Danforth, which was in arrears sixty pounds, this lease was 
abrogated, and a new lease to Joseph Buckminster was executed. 
For obvious reasons this lease is here given entire. 

"This indenture made this 25"^ day of March Anno Domo, one 
thousand six hundred ninety-nine : between Thomas Danforth of 
Cambridge in the County of Midd'^'^ in the Province of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay in New England, Esq'' on the one part, and Joseph 
Buckminster of Muddy River in the County of Suffolk in Province 
aforesaid Tanner on the other part, zvittnesseth, that whereas the said 
Thomas Danforth hath a tract or parcell of land to him appropriated 
or belonging, and is a part of those lands commonly called Framing- 
ham, lying, scittuate and being in the Wilderness, and is bounded by 

Buckminstcr s Lease. 1 1 7 

Sudbury on the Northerly side thereof, by Marlborough on the 
Westerly side, and the Easterly side is bounded partly by land 
occupied by Thomas Frost and Samuel Winch and partly by Sudbury 
River, and by land now occupied by Simon Mellens, John Collar Sen"" 
and the Whitneys, and Southerly by Sherborn line : Also within said 
tract or parcell of land is contained sundry parcells of land and 
meadows that are appropriated to sundry other persons, and not to 
the said Thomas Danforth; Also within said tract of land is compre- 
hended one Neck of land bounded by Sudbury River Southerly, 
South Westerly and South Easterly, and a small branch of said river 
northerly running towards Marlborough line, and said line is the 
Westerly bounds thereof, which said Neck of land (excepting only 
six hundred acres part thereof to be laid out in distinct places and 
no more) the said Thomas Danforth reserveth to lye in common for 
the accommodation of those that do or shall occupy other the lands 
'of the said Thomas Danforth, as for the Tenants and Farms of him 
the said Joseph Buckminster, in manner as he the said Thomas 
Danforth shall hereafter appoint, and order: — Reserving also to Simon 
Mellins and John Collar and the farmes by them occupied, all the 
medows lying upon Sudbury River as far downward as the aforesaid 
branch of the river, and so much of the upland as shall be set out to 
them for the accommodating the fencing of the said medows, and to 
the other farmers of the said lands of the said Thomas Danforth 
conveniancey for passage of their cattle to the said Neck of Land an 
highway of twenty poles wide or more in manner and place as shall 
be required and meet, as said Thomas Danforth shall appoint; Also 
six hundred acres of land to be laid out adjoining to Sudbury line 
containing Nobscot and Doeskin Hill to be laid out in one intire 
piece and to bound Southerly upon the path leading from Deacon 
Stones to Marlborough : Also for the accommodation of the Meeting 
House, and settlement of the minister, said Tho^ Danforth reserveth 
an hundred and forty acres, and is laid out in two or more places, as 
they the above named Thomas Danforth and Joseph Buckminster 
have ordered and appointed. — All the rettiainder oi the said tract of 
land to him the said Tho^ Danforth appertaining or in any wise 
belonging he the said Thomas Danforth for himselfe, his heyrs and 
assigns on the conditions and covenants hereafter named, and to him 
the said Thomas Danforth, his heires, executors administrators and 
assignes reserved and provided, hath demised granted lett and to 
farme lett, and by these presents doth demise, lett and to farme lett 
to the said Joseph Buckminster his heires executors administrators 
and assignes. To have and to hold the above tract of land be it 
more or less, with all the priviledges and appertenances to the same 

1 1 8 History of Frami7igham, 

belonging or in any kinde appertaining (excepting only such part 
thereof excepted and reserved in manner as is before expressed) to 
him the said Joseph Buckminster, his executors adm^' and assignes 
from the day of the date above mentioned unto the full end and time 
of nine hundred ninety and nine years, to be from thence fully 
compleat and ended, to his only proper use and behoof, rendering, 
yielding and paying during the said terme, and untill the same be 
fully compleat and ended, to him the said Tho^ Danforth, his heires, 
executors, admin^'® or assignes or some one of them Twenty two pounds 
pr annnni currant money, the one moiety or half part of each annual 
payment to be made at or before the last day of October now 
ensueing the date hereof, and the second payment, being the other 
moiety or halfe, to be made at or before the twenty fifth day of A-Iarch, 
one thousand and seven hundred, and in like manner the said yearly 
rent as is above conditioned to be paid yearly and every year during 
the whole terme, and the place of payment to be the now dwelling 
house of said Thomas Danforth in Cambridge, until the said Tho* 
Danforth his heires and assigns shall otherwise assigne to rent or any 
part thereof as it shall become due to be paid at any other house in 
Boston or Cambridge. And in default of money the tenant shall or 
may pay said annual rent in good merchantable corn (not exceeding 
one sixth part in Indian corn or Oats) butter and well fatted Beife or 
Porke (boars & bulls excepted) at the currant money price, that is as 
he the said Tho^ Danforth his heires or assignes do or may put 
off or sell the same for money at the time of payment, and to be 
delivered in like manner as is above provided, without charge or 
trouble to the said Tho^ Danforth his heires, or assigns. And 
the said Joseph Buckminster for himself his heires, exec'^ adms^''^ or 
assignes doth covenent, promise and grant to and with ye said Tho^ 
Danforth his heires, or assigns and every of them, that ye said Joseph 
Buckminster his heires, or assigns or some one of them shall and will 
from time to time during all the nine hundred and ninety nine years 
well and truely make payment unto ye said Tho^ Danforth his heires 
or assigns or some one of them, said annual rent, as is above 
conditioned and provided without any defaultation, deduction or 
abatement of anything for any tax or taxes, assesments or contri- 
butions or other impositions or charges whatsoever ordinary or 
extraordinary. And further the said Joseph Buckminster for himself, 
heires or assignes and every of them, doth covenant, promise and 
grant to and with the said Tho^ Danforth his heires and assignes that 
if it shall happen the said rent as is above conditioned to be annually 
paid, to be behind and unpaid more than the space of six weeks after 
any of the days on which the same ought to be paid, that then and so 

Buckminsters Lease. 119 

often the said Joseph Buckminster his heires or assigns shall pay unto 
the said Tho^ Danforth his heires and assigns Twefity Nobles of 
lawfull money of New England over and above the annual rent as is 
above conditioned and covenanted. And the said Joseph Buckmin- 
ster doth further for himselfe, his heires, or assignes covenant promise 
and grant to and with the s'l Tho^ Danforth his heires and assignes 
that whensoever and as often as the s^ yearly rent as is above 
conditioned and provided or any part thereof shall be behind or 
unpaid in arrears that then and so often from time to time it shall 
and may be lawful to and for the said Tho^ Danforth his heires and 
assignes into and upon the said lands and tenements and premises 
by these presents granted and demised, and out of which said yearly 
rent is reserved, and into every part and parcell thereof, at his and 
theire liberty, choice and pleasure to enter and distress for the said 
yearly rent and arrearages thereof, and for said penalty and forfeiture 
of twenty nobles, or for either and any of them, and the distress or 
distraint then and there so found, to take, lead, drive away impound 
anddetaine untillye said summ or sums for which such distresses shall 
be taken, shall be duly and faithfully satisfied, contented and paid. 
And in case ye said Joseph Buckminster, his heires or assignes or 
some one of them do not within four days next after such distress is 
taken or impounded as above said, make full payment of all arrears 
then due and behind as also of the additional rent of twenty nobles 
as is above conditioned and provided, then it shall be lawfull for the 
said Tho^ Danforth his heires and assignes to make sale of the 
distress so taken for the payment thereof, and for all the charges, 
trouble and cost that shall arise about ye same, for driving, taking 
keeping and distressing thereof and the overplus coming by the said 
sale shall return to them from whom it was taken. And further ye said 
Joseph Buckminster for himselfe his heires, and assignes doth covenant 
promise and grant to and with ye said Thomas Danforth his heires 
and assignes that in case s*^ yearly rent be behind and unpaid in 
arrears for the space of halfe a year after the day limited for 
ye payment thereof, and no distress to be found upon the land 
above letten and demised now thereof made by the said Joseph 
Buckminster his heires or assignes or some one of them upon demand 
of ye said Tho"' Danforth his heires or assignes. That then and from 
thence forth it shall and may be lawfull to and for the said Tho* 
Danforth his heires and assignes, into ye said demised and above 
letten premises to enter, and the same to have and to hold, possess 
and enjoy in the former estate, any thing above written to the 
contrary notwithstanding. And ye said Joseph Buckminster his heires, 
and assignes shall then and from thenceforth amove, depart and to 

I 20 History of Framingham. 

the same quit all claimes, as well ediffices, buildings, fenceings and 
other improvements by them made, as to the lands themselves, of 
which they shall make no wast nor in any wise despoil. And the 
said Thomas Danforth for himselfe his heires and assignes doth 
covenent, promise and grant to and with the said Joseph Buckminster, 
that in case the lessee or his heires shall by force and violence of a 
common enemie be driven off from improvement and dwelling upon 
the said demised premises, the rent coming due during the time of 
Warr and violence shall be abated, and not required, and said lessee 
shall have libertie to return to ye same againe when such force 
is removed; on the same conditions as is above conditioned and 
agreed, Provided alwaies said tennant, his heires and assignes shall not 
delay to return being thereunto directed and required by the said 
Tho^ Danforth, his heires and assignes, and may have of said letten 
premises occupied and improved by other persons. 

" And the said Tho^ Danforth doth for himselfe his heires and 
assignes further covenent promise and grant to and with ye said 
Joseph Buckminster his heires and assignes that it shall and may 
be lawful! for them and any of them for and during the terme above, 
to cut down and carry away any woods timber underwood or tree 
growing upon the premises or any part or parcell there of without any 
impeachment of wast, and that it shall and may be lawfull for the 
said Joseph Buckminster his heires and assignes at all times during 
the said lease, upon the premises or any part there of to commit any 
manner of wast, without being impeached or any wayes prosecuted for 
the same by the said Tho^ Danforth, his heires and assignes And the 
said Tho^ Danforth for himselfe his heires Execf^ Adm^t^'s and assignes, 
and every of them, doth hereby further covenant promise and grant 
to and with the said lessee his heires, Exec^"" Ad™^ and assignes in 
manner following, That is to say, that he the said Tho^ Danforth, at 
and immediately before the time of the ensealing and delivery of these 
presents, is the true, sole and lawfull owner of all the aforesaid 
demised and letten premises, with theire appurtenances, and standeth 
lawfully seized thereof, in his own proper of a good, perfect and 
absolute estate of inheritance in fee simple, having in himselfe good 
right, full power and lawfull authority to demise and grant the same 
unto the said lessee, his heires, and assignes, in manner and form as 
aforesaid and that ye said Joseph Buckminster, his heires and assignes 
or any one of them paying the yearly rent of twenty two pounds per 
annum, from year to year, and every year during the said terme, in 
manner and forme as is above provided and covenanted, shall and 
may from time to time and at all times forever hereafter, during the 
terme of nine hundred, ninety and nine years, lawfully peaceably and 

Buckmmstcrs Lease. 121 

quietly have, hold also occupy possess and enjoy the above demised 
and granted premises, and every part and parcell there of (reserving 
only what is before reserved and excepted) without any lawful! lett, 
trouble, eviction ejection, disturbance or interruption, of or from him 
the said Tho^ Danforth his heires, or assignes, or by any other person 
or persons lawfully claiming or to claime from by or under him or 
them, or any of them, or by any of their means, act default or pro- 
curement. And that the premises now are and so shall remain and 
be during all the aforesaid terme, free and clear, and freely and 
clearly acquitted and discharged of and from all manner of former 
and other gifts, grants, bargains, sales, leases mortgages, jointures, 
dowers thirds, entailes, judgements executions, extents, forfeitures and 
of and from all other titles, troubles charges and incumbrances, what- 
soever has made, conditioned, done or suffered lo be done by the said 
Tho^ Danforth, his heires and assignes, or by any other person or 
persons whatsoever, by his or their means, priviledges, title or 

" Moreover, the said Tho^ Danforth, for himselfe, his heires, and 
assignes and every of them, doth covenant, promise and grant to and 
with the lessee his heires, and assignes and every of them that he the 
said Tho^ Danforth, his heires and assignes, shall and will at all 
times hereafter, and from time to time during the terme and space of 
twenty years next ensuing hereof upon all and every reasonable 
request or requests to him or them to be had or made by the said 
lessee his heires, or assignes, or some or one of them at the cost and 
charges of the said lessee, do, make and acknowledge, execute and 
suffer, or cause to be done, made acknowledged executed and suffered, 
every such further lawfuU act and acts, thing and things, devise and 
devises in the law whatsoever, for the better confirmation of these 
presents and for the better and further assurance, law-making and 
conveying all ye above demised premises, with theire appurtenances 
for and during the above said terme of years hereby granted or men- 
tioned to be granted to the said Joseph Buckminister, his heires, 
exec''*, adm""* and assignes, according to the true intent and meaning 
of these presents, as by their Counsel learned in the law shall be 
reasonably devised, advised or required. 

" In witness whereof the parties above named by these indentures 
have interchangeably set theire hands and seals the day and year 
above written." 

The reversion of this estate was vested, one-fourth by deed of 
gift to Thomas Foxcroft, and the other three-fourths to the heirs at 
law of Mr. Danforth. 

122 History of Framingham. 

Mr. Danforth's Will: — 

In the name of God, Amen. I, Thomas Danforth of Cambr in N. E. do 
by these presents ordain Constitute and Declare this my Last Will and 
Testament in manner and form as followeth, vizt. My immortal soul I do 
with humility, fear and holy Reverence, Shroud under the shadow of the 
Wings of God Almighty, my body to a decent buriall, hoping for a joyful! 
Resurrection to Life Eternall, thorou the meritts and mediation of the Dear 
Lord Jesus Christ. As for my outward Estate that God hath given me, I 
do will that, after my just debts and funerall expences are paid, the Remainder 
shall be disposed of as followeth, Vizt. To my much esteemed Son-in-law 
M""- Joseph Whiting, Pastour of the Ch. of Christ at South hampton on Long 
Island I give and bequeath Ten pounds Money. To my verry loving Kins- 
men, Mr- John Danforth, Pastor of the Church of Cht at Dorchester and 
his brother, Mr- Saml Danforth, Pastor of the Church of Christ at Tanton 
I give five pounds apiece Money. — 

Item, To my negro man Phillip Field, he approving himself a faithfull 
servant to his master Mr. Foxcroft for four years time next after my Decease, 
I then sett him at liberty to be a free man, and his master shall pay him ten 
pounds money, and I also give him forty acres of Land lying at Cambridge 
Farmes, the same that I had of Samuel Goff Senn Provided alwaies, in case 
he die not haveing issue of his body lawfully begotten, said Lands shall come 
unto my grandson Francis Foxcroft. 

I will that all my books and manuscripts shall be equally divided between 
my Grandchildren, Mr Thomas Phipps. and John Whiting, and those that 
said Phipps hath already had from me shall be in part of his share. 

I do will that Solomon Phipps in consideracon of the grant by me made 
him to have the Reversion of the whole farme whereon his mother dwells, 
shall take the sole care and charge for the Support of his lame Sister, Mary 
Phipps, and in case his mother do change her condition by marriage, he shall 
pay her twenty pounds per ann during her life, and after her decease shall 
pay to his brethren and sisters twenty pounds to each in money, the jiayment 
to be made at the farme house. The first payment to be made to his brother 
Thomas Phipps within one year next after his mothers decease, so annually 
to be so paid according to theire ages untill they be all paid. I do also give 
to Solomon Phipps all the Stock of Cattle, horses, sheep and neat cattle by 
me put into the hands of Nathaniel Longley the now Tennant. And it is 
my will, that in case said Solomon Phipps shall decease, and no heirs of his 
body surviving him so as to Inherit the same, that then his wife that he now 
hath (during her widow condition) shall possess said farme to her use, she 
giving reasonable security not to make any strip or waste thereon, and in 
case of her marriage, said whole farme shall come and descend to his brother 
Thos Phipps, he paying to Solomon's widow Twenty mark pr annu money, 
so long as she shall live, and Thomas Phipps shall performe in all respects 
payment of Legacies and support of his Sister Mary in all respects as 
Solomon ought to have done. 

And it is my will that my Grandson Daniel Chamney shall have in pt of 
his share in the remainder of those Lands and Tenements by my Deed of 
Gift settled on his mother during her life, one fourth pt of my interest in the 

Mr. Daiifoj^tJis Will. 


corn Miln, Fulling Miln, Houses and Lands to the same belonging, to enter 
upon the same at my decease. I do hereby nominate and ordain M"" Fr. 
Foxcroft my Son-in-law and Mr. Samuel Sparhawke and Daniel Chamney 
my grandchildren joint Executors to this my will, and my Loving friends 
Capt. Andrew Belcher, and Deacon James Trowbridge my overseers, and in 
case any doubt or question be concerning my true meaning herein, my over- 
seers shall determine the same, and in case any legatee herein named shall 
not rest therein, or otherwise in any kind give trouble to any of my Legatees 
in the free and peaceable injoyment of what I have hereby bequeathed to 
them or by my deed of gift settled upon them, such Legatee shall loose his 
part and share hereby bequeathed to him. 

The remainder of my Estate in Lands or other not hereby bequeathed, I 
give my Executors full power, with the consent of my overseers to make sale 
of as they shall judge best, and make equal division thereof among all my 
Children, Grand Children, and Great Grand Children, and that they all be 
alike Sharers in tlmt Division. 

I Will that all the small Legacies by me given and added hereunto in the 
Schedule annexed, be paid before division made among my Children. I do 
hereby declare this above written to be my Last Will and Testament by me 
made and sealed this first day of Sept. 1699, and in the xi year of the Reign 
of his Majesty King William the : 

:Qa^4cr'LAf ^ 

Sealed and published in presence of us, Walter Hastings Senr Samuel 
Hastings Sen' Samii Hastings. 

I do further declare it is my minde and will that those deeds by me made 
to my Children, be confirmed, and I do hereby in all respects Ratifie and 
confirme the houses, Lands, Milns, Titles and Interest, by me to them 
respectively given and granted, to be holden by them in fee, to them, theire 
heires and Lawful Assignes as to them shall seem meet forever, Dat. 8:7: 
1699. Thomas Danforth. 

I do will that my Executors pay these following legacies : 

To Mrs. Gookin .... 

To Mrs. Corleth .... 

To my Loveing nurs Marrett . 

To Mary wife of Hen. Prentice 

To Hannah wife of James Turner . 

To Capt. Belcher and Deacon Trowbridge each of them 

To my brother Jonathan my best Cloake & Suit of apparel ) o. 8 

and to buy him a ring \ 

To Benj Bohou my servant he fullfilling his Indenture . 2. o 
To John Green . . . . . . . . . 2. o 




























To Mary Marrett 2. o. o. 

The whole Twenty four pounds 

^24. o. o. 

By me Thomas Danforth. 

124 History of Framingham. 

Deeds of Gift yet to be made by me. — 

To Daniel Foxcroft of looo acres to me reserved in his fathers Deed of 
Gift of Chebiscodege Island. 

To Thos Foxcroft of J^ pt of Buckminster Lease. 

To the College 3 Tenements on lease to Benj Whitney, Jno Whitney, 
Isaac Bowin scittuate at Framingham, on such Condicons as I shall name. 

To Grammar School at Cambridge, 4 acres y^ Marsh Land in Cambridge 
on Lease to Amos Marrett, on such condicon as I shall name. 

To Deacon James Trowbridge a small pt of Salt Marsh below my Dam, 
and after his decease to his son Jno Trowbridge in fee. 

Lands not disposed of by Deed of Gift but left to my Executors to sell. 
Three acres of Marsh on East side of the great Creek at ye mouth of the 
Said Creek. Gm. Simpson of Charlestown occupies it . . 30. 00. o. 

19 acres at Lower Falls that I had of Deacon Stone . .19. 00. o. 

Sundry parcells of medow and swamp Land that ly there ab' 
near ye falls . . . . . . . . . 100. 00. o. 

135 Acres at the Farmes unto which the 40 acres by me 
given to Phillip Field doth adjoin . . . . . 135. 00. o. 

The orchard that was Bradishes 40. 00. o. 

My Wood Lot at Mils Ware . . . . . . 5. 00. o. 

600 Acres Land at Framingham on Doeskin Hill . . 60. 00. o. 

160 Acres at Framingham that Jno Green should have had . 16. 00. o. 

The provisions and devises of this will, and the terms and reserva- 
tions of Mr. Danforth's lease to Joseph Buckminster, were important 
factors in our subsequent history, and will be often referred to in 
narrating the events of the next fifty years. 

Settlers came on rapidly, particularly upon the west side lands, 
after 1690; so that at the date of Mr. Danforth's death in November, 
1699, there were in all about seventy families located in our territory, 
and a population of near 350 souls. Eleven houses had been built at 
Rice's End, fifteen on Pratt's plain and Sherborn Row, ten on Mellen's 
Neck and southward, twelve at Salem End, seven on Pike Row and 
the road to Southborough, and twelve at North Framingham, includ- 
ing Stone's End. 

A romantic as well as tragic interest attaches to the colony that 
located at Salem End. As before stated, these families came from 
Danvers, then called Salem Village, where they were involved in the 
strange complications and sad results of the witchcraft delusion. 
Rebecca (Town) Nurse, the wife of Francis, and mother of Benjamin, 
and Sarah (Town) Clayes, the wife of Peter, were sisters, and were 
among the earliest of the accused victims and sufferers. They were 
commi-tted to the prison in Boston March i, 1692. Mrs. Nurse was 
the mother of eight children and was an honored member of the old 
church in Salem. At her trial, the evidence against her was so weak 

Witchcraft. 125 

that the jury twice failed to convict; but on a third return to Court, 
because she failed to give satisfactory answers to certain questions 
which they proposed, they brought her in guilty. It was afterwards 
shown that from deafness, she had failed to fully comprehend the 
proposed questions. She was executed July 19, 1692. 

The wife of Peter Clayes was tried, and found guilty, and condemned 
to death. In August, she was committed to the jail at Ipswich, to 
await execution. Her husband was allowed to visit her in prison, and 
spent much of his time there. And in some way she found means to 
escape, and was concealed by her friends, till the removal to 
Framingham, the next spring. As the witchcraft frenzy abated in the 
fall of 1692, probably the authorities were not anxious to recapture 
the fugitive. Mrs. Clayes was the mother, by her first husband 
Edmond Bridges, of Benjamin and Caleb Bridges, who were of the 
Salem End colony. It should be said to his credit, that Gov. 
Danforth was largely instrumental in allaying the witchcraft excite- 
ment, and stopping convictions by the Court. 


The Town — Petitions for Incorporation — Obstacles — Opposition 
OF Sherborn — Act of Incorporation — The First Meeting-house 

— Town Officers — Rev. John Swift — Formation of Church 

— Seating the Meeting-house — Schools — Garrison Houses — 
Industries — New Highways — Tax List 1710. 1699-1710. 

[HE first movement of our inhabitants towards obtaining an act 
of incorporation as a town appears to have been made in 1693. 
The names appended to the following petition, which has an 
important historical value, are those of settlers at Rice's End, South 
Framingham, and Park's Corner, except Samuel Winch, Sen., and 
Stephen Jennings, who lived west of the river and near to Sudbury 
line. The date shows that the plan was set on foot two months prior 
to Mr. Danforth's lease of his west side lands to White and Buck- 
minster. The intention evidently was, to have the centre village of 
the new town on Pratt's plain ; purchase the Indian lands eastward 
as far as Cochituate pond ; and obtain by grant or otherwise the 
" wilderness land," /. e., Danforth's grant, lying to the westward. It 
is not unlikely that Mr. Danforth was opposed to such a plan, which 
would insure its failure.^ 

" To his Excellency Sir William Phips, and the Hon^i General Court 
now assembled att Boston by adjournment March 2, 1692-3 

"The Petition of their Maj^'^^ subjects now Dwelling upon sundry 
ffarmes granted in those Remote lands scittuate and lyeing betweene 
Sudbury, Concord, Marlbury, Natick and Sherborne, and westerly is 
the wilderness — 

" Humbly Sheweth 

That your petitioners some of us have there 
dwelt neer fforty Yeares, And have from time to time Increased our 
numbers, And more especially of Late, Soe that now wee are about 

1 In a paper, signed by some of these men many years later, is the statement: " Those of Sudbury 
farmers with others remote from meeting, before the Court had taken 'em off from Sudbury and 
annext them to Framingham, were designing to address the General Court to have been made a 
separate town : But the Hon. Mr. Danforth making some motion to bring forward a settlement of a 
town off his Farms in Framingham, it put some stop to their proceeding." 

The Toivn htcorporated. 127 

fforly ffamilies, Some haveing built and some building, And wee hope 
may sincerely say that wee have endeavoured to attend the Worship 
of God, Some of us att one Towne & some att another as wee best 
might, butt by Reason of our remoteness, four fifive and some six 
miles from any Meeting house, Are uncapable to carry our ffamilyes 
with us nor yett to sanctifie God's Sabbaths as wee ought besides many 
other inconveniences (Inevitable) in our present circumstances. And 
there being Lands Adjacent that might well accommodate more 
ffamilyes lyeing partly in Natick bounds, the Indians to whome it 
belongs being mostly gone some by death and others removed 
elsewhere, and our westerly bounds being the wilderness, Soe that 
wee have a prospect If this Hon^^ Court shall favour this our humble 
address. That our numbers will be ffurther Increased, whereby wee 
may be enabled to carry on the worship of God & have the benefitt of 
prudentiall order among ourselves 

" The Premises Considered 

Yo'' petitioners doe therefore humbly 
request y^ favour of yo'' excellency and this Hon*'' Court, That by the 
authority of this Court we may be made a Township & have the order 
and privileges that have beene accustomed to others in our circum- 
stances /. (". Some Easement in our Taxes that wee may the better bee 
enabled to carry on our publick Town charges; That some addition 
may bee granted us out of the wilderness adjacent, And in case the 
Hon''' Court shall see reason to Lycence Natick Indians to make sale 
of any part of their Large Plantation that wee may have liberty to 
purchase those Lands that will bee accommodable to this place. 

" Wee are not ignorant that by reason of the present distressed 
condition of those that dwell in these ffrontier Towns, divers are 
meditating to remove themselves into such place, where they have 
not hitherto beene concerned in the present warr and desolations 
thereby made as also that thereby they may bee fTreed from that great 
burden of publick Taxes necessarily accrueing thereby. Some having 
removed themselves, Butt knowing for our parts that wee cannot run 
from the hands of a Jealous God, doe account it our duty to take such 
measures as may enable us to the performance of that duty wee owe 
to God, the King & our ffamilyes and doe apprehend that if this 
honoured Court shall see meete to Encourage us herein, the benefitt 
thereof will redound to the Publick as well if not more than to 

" And y Petitioners as in duty bound shall ever pray &c. 
John Bent Benjamin Whitney 

John Eams Thomas Gleason Sen. 

128 History of Framingham. 

David Stone Isaac Learned 

David Rice Thomas Pratt 

Jonathan Whitney Simon Millens Jr. 

John Whitney Thomas Drury 

Thomas Walker Jr. Joseph Pratt 

Thomas Millens Oliver Death 

John Provender Thomas Gleason Jr. 

Nathaniel Eamms John Jaques 

John How John Haven 

Nathaniel Haven John Pratt 

Samuel Emms Daniel Bigelow 

Samuel Winch Sen. Stephen Jennings 

Simon Millens Sen. Zacho' Padlefoot 

March 6, '92-3 
"3d March, 1692-3 This Pet" orderly read in this house of 

Read and sent down. Representatives & considered : It is 

referred to further consideration." 

The next move was made two years later by west side settlers, as 
indicated by the following petition: "The petition of Joseph White 
and Joseph Buckminster in most humble wise Sheweth : 

"Whereas ourselves and sundry more families to the number of about 
fifty or upward are settled upon the waste lands lying between 
Sudbury Natick Marlbury and Sherborn ; and as yet have not been 
orderly settled into a township ; but are forced to travaill to the 
nearest of the meeting houses: some to one and some to another: 
which is in many respects grievious to them by Reason of their great 
distance : Your petitioners do therefore on behalf of themselves and 
the Rest of those families as abovesaid Humbly Request that By the 
authority of this Court we may have the privilege of an orderly 
settlement: that we may have a minister amongst us; and God's 
Holy Ordinances which would prevent so long journeys on the Lord's 
dayes ; some five and some six miles or more to the nearest meeting 
House : whereas by such a provision all would be accommodated and 
the farthest dwellers "not above two or three miles to travaill on the 
Lord's dayes : as also thereby rendering us the more capable to do 
service to the publique in other Respects : We humbly pray the 
Court's favorable aspect towards us : and we shall continue humbly to 
pray &c. 

"Read 2 March 1694-5." 

At the same time Sherborn made a move looking to the annexation 
of Rice's End and Pratt's Plain to that town. 

The Tozu7i Incoi^poratcd. 129 

The next year the inhabitants of our plantation renewed their 
petition for an act of incorporation ; but the Legislature put the 
matter over till the next session. One reason for this delay is 
probably found in the fact that the Province tax levied on the farmers 
dwelling on our territory was not paid ; the inhabitants taking the 
ground that as they were not an organized town or plantation they 
had no power to assess and collect taxes. To remove this bar, in an 
Act passed Oct. 19, 1697, for levying a Province tax, it is provided, 
"that the sum of ;^r2, (as well as the sum of £^, previously levied) 
herein set forth and proportioned to the Farmes or Precinct called 
Framingham, shall be assessed upon the polls and estates in said 
Precinct by the assessors of the adjacent town of Marlborough: and 
that the inhabitants of said Precinct or Farmes shall have liberty and 
are hereby empowered to choose one assessor from among themselves 
to join with the assessors of Marlborough in assessing and apportion- 
ing the aforesaid sums set upon said precinct, and also to appoint 
a collector for the gathering in of the same." 

At the session in June, 1698, the General Court so far acceded to 
the request of the Framingham petitioners as to appoint a Committee 
" to view those lands and the accommodations thereof for the ends 
proposed, and make a report to the General Assembly, notice being 
given to the towns of Marlborough Sudbury and Sherborn." This 
committee made a favorable report ; and at the fall session, same 
year, the House of Representatives passed a bill " For the settling of 
a town called by the name of Framingham, consisting of all the lands 
without the bounds of the several towns of Sudbury, Marlborough, 
Sherborn and Natick, by which the said land is surrounded, according 
to the several town grants, or any other lands by whomsoever they 
shall be bounded." 

The Council did not concur in the passage of the bill. Perhaps 
this branch hesitated because of a protest sent in by John Bent (who 
headed the first petition in favor), Daniel and Nathaniel Stone, and 
the farmers dwelling around Cochituate pond, who represented that 
they " had been for a long time united to Sudbury in civil and sacred 
rights and privileges ; that many of us would be thereby removed half 
as far again from a publick meeting house for the worship of God 
than we now are ; besides considering that Framingham was granted 
as a farm to one person, the same is as such sufficient for what it was 
granted, and that the purchase thereof was at a much cheaper rate 
than our Farmes." 

Our settlers did not avail themselves of the privilege granted by the 
Act of October, 1697, of joining with Marlborough in choosing 
assessors to levya tax upon their lands. Nor did they make provisioa 

1 30 History of Framingham. 

to pay the tax of ^16 levied upon their estates in 1698. And at the 
session of the Court, June 7, 1699, the Province Treasurer sent in the 
following paper : " Whereas the Town of Framingham are behind the 
several assessments that hath been set upon them amounting in the 
whole to thirty six pounds, which they refuse to assess upon their 
inhabitants, and for this reason as the Treasurer is informed, because 
they are not a settled township and are incapable to choose selectmen 
and other town officers : therefore no warrant from the Treasurer can 
reach them by law. In case there be no way found to come at said 
sum of ^^36. of the inhabitants, it ought to be abated, because the 
Treasurer stands charged with said sum." 

To solve the difhculties of the case, in regard to unpaid taxes, and 
at the same time to meet the wishes of the inhabitants, who, from 
increasing numbers, and from having built a meeting-house, were 
becoming a power in the province, the following bill was reported to 
the House of Representatives : " An Act for granting a Township 
within the County of Middlesex to be called Framingham — 

"Whereas there is a certain tract of land commonly called by the 
name of Mr. Danforth's Farme, and other Farmes adjacent that do 
not belong to any other town by a former grant, lying between the 
Bounds of Sudbury, iSIarlbury Sherborn and Natick, extending about 
six miles square, be it more or less, being a convenient Tract for a 
Townshipp & about forty Familys already settled thereupon — 

" For the Better Encourigement & Settlement of the said Planta- 
tion — 

" Be it enacted by his Excellency the Gov"" Counsell & Representa- 
tives in Generall Corte Assembled & By the Authority of the same 

" That henceforth the said Tract of land as above described & 
Bounded by the Bounds of the Townshipps of Marlbury Sudbury 
Sherborn & that place called Natick (No ways to intrench upon either 
of their rights) Bee & shall bee a Townshipp & called by the name of 
Framingham & shall have & injoy all such immunities privileges and 
Powers as Generally other Towns within this Province have & do by 
law injoy; Provided it be not in the prejudice of any former grant; 
and to supply themselves with all town Ofificers & with an able and 
orthodox Minister : and for Encourigement towards their building a 
Meeting house, for the worship of God amongst them they are allowed 
out of the publique Taxes already layd on them the sum of thirty six 
pounds which is yet in their hands, and are hereby allowed and 
impowered to make choice of Assessors and Collectors to assess and 
collect said sum or sums of money on the inhabitants Respectively 
according to law to be improved for the ends aforesaid. And that 

The Town Incorporated. 131 

they shall pa}' to the maintenance of the Ministry in other towns as 
formerly Untill they have a Minister of their own. 

"House of Representatives 
June 27, 1699. Read twice 
Read a third time & passed 

Sent up for concurrence. James Converse Speaker 

"Read in Council July' — 
& referred to further consideration, & a Plat of the land 
then to be presented made by a sworn surveyor 

Is. Addington Secy." 

The survey and plot ordered by the Council, is thus inscribed : 
"This Plot represents the form and quantity of a parcel of land 
commonly called Framingham as it was taken and finished in October 
1699; the spots in the plot representing the several houses already 
built there pr Jno. Gore Surveyor." 

The original plot is preserved in the State Archives ; and an 
enlarged copy, heliotyped, was published by the town in 1877. 

This survey and plot, which, of course, conformed in general to the 
wishes of the petitioners, disclosed the exact boundary lines which 
were to be claimed for the new town. And this boundary, on the 
southern side, trenched on lands which were greatly coveted by 
Sherborn, and the dwellers on which lands had for twenty years 
possessed certain civil and ecclesiastical privileges in said town. The 
following remonstrance, which explains itself, was promptly sent to 
the Legislature : 

" To his Excellency Richard Earl of Bellomont, 

" May it please your Excellency and the Hon^<^ Councell & Repre- 

" In the first beginnings and Settlement of the Towne of Sherborne 
the only and principall benefitt and previlidge which the ancient 
inhabitants, then (known by the name Bogustow neer Meadfield) did 
propose to themselves, was to have the Meeting neer them, and 
accordingly it was agreed and determined that the place of the meeting 
should be neer Mr. Hull's Farme, a place well known, and notwith- 
standing it passed under a threefold settlement, yet there could be no 
rest, quiet, or settled peace in said Town, until the place of the 
Meeting House was moved neer two miles farther from the Old 
Inhabitants, Only to accomodate the Inhabitants at the north ende 
of the Towne of Sherborne next M"". Danforth's Farmes ; who are 
now endevoring to draw off from Sherborne, and to Joyne with 
Framingham, which we humbly Conceive is very unreasonable ; viz. 
I. Because the ancient Inhabitants which have borne the brunt of 
the charges have condesended for the ending of strife to meet them 

132 History of Framingham. 

half way. 2ly. The accomodations for settleing a Meeting House 
where it was first stated is gorn and cannot be recalled. 3ly. The 
Towne of Sherborne is very much dissenabled for the settlement of 
new Inhabitants, because that a great part of the Southwest end of 
our Towneship is granted to the Indians of Natick in way of Exchange 
for that very land which they now live upon; which was never 
assigned by Sherborne to build up another Township. 4ly. Those 
Inhabitants have already taken up in Sherborne in way of divident 
neer five hundred acres of land. 5ly. If they be taken from us it 
will disenable us to make good our ingagement for the maintainance 
of our Reverent Minister, and finally it will be a meanse and leading 
cause to the brakeing up of the Towne of Sherborne."^ 

The next spring the following papers were sent to the Legislature : 

" To the Honb'*^ Council of his Majt'^^ Province of the Massachusetts 
Bay — and Co the House of Representatives convened in General 

"A Representation of John Samuel Nathaniel Eams. 

" Relating to the lands they now possess. 

" Humbly Showeth, 

"That the Town of Sherborne have their complement of their four 
thousand acres of Exchange Lands with Natick, and near a thousand 
acres overplus (as is to be seen in Sherborne town-book), our lands 
being rejected and left out of said exchange, as it is described, platted 
and bounded. And we do humbly conceive that although by virtue 
of Nonantum grant, Sherborne had liberty to take in our lands into 
their four thousand acres — yet our lands being rejected and left out 
of said Exchange, and being left out of the returne of said Exchange 
to the Court, and the Court confirming said Exchange lands to 
Sherborne without our lands (which was the last confirmation of 
Exchange Lands to Sherborne), that therefore Sherborne have no right 
or title to the soyle of our lands — but that our lands do yet remain 
in Natick." 

"To His Excellency Richard Earl of Bellomont Captaine Generall 
and Governour in Chief of his Majesties Province of the Massachusetts 
Bay in New England &c. 

1 State Archives, cxiii. 237. 

The Tozi'u Incorporated. 133 

''And the Honoured Court now assembled in Boston. 

"We under-written, do humbly petition that agreable to our former 
petition to the Honoured Court, relating to a Towneship, we may now 
be heard in a few things — ^ 

" I. Inasmuch as our former petition hath been so far considered 
by the Honoured Court, as that the Lower house have seen good to 
grant us, and your Honor^ have seen good to order us to Procure a 
Draft of the place we petitioned for Drawn by a sworn surveyor, we 
have faithfully obeyed your orders herein. — 

"2. In which plot we have not knowingly taken in the lines or 
bounds of any Towne, only according to our Petition, that if the 
Indians were permitted to make sale of any of their lands, that then 
we might have the refusal of those scrips of Land that interfeer upon 
us; agreable hereunto we have run the line cross some small bitts of 
Indian land, which otherwise would have made the line very crooked, 
which now is strait — which thing is plainly specefyed in the Plot, and 
the surveyor can inform your Honours therein : and if so be that any 
Town shall charge us with running in upon their lines or bounds, we 
humbly desire that your Honours would cause them to produce the 
plot of their Township^ which will plainly evidence the contrary. — 

"3rd. Inasmuch as that for a long time we have lain under an 
heavy burden as to our attendance on the Public Worship of God; 
so that for the most part our going to meeting to other places on the 
Sabbath is our hardest days work in the week, and by reason of those 
difficulties that attend us therein, we are forced to leave many at 
home, especially our children, where to our grief the Sabbath is too 
much Profaned, and being desireous to Sanctify the Sabbath as to the 
duty of rest required, as far as we can with conveniencey; These 
motives moving us, we have unanimously built a Meeting house, and 
have a Minister among us, & we now humbly Petition to your 
honours to countenance our Present Proceedings. We contain in the 
Plot we have taken, above three hundred & fifty souls, whereof not 
above a quarter part can constantly attend the worship of God in 
other places, by reason of the length & badness of the ways; and we 
could have taken others in our plot, that are out of the bounds of any 
Town but we would not deprive others of that Priviledge we petition 
for. Those families specifyed in the Plot are not in the bounds of 
any town, & are some four, some five, some six, some seaven miles 
from any other meeting, and very few of them above two miles 
distant from the Meeting house which we have built among ourselves. 

" 4th. And whereas some do say that Sherborne Town can not 
raise their ministers salary without some of these families which ly 
next to Sherborne Town, we desire to inform your honours, that they 

1 34 History of Framingham. 

never raised their ministers salary by reason of us, and none of them 
can say but that they are abundantly more able, now without us, than 
they were at first with us, and now their meeting house is built, & 
their minister settled among them, and they contain more than three 
score families. 

" 5th. And whereas some of Sherborne do say that their Meeting 
house was placed to accomodate Some of these families, we desire to 
inform the Honoured Court that Sherborn meeting house is placed 
considerably nigher to the other side of the town bounds opposite 
from us, than tis to that side next to us ; and it stands as nigh as can 
be thought in the center of those families which are in Sherborne 
Town, without respecting us who are out of their Town ; we had no 
hand in the settling of their Town, and do humbly petition that we 
may not be so burthened to gratify their wills, as we are able to 
subsist by ourselves. 

" We desire to inform the Hon<^ Court, that we never had any voice 
in petitioning for Sherbourne Township, and do demonstrate farther 
that Sherborne Meeting house was not moved a mile & half to 
accomodate any of us as they say ; their pastor's house was erected & 
his lot laid out before their meeting house was erected, and their 
pastor goes now half a mile to meeting, towards the other side of the 
town opposite from us ; and if their meeting house had been a mile & 
half further, he must have gone two miles, which is irrational to 
conclude that he should go so far to meeting. 

"6th When Sherborn was granted to be a Township, the Hon'^ 
Court obliged them to settle twenty new families among them ; and 
we fear that the Hon<^ Court takes us for some of those families. It 
was for their sakes, if for any, that the minister is settled as he is, and 
the meeting house placed as it is. 

"7th And as for what priviledge we have received from Sherborn, 
we have paid at an excessive rate for it. Seaven years after the 
settlement of the Town, we could have bought as much of the same 
land for half the money that we gave for the settlement of the Town, 
& the meeting house & pastor's house : — 

" And as for what lands we have in Sherborn, we are contented that 
they should do duties to Sherborne. 

"8th We petition neither for silver nor gold, nor any such worldly 
interest, but that we may have the worship of God upheld among us 
& our children ; for this we do humbly repair to His Right Honorable 
Lordship & Most Excellent Governour, under the shaddow of whose 
wings we rejoice that we may rest for Patronage & Protection ; and 
all of the Honoured Court now sitting, the fathers of our land, to 
whome we humbly Petition to consider and do for the enlargement of 

Order of Incorporation. 135 

the Kingdome of our Lord &: Saviour, Jesus Christ, for the good of 
our souls & the souls of our Children, that we may not be like the 
Heathen — & be pleased to grant us to be either a Township or 

" Finally, if any of Sherborne or for Sherborne or any other Town 
shall pretend anything to the Hon'^ Court, which may tend to the 
hinderance of a grant of our petition, by reason of those many false 
informations that have been carried in to the Hon'i Court to deceive 
— we humbly Petition that we may have admittance to speak for 

John Eams 
John How 

1) ^ / ^ r^ Isaac Learned 

in the behalf & by the consent 
of the rest. ^ 

The foregoing paper was presented to the General Court about the 
middle of June, and this statement of facts and reasons, together with 
the representation of the brothers Eames, and the failure of Sherborn 
to produce the plot of their Township, seems to have led the Council, 
which so far had blocked the way of the petitioners, to take more 
decisive action. 

June 21, 1700, the Council passed an order "for making the 
Plantation called Framingham a Township," which was sent down for 
concurrence to the House of Representatives, properly endorsed by 
" Is. Addington, Secy. 

"June 22. In the House of Representatives, Read. 

"June 24. Read, and voted in concurrence. 

John Leverett, Speaker." 

The order is in the words following, viz : 

Upon a full hearing of the matters in difference between the town of 
Sherborn and the inhabitants of the plantation of Framingham, containing 
all that tract of land formerly granted to Thomas Danforth Esq., next 
adjoining to Sherborn upon the North and Northerly 

Ordered That the said Plantation called Framingham, be from hence- 
forth a Township, retaining the name of Framingham; and have and enjoy 
all priviledges of a Town according to law : Saving unto Sherborn all their 
rights of land granted by the General Court to the first inhabitants, and 
those since purchased by exchange with the Indians of Natick, or otherwise, 

' State Archives, cxiii. 221. 

136 History of FraminghaTn. 

and all the Farms lying within the said Township according to former 

grants of the General Court. 

Consented to BellOxMONt. 1 

June 25, 1700. 

This " Order," which went through all the requisite stages in the 
legislative and executive departments, is our Act of Incorporation. If 
it was the intention of the General Court to make the terms of the 
order indefinite and elastic, that object was successfully accomplished. 
No bounds of the territory, or other specific description is given; and 
no provision for immediate town organization is made. Sherborn 
was secured in all her territorial rights by the saving clause, which 
was a simple act of justice of which no party could complain. But 
the decision as to what those territorial rights were, was left open to 
future legislation and the Courts. 

Our settlers at once took steps to ascertain where they belonged. 
July 4, a petition signed by Thomas Drury, David Rice, Thomas 
Walker, John Pratt, John How, and Joseph Pratt, in behalf of the 
rest living at Rice's End, was presented to the Court, praying that 
they may be laid to Framingham. And the next day an order was 
passed as follows: " Ordered, that the Petitioners, and other the 
Farmes lying betwixt the northerly end of Cochitawick Pond and the 
line of Framingham be laid and annexed to the town of Framingham, 
and enjoy all immunities and privileges with the other the inhabi- 
tants in said town, and that they and their estates be liable to bear a 
proportion of charge in the said town."- 

On the same day, John Eames "in behalf of himself and his 
brothers living on the lands formerly granted to their father Thomas 
Eames deceased," presented a petition to the Court, representing that, 
while the terms of the " Order for making Framingham a Township " 
seemed to place their lands as reserved to Sherborn, yet, "under- 
standing that this Honourable Court thereby did not intend that the 
soil of the said Fames' land, should belong to Sherborn, and that 
Sherborn have declared the same — Butt inasmuch as Sherborn hath 
formerly molested them about the soil of said land, and since the 
abovesaid order have threatened to lay claim thereto 

" Your petitioner doth therefore humbly pray that this high and 
honourable Court will j^lease to cause a record to be made, that the 
soil of the aforesaid lands may be accounted and reputed the said 
Eames' freehold, to prevent further trouble concerning the title 

The House of Representatives promptly passed a bill in accordance 
with the prayer of the petitioner; but it was held in abeyance in the 

1 Manuscript Court Records. - Ibid. 

Re7nons trance of Sherborn. 137 

At the same time, Joseph Buckminster and John Town, in behalf 
of the inhabitants of Framingham, sent in a petition, asking whether 
both the lands " purchased " by Thomas Danforth, as well as those 
lands " granted " him by the General Court, were comprehended in the 
order of June 25. The answer to this would require the Legislature's 
decision as to the bound lines of Sherborn between said town and 
Framingham, except so far as the Fames' land was concerned. And 
Sherborn at once responded, as follows : 

" To the Honabie \^'illm Stoughton Esq-- Lie"* Gov and to the HonaWe 

" The Representation of the Selectmen of Sherborne (in the behalfe 
of s^ Town) 

" Humbly Sheweth, 

"That whereas in the House of Representatives a Bill is passed 
relating to the bounds betwixt Sherborne and Framingham, and also 
another Bill upon Eameses Petition for the soyle 

" And forasmuch as it will be a great wrong and injury to said Town 
of Sherborne and very much tend to the breaking up thereof if those 
Bills should pass to be enacted, because it will take off from the 
Northerly side of said Sherborne more than one mile in breadth, 
wherein is contained 17 families or householders, neer a third part of 
said Towne of Sherborne, severall of whom have largely shared in 
devisions of lands in Sherborne, and by their restless indevors have 
obtained the Meeting house halfe way betwixt them and the ancient 
inhabitants neer two miles distant from the place first stated and 
the inhabitants of said Sherborne haveing had Court grants and 
confirmations of said tracts of lands, viz. at Nonamtum Jan'^y 24'*^ 
1676, at Boston May 28, 1679 and May 30: 1679, and in May 29; 
1700 and also the Charter Confirmation; which said land hath bin in 
possession of the said Town of Sherborne 21 years. 

" It is therefore Humbly prayed in the behalfe of said Towne of 
Sherborne that the affaire of those Bills may be deferred until the 
Comp''s be heard touching the same. 

Joseph Morse ^ " 
Benoni Larned [^Selectmen of 
Moses Adams f Sherborne." ^ 
Tho. Sawin J 

This remonstrance killed the bill which had been passed by the 
House, to confirm to the Fames brothers " their freehold rights in the 
soil " of their father's grant, the enactment of which would have 
released said lands from liability of taxation by Sherborn, and left the 
owners free to go to the meeting-house in Framingham. 

* Mass. Archives, cxiii. 301. 

138 History of Framingham-. 

But Buckminster and Town's petition prevailed. And July 11, is 
the record : 

For explanation of the Order relating to Framingham 

Resolved and Ordered That all the lands belonging to Thomas 
Danforth Esq. as well by purchase as b}"^ Court grant at the time of settling 
of Sherborn in May 1679, and excepted in the Court's confirmation of the 
Township of Sherborn, be and belong unto Framingham : 

And That the inhabitants of said Town of Framingham do convene and 
assemble at their meeting house on the first Tuesday in August next, and 
then and there make choice of selectmen and other town officers, to serve 
until March next, at which time the law appoints the choice of Town 

Consented to Bellomont. 

The new town was thus established, and all questions of boundaries 
settled, except as to the jurisdiction of the Eames grant, and the line on 
the northeast next to Sudbury. This last named bound was fixed by 
an order of the General Court dated June 6, 1701 : " Ordered, that the 
line between Sudbury and the farmes annexed to Framingham, as set 
forth in the Plat exhibited under the hand of John Gore, be and 
continue the boundary line between the said farmes and Sudbury 
forever, viz : from the northerly end of Cochittwat pond to the bent of 
the river by Daniel Stone's, and so as the line goes to Framingham 
and Sudbury line." 

The territorial status of the Eames land remained unsettled. 

First Town Meeting. — " At a town meeting in the Town of 
Framingham, August the 5, 1700, legally warned, then and there were 
chosen, Joseph Buckminster, David Rice, Thomas Drury, Jeremiah 
Pike, Peter Clayes, Sen., John Town, Daniel Stone, selectmen; 
Thomas Drury, town clerk; Simon Millen, Thomas Frost, consta- 
bles; John How, Joseph Buckminster, Benjamin Bridges, assessors; 
Thomas Walker, town treasurer; Abial Lamb, Sen., commissioner; 
John Pratt, John Haven, Peter Clayes, Jr., Samuel Winch, surveyors 
of highways." 

Second Annual Town Meeting. — " At a town meeting in Fram- 
ingham, March the 3, 1701, legally warned, then and there were 
chosen, Thomas Drury, town clerk; Thomas Drury, David Rice, 
Jeremiah Pike, Sen., Abial Lamb, Sen., John Eames, John Adams, 
John How, selectmen ; Joshua Hemenway, constable for the west 
side of the river, and Thomas Pratt, constable for the east side of 
the river; Thomas Drury, John How, David Rice, assessors ; John 
Whitney, Jeremiah Pike, Benjamin Nurse, John Bent, tythingmen; 

Troubles with Slier born. 139 

John Shears, Thomas Walker, Nathaniel Haven, Benjamin Bridges, 
surveyors of highways; Peter Clayes, Sen., town treasurer; Abra- 
ham Belknap, clerk of the market; John Pratt, Isaac Bowen, Peter 
Clayes, Jr., Isaac Clark, fence viewers; Samuel Barton, Benjamin 
Whitney, Joseph Pratt, George Walkup, swine drivers ; Peter Clayes, 
Sen., grand juryman; John How and David Rice are the men to 
receive the contribution for Mr. John Swift's salary for the year 
ensuing. John How and Jeremiah Pike, Sen., are the two men to go 
down to assist our ronged neighbors at the Quarter Court, to be 
held at Charlestown." 

The " ronged neighbors " referred to in the last vote, were the 
dwellers on the disputed territory, viz., the Eames land. And as this 
dispute with Sherborn, already narrated in part, was a root of 
bitterness which greatly troubled our town fathers, and retarded our 
town growth, for the coming ten years, the leading facts and the 
ultimate result may best be given in this connection. 

Sherborn levied a tax on the families living on Sherborn Row, in 
the spring or summer of 1700, and in the fall proceeded to collect the 
same by legal process. Framingham interfered, as the following town 
action shows: " At a town meeting held Dec. 10, 1700, Voted, that as 
we apprehend that Sherborn sessors have rated part of our town of 
Framingham, that we the inhabitants do engage to defend them; 
and those of our grieved neighbors do engage to bear an equal 
proportion as to all charges that may arise upon a suit at law. Chose 
Joseph Buckminster, Isaac Learned and John Haven to discourse 
with a lawyer, etc." The vote of Mar. 3, 1701 (just quoted), was only 
carrying into effect this previous engagement. 

Framingham was desirous to have the matter brought at once to a 
final issue; and a petition of the selectmen, asking for a settlement of 
the line between Sherborn and Framingham, was presented to the 
General Court at the spring session ; and on June 11, 1701, Stephen 
Francis of Medford, Josiah Converse of Woburn, and John Ware of 
Wrentham, were appointed a committee "to go upon the place and 
settle the lines between the towns of Sherborn and Framingham, 
according to the order of the Court in June 1700; also having regard 
to all former grants relating thereto; And that each town present a 
plain and true Plat of their respective Townships." 

This committee discharged its duty, so far as appears, impartially, 
and made a report to the legislature. This report is here copied in 
full, as the best statement of the case extant. 

" Persuant to an order of the Gen""' Court dated June 11 : 1701, viz. 
that a comitee go upon the place and settle the line between Sherborne 
and Framingham from the North part of Cochituate Pond to Mr. 

140 History of Framingham. 

Danforth's land, also having regarde to all former grants relateing 
thereto and made legal — We whose names are hereunto subscribed 
being the comite apointed, having notified the respective Towns, viz. 
Sherborne and Framingham, Met at the hous of Mr. John Earns upon 
June the 19 : 1701, when persons from both Towns apeared in their 
Towns' behalfe. That which the Comitte desired was (i) That both 
Towns should shew what they claimed ; (2) The reason which they 
had to shew. Whereupon it was agread by both Towns that Sherborne 
should first shew their line. Whereupon the Comitte attended them 
to a white oke tree which had ben marked. The Comitte inquired 
whether that tree was owned by boath Towns ? Framingham denyed 
it, and affirmed that it never had marked or preambulated as the law 
directs ; only Mr. Fairbank and som others had marked it, and at the 
same time was forwarned by the owner of ye land of which it was a 
bound marke. Then Sherborne led the Comitte along by a crooked 
line to another marked tree, which Sherborne said was a bound tree 
of Mr. Stone's farm, and that Mr. Stone was there with them when 
they marked it. From thence they led the Comitte to a river near 
the Metting Hous of Framingham, as we thought about 30 pole 
from said Metting Hous, and so along up the river Westward as the 
river runs and acording to the various turnings of, till at length night 
drew on. Coming to a small brook coming out a pond, said Sherborne 
men were at a loss, not knowing which way to goe ; but after a long 
debate, it growing late the company went to Mr. Eams hous ; And 
that evening there was dischorse of the business in hand so long as 
boath Towns were present & no longer. It was that evening by the 
comitte desired that Sherborne men would shew the platt of their 
4000 acres of exchange land with Natick, it being thought the nerest 
way that justice might be don. It was then attested they had the 
platt of said land, and they gave incouragement of bringing it with 
them the next day, tho' not a promis. The Comitte being willing to 
have all the information that they might, yet fearing that Sherborne 
would not be willing to bring their platt, sent two messengers in the 
night to their clarke praying that they might have a sight or copy of 
their plat for their money. The answer which the messingers returned 
was, that the clarke said he must be with the comitte the next morn- 
ing, and that it would take him several hours time to draw it out, and 
that he could not get time to doe it. 

"In the morning boath Towns being convened, we went with Sherbun 
to perfect what was left the day before. Sherbun brought a man : 
viz. one of Mr. Danforths tenants, who said he knew the line ; and led 
the Comitte to a great pine tree, and said that in time past an Indian 
tould him that was the line, which line takes in a considerable part of 

Troubles zuitJi Skej'-boru. 141 

Mr. Danforths land, as Sherbun informed us. That being finished the 
comitte went then with Framingham men, who led the Comitte to a 
place called Beaver Dam, and there shewed an old bound marke of 
Mr. Danforths land, which tree stood on the north side of the brook 
about three or four pole. Thg Comitte then demanded of Sherbun 
whether the platt of their 4000 acres of exchange land with Natick 
comes to said tree ? Sherbun answered the Comitte, No, it did not 
come so far. The Comitte then inquired of them whether they come 
over the brook ? They answered, No. It was again inquired of 
Sherbun men whether a line to Cochituate Ponds would interfere or 
touch upon the line of said 4000 acres ? Sherbun answered No. 
Then the Comitte went with Framingham men from markt tree to 
markt tree on a line till they came past the land in controversie. 
Then retiring to Mr. Earns' hous, it was then by the Comitte desired 
that each Town should make out their claims ; Sherbun desiring 
Framingham to begin : The first order which Framingham shewed 
being only signed by the clarke, whereupon Sherbun rejected it as a 
thing of no value, it not being signed by the secretary. Sherbun 
having said order signed by the secretary, it was desired that they 
would shew it; but no arguments could prevail — : whereupon the 
Comitte being desirous that right take place, and neither Town should 
suffer for want of an order which happened to miscarry; and that all 
things might apear plain and above board, adjourned their meeting to 
Monday following at Mr. Church his hous at Watertown, where all 
persons concerned, according to apointment, met. That day was 
spent in hearing boath Towns, their grants, deeds, pleas, and argu- 
ments. Night coming on, and the Towns presenting no more to the 
Comitte, said Comitte dismissed both Towns, and agreed to meet at 
Boston on Thirsday next, being June 26 : 1701 : Who accordingly mett, 
and having their papers, spent that day in considering of their orders 
and grants particularly over and over, and finding that said land in 
contriversie was, in answer to Thomas Earns his petition was granted 
to Sherbun to be included in the exchange land with Natick, But 
finding that when Sherbun did perfect their plat of Exchange lands 
with Natick, which was confirmed to Sherbun as it was described, 
platted and bounded, said land came but to Beaver Dam, and so the 
land in contriversie was excluded. Hence the Comitte looked on the 
land in contriversie (they neglecting or refusing to take it, and making 
up their complment of 4000 acres without it) not to be Sherbun land, 
but Natick land. The Comitte perusing a return of a comitte who 
thought it best, all things considered, that the persons on the lands in 
contriversie should lie to Sherbun, there to doe duty, and there to 
record benefit : and ye comitte finding that they have there done 

142 History of Framingham. 

duty and recorded benefit. But the Comittee doe humbly conceive 
that this act of the Court did not give this land which was then Natick 
land to Sherbun, to be accounted in Sherbun Township : Nor can the 
Comitte judge that Sherbun did account it as their land and in their 
Township, nor desire that it should :-i- It apears to the Comitte that 
when the inhabitants living on said land in contriversie, killed wolves 
on said land, that Sherbun disowned them (as well they might) being 
of the town of Sherbun, and so refused to pay. 

"One thing more seems to shew that Sherbun did not account the 
land in contriversie to be theirs but Natick's in as much as after M"". 
Earns had bought said land of Indians who were ordered at Nonantum 
court to make sale, for twenty two pounds, and had a deed signed and 
sealed, with a general warrantte, said deed was dated in Aprel 1695; 
yet Sherbun in May following bought the same land of the same 
Indians for ten pounds; but warrent in said deed was only from said 
Indians & their heirs. Now the comitte take for granted that if 
Sherbun had accounted said land in contriversie to be in their 
Township, and their land; or had ben included in their exchange 
land with Natick, they would not have payed so much money for that 
which was their own before. 

"The comitte not finding that Sherbun ever had any confirmation of 
said land, as it hath somtimes been described to be bounded by M""- 
Danforth, John Death & John Stone in three parts, or any other grant 
relating thereto to hinder, did jointly agree without the least jarre or 
demur in that matter, that the line sett by M'' John Gore in his platt, 
be the dividing line between Sherbun and Framingham. ^ 

Stephen Francis 
Signed Josiah Converse 

"June 26, 1 701. John Ware" 

On the reception of this report, the House of Representatives 
passed the following resolve : " Resolved that the bound between the 
towns of Sherborn and Framingham be settled according to the report 
above written." But before action was taken by the Council, the 
selectmen of Sherborn sent in a remonstrance, averring that the land 
in controversy comprises above a fourth part of their town; and 
reasserting with emphasis the points set forth in their former petition 
(<z«/i? p. 137). This delayed action; and so the matter was left 
unsettled. Sherborn continued to tax these seventeen families living 
on Sherborn Row; and Framingham continued to uphold them in 
refusing to pay said taxes. Our town records contain votes like the 
following: " If any of Sherborn come upon any of the controverted 

1 State Archives, cxiii. 303-3 14. 

Trouble with S her born. 143 

lands to make any distress for any Rates we do engage each to the 
other to bear an equal proportion as to all charges that shall arise 
thereby at a suit at law." 

The legal voters living on the disputed territory attended town 
meeting in Framingham, and not in Sherborn; were elected to office 
in Framingham, and went to meeting on the Sabbath here. 

This state of things continued till the spring of 1708, when Framing- 
ham sent a petition to the General Court, praying that Sherborn 
Row may be laid to Framingham. At the winter session the next 
February, Samuel Bullard, representative from Sherborn, on behalf 
of said town, made the following proposition: "In the matter of 
controversy relating to the 17 families, your petitioner begs leave to 
offer, that altho' the town of Sherborn be a loser by what is hereafter 
proposed, yet for the sake of future peace and quietness, and that we 
may be a better settled society, I humbly offer, that if this Court 
will be pleased to grant to the town of Sherborn 4000 acres of 
wilderness country land where we can find it any ways convenient 
for said town, in compensation for those 17 families, and for what we 
have been out and disbursed {n satisfying Natick Indians for part of 
that land in controversy, and wholly exclude those 17 families now in 
controversy from any right title and interest in Sherborn Town lands 
now lying common and undivided; and also that they pay their respec- 
tive proportions, in those rates or assessments now in the hands of our 
town constables to collect, we will, tho' great losers, set contented, if 
this Honoured Court shall please to lay them to Framingham." ^ 

The endorsement on this petition is "granted, on condition that 
the towns of Sherborn, and Framingham, and the 17 families 

The seventeen families consented, provided Framingham would 
abate all uncollected taxes on their estates, and guarantee to them 
equal rights and privileges with the other inhabitants in the common 
lands. And at a town meeting. Mar. 22, 1709, "duly warned, in 
order to our receiving of those families in controversy between 
Sherborn and Framingham, in answer to their proposals; Voted, that 
all former Rates disbursed and not cleared with the minister and 
other Rates that are not fully cleared as to town assessments, the 
town will clear. Voted, that these 17 families shall enjoy all rights 
and privileges and immunities with others of said town in all respects 
both as to feeding their cattle upon the Common and also for cutting 
of wood for the support of the minister in the town abovesaid." 

" In General Court, June 16, 17 10. It appearing by the return of 
the Representatives of Sherborn and Framingham, and the votes of 

• State Archives, cxiii. 481. 

144 History of Framingham. 

the said towns, that the plan proposed by Samuel Bullard Esq. is 
agreeable to them, Ordered, that the line between the towns be 
forthwith run, and that the 17 families, late in controversy be included 
within Framingham line, and be accounted part of Framingham 
forever: And that Sherborn have their 4000 acres confirmed to them, 
upon their offering the Plot, as is directed in a former order of this 

The 4000 acres of "wilderness country land," which Sherborn 
received as an equivalent for the seventeen families, was located west 
of Mendon. 

The designation, " 17 families," was first applied by Sherborn; and 
was after used as a convenient description well understood by all 
parties. But in fact only seven individuals or heads of families of the 
seventeen, were accounted as inhabitants, and received a " dividend " 
in the common lands in Sherborn. These were Isaac Learned, Isaac 
Gleason, Zachariah Paddlefoot, Samuel Fames, Thomas Pratt, Jabish 
Pratt, and John Fames. 

To go back to the organization of the town. 

First Meeting-House. — To meet the needs of the many families 
who could not go to the neighboring towns to attend public Sabbath 
worship, and to strengthen their appeal to the legislature for an act 
of incorporation, our settlers proceeded in the summer of 1698, to 
erect the frame of a meeting house, and cover it in. This house 
stood on the high land in the east central part of the old cemetery. 
As originally built, it was in size thirty by forty feet, and two stories 
high, fronting the south. It was so far finished that Sabbath services 
were held in it the next year. But votes like the following indicate a 
very gradual approach towards completeness: "Mar. 31, 1701. Voted 
to gather ten pounds in money by way of rate, for the finishing of the 
meeting house, and that Peter Clayes, Sen., John Death, Sen., and 
Jeremiah Pike, Sen., should employ a carpenter and lay out this 
money for the best advantage." "Oct. 3, 1705. Voted, to raise by rate 
ten pounds to be laid out for the better finishing of our meeting 
house." A similar vote was passed Apr. 5, 1708. 

The house was boarded and clapboarded, but not painted. The 
windows on the front side were of uniform size, and in regular order; 
on the ends, and north side, they were put in where, and of such size, 
as individual pew-owners pleased — probably many of them without 
frames. Originally there was one large double door in front ; but 
individuals were allowed, or took the liberty, to cut doors at the ends 
and north side, wherever most convenient to reach their respective 

First Meeting-House. 145 

Inside, the walls were unfinished. The pulpit stood on the north 
side, opposite the great door. A gallery (unfinished till 17 15) 
extended across the ends and front side. The east end and half the 
front was called the " women's gallery," and reached by the " women's 
stairs " at the southeast corner; the west end and half the front was 
called the " men's gallery," and reached by the " men's stairs " from 
the south-west corner. A "bar" across the centre of the front gallery 
indicated the dividing line, which was not to be crossed by either sex. 
Long seats of the rudest construction ran around the galleries, next 
the walls, and in front. 

On the lower floor were two bodies of seats, or benches, separated 
by an alley — the east range allotted to the women, the west to the 
men. The deacons' seat was in front of the pulpit. Under the 
galleries were long seats, running parallel with the walls. By special 
vote of the town, individuals were allowed to take away portions of 
these long seats, and build pews against the walls, six feet by four 
and one-half or five. 

March, 17 10. The town voted, that there shall be a decent body 
of seats set up in the meeting-house, with a hanging table before the 
deacons' seat. 

March 24, 17 12, Thomas Pratt, Sen., Peter Clayce, Simon Mellen, 
John Gleason, Phillip Pratt, Jere. Pike, Samuel Stone, were appointed 
a committee, " to regulate disorders in the public meeting-house." 

" Voted, That the cutting of the long seats or any seat in the meeting 
house ; also the cutting of holes through the walls of the house, either for 
doors or windows, or on what pretence soever, without license for the same 
obtained from the town; also the building or enlarging of pews in said 
meeting house, without the town's license, are disorders to be regulated by 
said Committee. Also the said committee are impowered to inspect and 
view said meeting house, and where they shall find any of the above 
disorders, that they take away all pews or enlargements of pews, for which 
there appears no grant upon record ; and also to repair all such breaches on 
the walls of said meeting house which have been without the town's license 
either cut or broken." 

In 17 15 the meeting-house was enlarged ten feet on the back side, 
making it forty feet square. The contract was as follows : " Voted 
that Thomas Drury, Jonathan Rice, Benjamin Bridges, John Whitney 
and Edward Goddard be a committee to agree with John How, to 
repair the meeting house, that is to sa}^, Mr. How is to remove the 
back part of the said house, with the pulpit and the posts on each 
side of the pulpit, ten feet backward, thereby making the house 
square ; to put on a roof over the same of the same form and work- 
manship as the Marlbrow meeting house, and complete and cover the 

146 History of Framingham. 

same ; to inclose the sides and ends of the ten feet breadth with good 
boards and clapboards, the old stuff to be improved as far as it will 
go ; to make and place a good floor, a table, and body of seats below, 
after the same manner and form as in Sudbury meeting house ; to 
make galleries and gallery stairs, floors and seats as the committee 
shall appoint ; to make and place a good floor of joist for the vault 
overhead and to line the same with a good floor of planed boards 
under the joist, and to white-wash the same ; to lath plaster and white 
wash the walls ; to provide glass to the value of forty shillings in 
addition to what glass there is belonging to said house ; and to make 
windows, frames and casements for the same ; to find and provide at 
his own cost all timber, boards, shingles, nails and other materials 
necessary for the complete finishing of the aforesaid width," 

The cost of this enlargement ^as ;^85. 

The next August, it was " voted to have three doors to the meeting 
house, one at each end, and the great doors in the foreside, and the 
rest of the doors to be clapboarded up. 

" Isaac Gleason was chosen to, and accepted of the care of our 
publick meeting house, to sweep and keep it decent and clean for the 
3^ear 17 13, and is to have 19 s. for said service." 

1733. A presentment was issued by the Superior Court against the 
town, for not having a decent meeting house in said town. 

This house stood and was used for Sabbath worship till 1735. Oct. 
13, 1735, the town '■^ voted to give the old meeting house frame to Rev. 
Mr. Swift." 

Seating the Meeting-House. — The families of those who built 
and owned pews, occupied their respective pews. All others were 
assigned seats by a committee, under direction of the town, females 
on the "women's side," males on the "men's side." 

The town 

Voted, "That in dignity, the seats shall rank as follows: — the table 
(Deacons' seat) and the fore seats are accounted the two highest ; the front 
gallery equals in dignity the second and third seats in the body of the house ; 
the side gallery equals in dignity the fourth and fifth seats in the body of the 

The rule of seating varied. Sometimes a committee was instructed 
to have regard to " age, and rate of taxation ; " at others " rate " alone 
was regarded. A new assignment of seats was ordered, once in three, 
five, or ten years, as circumstances required. 

The following votes are a sample of many passed by the town : 
1701. Voted, "that Mr. Joseph Buckminster have liberty to set a pew 
on which side of the great doors he pleases." 1702. Voted, " that a 

First Meeting-Hoiise. 147 

pew be made at the north-east corner of the house for those men's 
wives that sit at the table. John Jaquith was allowed to build a pew 
behind the men's seats, provided he agree to take care of the meeting- 
house for seven years." 1705. Voted^ "that John Eames may take 
away the hind seat behind the women's seats, to set up a pew, provided 
he takes in as many as can conveniently sit in it, and doth give up all 
his right in other seats, and doth promise that he will sit there himself." 
1715. "Whereas Thomas Walker and Peter Clayes are dissatisfied 
about their seats in the meeting house, the town has taken their griev- 
ances into consideration, and have voted that the town do think they 
have their right according to what they paid to the ^70 granted to 
repair the meeting house." 17 16. " Voted, that three weeks longer time 
and no more be allowed to John How to build up his pew, and he may 
improve it accordingly, provided he withdraws from the table, and sets 
in said pew himself and family ; otherwise that the ground above 
granted with the rest up to the staires be to the use of Capt. 
Benjamin Willard and Mr. John Stone and their families for pews, 
leaving it to them to agree which shall have, the middle pew, provided 
also that they proceed forthwith after the above said three weeks are 
ended to built said pews." 

172 1. "Granted the petition of Elizabeth Bridges and six other 
women, for leave to set up a pew for themselves at the north-east 
corner of the short gallery, provided they maintain the window against 
it. Voted, that the Deacons be desired to take special notice of all 
disorderly persons on the Lord's day, that do not keep to their own 
seats appointed for them, but keep others out of their seats, whereby 
the Sabbath is profaned \ and that they admonish them for their 
misbehavior in that respect." 

The First Minister. — From statements contained in petitions, 
it is probable that the inhabitants in their individual capacity em- 
ployed a minister for a part of the year 1699. It is certain that one 
was laboring with them in the early spring of 1700. 

At the second town meeting, held Aug. 21, 1700, sixteen days after 
the organization of the town, overtures were made to Mr. John Swift 
of Milton, then supplying the pulpit, " to continue to live with them 
and be their settled minister," and offering to give him "for his own 
proper use, one hundred acres of land and ten acres of meadow." 

" Voted, that the inhabitants are willing to give Mr. Swift sixty pounds 
in money yearly, or as money to his acceptance, and find him his 

" Voted, that the inhabitants would fence in twenty acres of land, and 
break up ten acres when he shall desire it." 

148 Histoiy of Framingham. 

''^ Voted, to give Mr. Swift one hundred pounds towards the building- 
of an house, and that one fifth part of the hundred pounds should be 
in money. Voted, that Mr. Swift's salary shall be raised by a Rate, 
and it shall be paid by way of contribution, every man to paper his 
money, and that which is not papered to be accounted as stranger's 

" Voted, that David Rice and John How shall receive the contribution 
money, and pay it into Mr. Swift every week, and keep an account of 
every man's money." 

" Voted, that Peter Clayes, Sen., David Rice and John How should 
be the men to set a price upon the timber, boards, shingles and 
clabboards that shall be brought for the building and finishing of Mr. 
Swift's house." 

May 13, 1701. In town meeting, Voted, "that Peter Clayes, Sen., 
Benjamin Bridges, John How, John Haven, John Town and Samuel 
Winch, Sen., should go to three ordained ministers for their opinion 
whether Mr. John Swift of Milton, be a person qualified for the work 
of the ministry according as the law directs." The committee applied 
to Rev. James Sherman of Sudbury, Rev. Grindal Rawson of Mendon, 
and Rev. William Brattle of Cambridge, who certified as follows : 

Whereas the inhabitants of the town of Framingham are desirous to 
have the ordinances of the Gospel settled amongst them, and have made 
application to us for our opinion with respect to Mr. John Swift of Milton : 

These are to signifie that we do freely as it is our opinion that the said 
Mr. Swift is a person qualified for the work of the Ministry according to 
the direction of the law. 

This certificate is dated May 20, 1701 ; and at a town meeting held 
May 22, it was voted by the inhabitants of said Framingham, "to 
give a call to Mr. John Swift to abide and settle with us as our legal 
minister. Voted, that Abial Lamb, David Rice, Benj. Bridges, John 
Town, John Haven, Peter Clayes Sen. Samuel \\'inch Sen. and 
Thomas Drury, should call in behalf of the rest of the inhabitants Mr. 
Swift to settlement as is above voted." 

Mr. Swift was ordained Oct. 8, 1701. 

oJi^^^--*— ' 

"Jan. 13, 1701-2. In town meeting, Voted, to fence in our Reverend 
pastor twenty acres of land, with a good ditch where it is ditchable, 
and to set posts and two rails upon the ditch ; and where it cannot be 
ditched to set up a good five rail fence." 

Rev. yohn Sivift. 149 

" Voted to set up for Mr. Swift, a pew in tiie meeting-house." 

"Mar. 16, 1702. Voted, that Mr. Swift shall have thirty and five 
cords of wood, to be cut and carried to his door and corded there; 
which shall be proportioned to the inhabitants by a rate; and if this 
is not sufficient for the year, to be further added unto, until sufficient 
for his fire." 

"May 18, 1702. At a town meeting regularly assembled, then and 
there Voted, that whatever right or title the town of Framingham hath 
to that tenement or tract of land and meadow now in the possession 
of our Reverend pastor, Mr. John Swift — Butted and bounded as 
followeth, viz. Beginning at the western end of a bridge over a river 
commonly called Sudbury River, near Framingham meeting house, and 
from thence running to the northerly end of a pond called Duck Pond 
lying at the east end of the now dwelling house of the above said Mr. 
John Swift, from thence running northwesterly to a small fast Rock 
and a heap of Stones being a boundary to the land leased to John Town 
and from thence running southerly upon a straight line to an Oak tree 
stooping to the north marked on both sides, and from thence running 
southerly on a straight line to an Oak bush and a heap of Stones 
being on the north side of the above said Sudbury River, and" from 
thence running easterly and northeasterly as the River runs to the 
above said bridge. Also a piece of meadow lying on the north or 
northerly side of Framingham meeting house, bounded by the upland 
where it is most convenient fencing, having on the northerly or 
northeasterly side a small piece of meadow leased to Jeremiah Pike Jr. 
Also a piece of meadow lying at the north end of a hill commonly 
called Bare hill, bounded by the upland where it is most convenient 
fencing, joining on the northerly side to a meadow leased to Jeremiah 
Pike Jr. Also a piece of meadow lying in the Great Meadow — is 
given and freely granted unto the above said John Swift, his heirs 
and assigns, with all buildings edifices, wells, water courses, and all 
the privileges and appurtenances of one kind or another the same 
belonging, or in any wise appertaining, unto him the said John Swift 
his heirs and assigns forever." 

This quitclaim deed from the town was supplemented by a war- 
rantee deed, dated Sept. 24, 1702, from the executors and overseers of 
Mr. Danforth's will to Rev. Mr. Swift. 

"Sept. 16, 1702. Voted, there shall be a Rate of ten pounds 
proportioned on the inhabitants, for breaking up our Reverend 
pastor's land, wherein manual labor is to be valued at 2s. per day, and 
oxen work at 18 pence, and a breaking up plow^ at 18 pence per day." 

"Oct. 3, 1705. Voted Xh'Ai the town will cross-plow the land that has 
been broken up for our pastor forthwith, and break up, as much the 

ISO History of Framingham. 

next June as will make it up ten acres, and cross-plow it in the fall of 
the leaf next after." 

The First Church. — The Rev. Mr. Swift left the foUowing^ 
record: "Framingham, Oct. 8, 1701, Then a church was embodied 
in this place, consisting of eighteen members, over which the Rev. 
John Swift was ordained (the same day) a Pastor. The names of 
those who lay in the foundation of said church were these, viz. Henry 
Rice, Dea. David Rice, Dea. Joshua Hemenway, Thohias Drury, 
Thomas Walker, John How, Simon Millen, Peter Cloice, Benj. Bridges, 
Caleb Bridges, Thomas Millen, Benj. Nurse, Samuel Winch, Thomas 
Frost, John Haven, Isaac Bowen, Stephen Jennings, Nathl Haven." 

The covenant of said church was as follows : 

We do, under a soul-humbling and abasing sense of our utter unworthiness 
of so great and high a privilege as God is graciously putting into our hands, 
accept of God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, for our God in covenant 
with us; and do give up ourselves and our seed, according to the terms of 
the everlasting Covenant, to be His under most sacred and inviolable bonds ; 
promising, by the help of His grace and strength, (without which we can do 
nothing) that we will walk together in a church state, as becomes saints, 
according to the rules of His Holy Word ; submitting ourselves and seed 
unto the government of the Lord Jesus Christ, as King of His church ; 
(soon after was added) and to the watch and discipline of this chiircli — ■ 
managing ourselves towards God and man, all in civil and sacred authority, 
as those ought, who are under the teachings of God's Holy Word and Spirit ; 
alike declaring it to be our resolution, that we will, in all things wherein we 
may fall short of duty, wait upon God for pardoning mercy and grace, in and 
through our dear Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. To whom be glory 
forever. Amen. 

To persons upon their admission into the church, it was said : — And we, 
the church of Christ in this place, do promise to carry it towards you, as a 
church of Christ ought to its particular members, according to the rule of 
God's Holy Word. This we also promise, in and through our dear Lord 
Jesus Christ. To whom be glory forever. 

No church records are extant, from the organization of the church 
to Dec. 30, 1716 ; at which date a record is begun by Mr. Swift, and 
continued till July 14, 1728. The earlier book of^ records, if he kept 
one (and those early church records were usually kept by the pastor, 
and somewhat in the form of a journal), is lost, except the paper just 
quoted ; as is the record of the last years of his pastorate. From the 
certificate of Rev. Mr. Bridge (quoted in the preface), it is nearly 
certain that no record of those years from 1728 to his death in 1745, 
was kept. If so, it must have been destroyed before the settlement of 
Mr. Bridge. 

Schools. 1 5 1 

Schools. — The first mention in the Town Records of a public 
school, is under date of Sept. 3, 1706, when the town z/^/i?rt' " that Dea. 
Joshua Hemenway should be our school master the year ensuing, and 
that Benj. Bridges and Peter Clayes Jr. should agree with him what 
he should have for his pains." 

Previous to this, whatever instruction was given to the children was 
on private account. Probably the wife of Daniel Stone taught such 
as chose to come to her house, at Stone's End ; Thomas Drury did 
the same for the children at Rice's End ; Isaac Learned for Sherborn 
Row, and Joshua Hemenway for Salem End and the north side 
settlers. And when appointed public school-master, Dea. Hemenway 
received the scholars at his own house, as no school-house was built 
till ten years after this date. He continued to teach till 17 14. In 
1710, in addition to his duties as school master, he was chosen "to 
learn youth to write." His autograph will show his style of writing. 

Aj/S^^<x /cZT^IfThnrt^ 

The important matter of schools and education will be treated of in 
a separate chapter. 

Pound. — March 2, 170:^, the town voted that there shall be a 
pound set up upon the west side of the river by the bridge. The next 
year the place was changed, and the pound was built on land of John 
Town, joining to Mr. Swift's land by the road. 

The pound was kept in the same neighborhood till near the begin- 
ning of the present century, when it was set up on the north side of 
what is now Pleasant street, at the point where the Lowell railroad 
crosses said street. 

Town Brand. — March 2, 1702, voted '■'■ th'AX. there shall be a town 
brand made for the use of the town, which shall be made with the 
letter F." 

Stocks. — This essential safeguard to good order, as our fathers 
believed, and instrument of punishment for minor offences, was built 
in Framingham as early as 1703. They were probably placed near 
the meeting-house, though the location is never mentioned in the 
records, it being taken for granted that everybody interested knew 
where to find them. They were repaired at an expense of i s. 8 d, in 
1716, and rebuilt at a cost of 5 s. in 1723. 

152 History of Fravtingha^n. 

Weights and Measures. — "Jan. 5, 1703-4. The town voted \)cv3X 
there shall be a rate made, one quarter part to be paid in Indian Corn 
at 2 s. per bushel, and Rye at 3 s. per bushel, or else to be paid in 
money, for to procure Weights and Measures, as the law directs." 

April 5, 1704, John Eames Sen. brought a wolf's head to Thomas 
Drury, a selectman, and John Pratt, constable, to be dealt with as the 
law directs. 

Pay of Representatives. — In early times, towns paid the charge 
for the services of their representative to the General Court. The 
pay was reckoned at so mnch. per die??i, and the amount was included 
in the taxes of the following year, and was collected and paid at 
convenience. Thomas Drury, the first representative from Framing- 
ham, received for his services £10. o. 4. 

In 1704, the town rated, "That they would pay John Haven for 
all the time he spent for the town in the General Court; only the 
Sabbath days are to be deducted out that were within that time that 
he was at Court." 

Stock OF Ammunition. — A prime duty incumbent on towns was 
the keeping on hand of a stock of ammunition, to be used in 
emergency. This town bought its first supply in 1704. It was kept 
in some central place except in time of war, when it was divided 
into two or more parcels, and each parcel put in charge of the 
several military captains, and kept in their dwelling-houses, or 
deposited in the garrisons. Samuel How was employed " to make 3 
casks to put the Town's stock of ammunition in, for which he was 
paid 9 shillings." 

"April 3, 1 7 10. Voted, to raise the sum of ^10 for to provide a 
town stock of ammunition; and that it be kept in four several places 
in the town." The tax list, under this vote, is preserved, and is 
valuable as giving the names of the taxable inhabitants of that date, 
and indicating the relative value of their estates. [See end of this 

"May 12, 1712. Voted £^ to procure an addition to our stock of 

"Mar. 5, 1715-6. Voted, that Sergt. John Gleason shall take the 
care of the town stock of ammunition, and turn it as often as is 
needful; and that it is his own offer to do it without charging the 
town any recompence for the same." 

" Mar. 8, 17 15-6. The selectmen weighed the stock of ammunition: 
the weight of barrel, bag and powder was 120 pounds; weight of 
bullets, flints and bags to put them in was 151 pounds." 

Garrison Houses. 153 

"June 15, 17 19. Ordered, that Capt. Drury and Ens. Bridges take 
care that the town's Stock of powder and other ammunition be 
brought to, and secured in the vault over the body of seats in the 
meeting house, and that Edw. Goddard provide a lock for the vault." 

" May 28, 1733. Ordered, that Messrs Thomas Stone and Thomas 
Winch be desired to view the town's stock of powder and other 
ammunition, to see whether the same be duly preserved, and whether 
it needs to be changed." 

"Sept. 9, 1774. Voted, that the selectmen are hereby directed to 
procure and purchase at the town's expense, 5 barrels of powder, and 
5 hundred weight of lead or bullets, for addition to the town's stock." 

" Sept. 30, Voted, to purchase a chest of 25 Fire Arms, and two field 

In 1788, the town stock consisted of nine firearms, 150 pounds of 
powder, 381 pounds of bullets, 275 flints. In 1805, a committee was 
chosen to build a magazine for keeping the town's ammunition. It 
was a wooden house, six feet square, and seven feet posts, and stood 
in the northwest part of the old cemetery. 

Forts and Garrison Houses. — The war known as Queen Anne's 
War, came on soon after the incorporation of the town. It 
was declared in May, 1702, and terminated by the treaty of Utrecht, 
March 30, 17 13. This was a period of general alarm, in which 
Framingham participated; though few of our men were drafted into 
the service. In the expedition to Port Royal, Sept. 16, 1710, Joseph 
Buckminster was captain of grenadiers, in Sir Charles Hobby's 
regiment, and sailed in the brigantine Henrietta. Others from 
Framingham in this expedition were David Rice, died April 20, 
1711; Jonathan Provender; Benjamin Provender, died Jan. 21, 
171 1 ; Joseph Adams. 

Ample precautions were taken to meet hostile visits from the 
Indians, who scourged the frontiers. A sentry was posted on the top 
of Bare hill, during the time of public worship, on the Sabbath, to 
give alarm, in case of the appearance of the savages. Several forts 
or garrisons were built in different parts of the town, by neighbors 
clubbing together for mutual protection. From the vote of the town 
in 1 7 10, for distributing the ammunition, it is probable that at that 
date there were not less than four such garrisons. The location of 
three of them is known. One stood near the then house of Joseph 
Buckminster, a little to the southeast of the present house of E. F. 
Bowditch ; another at Salem End, between the present houses of 
James Fenton and Dr. Peter Parker, on the north side of the brook ; 
a third on Mellen's Neck, to the north of Joseph A. Merriam's. The 

154 History of Framijigham. 

fourth was probably located near the south end of Learned's pond. 
The Salem End fort was built of logs, with a watch-box above the 
roof at the gable end, and was surrounded by long pickets firmly set 
in the ground. This outer defence had a heavy plank gate, hung on 
wooden hinges. There was a stoned-up cellar underneath, where 
food could be stored, and a well just outside the gate. When an 
alarm was sounded, all the families within reach hurried to the fort. 
It is a current tradition, that on a dark night, when the neighboring 
families were collected here, with two watchmen in the sentry-box, 
the dogs gave warning that an enemy was near. The sentries fired 
in the direction whence the sounds came, and the alarm ceased. The 
next morning, blood was discovered near the gate, and tracked across 
the swale to near the Badger farm. 

Mr. Barry gives the following: "An aged inhabitant of this town 
relates an instance of narrow escape from death, on a like occasion, 
which occurred to his grandmother. Having gone alone to the yard 
to milk, about two hours before sunset, she carefully looked around to 
see if there were Indians in the neighborhood. Supposing herself 
secure, she proceeded to her work, and while in the act of milking, an 
Indian (who, as was their custom, had disguised himself with brakes, 
and crawled along on his belly) suddenly struck her in the back with 
a knife. She instantly sprung, and by the effort twitched the knife 
from the Indian's grasp; and before he could rise, had advanced so 
far, that she succeeded in reaching the house, with the knife in her 
back. An alarm was immediately given, by three successive dis- 
charges of a musket, which soon brought a reinforcement from the 
neighborhood of what is now called the Silk Farm, where was a 
garrison well provided with powerful dogs and arms. On pursuing, 
however, they found no traces of the Indian. The woman survived 
her injury." 

The farmers went to their work in the fields, carrying with them 
firearms for protection. The husband would go with his wife to the 
barnyard, and watch while she milked the cows. " An aged woman 
of this town heard, from her grandmother, an account of this practice 
in her day ; the latter adding, that her husband's presence was, after 
all, of no great service, for instead of watching for Indians, he would 
throw himself upon his back, and sing loud enough to be heard 
through the neighborhood." \Barry?^ 

At this date, and for many years after, one or more dwelling- 
houses in every district was built so as to be arrow-proof and bullet- 
proof. A description of the Learned house, which stood where Mrs. 
Katherine Eames now lives, will answer for all. It was a two-story 
house without a leanto. The frame, /. e.^ the sills, posts, girths and 

Garrison Houses. 155 

plates, were of heavy timbers. Instead of studs in the lower story, 
logs split in half were set upright, face and back alternately, so as to 
match by overlapping the edges. The space under the windows on 
the back side was filled in with bricks ; on the front side and ends 
with two-inch planks. The lathing was nailed to the logs on the 
inside, and the boards were nailed in like manner on the outside. 
The doors were of planks, and the windows were provided with inside 

Some of these garrison houses were lined with planks instead of 
split logs. The Dr. Stone house, which stood on Pratt's plain, near 
the arsenal ; the John Eames house, built where is now R. L. Day's 
house ; the Nathaniel Haven house, which stood west of Washakum 
pond (the Charles Morse place now in Ashland) ; the original 
Nathaniel Eames house, late Jonathan Eames', were plank-lined 
garrison houses. A similar house, built about 1730, by Nathaniel 
Haven for his son, and placed on the opposite side of the road from 
the father's, is still standing, as is the Nathaniel Eames house. The 
former is owned by Joseph Morse. 

Rules for Pasturage and Cutting \^■ooD on the Commons. — 
"In town meeting March 4, 1705-6, vofcd t.ha.t in case any person shall 
bring or take in any neat cattle or horses, to feed or run at large upon 
any of our lands lying in Common, if such cattle or horses be known 
to have been brought into town for that end, that such cattle may be 
taken up and impounded by the field drivers." 

" Voted, that in case any person shall fall down any wood or timber 
on any of our town commons, and shall not cut up such wood or 
timber within thirty days next after, then such wood or timber shall be 
liable to be cut up and taken away by any other person in said town, 
and that any person shall have free liberty so to do.'-' " Voted, that in 
case any person shall fall down any trees for fire-wood on our Common 
lands, that are less than 20 inches through at the stub, and shall not 
cut up both body and top within six months after, every such person 
shall forfeit and pay 12 pence for every such tree, one-half to the 
informer, and one-half to the town." 

" Voted, that in case any person of our town shall go upon our 
Common lands and fall down any trees on purpose for getting bark for ' 
tanners, and shall not cut up and improve such wood or timber so as 
it be beneficial to himself or some other person in said town, within 
12 months after, every such person so offending and convicted of it> 
shall forfeit and pay for every such tree 5 shillings, one-half to go to 
the informer, and one-half to the town, and all forfeitures arising 
under this order to be recovered in such manner as the law provides." 

156 Histojy of Fj^aniinghain. 

Bridges and Highways. — The record of its highways is the 
history of the material growth, the public spirit, and the relative 
importance of a town. When its roads radiate from a common centre 
to the circumference, and that centre is the meeting-house, you will 
commonly find an intelligent, moral and religious, as well as thriving 
community. The people have faith in God and faith in each other; 
are social and helpful ; are mindful of individual prosperity, and the 
prosperity and position of the town. Where the roads mainly lead 
through or out of town, they give sufficient warning to strangers to 
continue their journey. 

At first, as stated in a previous chapter, the streams were crossed 
at natural fordways. Before the incorporation of the town, bridges 
had been built on the Sudbury river, at the northeast corner of the 
town, known as the "New Bridge;" another at Saxonville ; a third 
near the first meeting-house, known as the "Great Bridge;" and one 
over Stoney brook on the path to Salem End, known as Ball's bridge. 
After this date, "foot bridges" and "cart bridges" were built wher- 
ever new roads were laid out. 

Bridle paths had been blazed and cleared to accommodate each 
cluster of houses, and sometimes a single family, in going to the 
nearest mill and the nearest meeting, whenever the occasion required. 
And after 1700, till 1735, the same rule was followed in laying out 
town highways to the Framingham meeting-house and the new mills. 
The phrase, " as the way is now occupied," so often used in the return 
of the laying out of a highway, indicates that said highway followed 
the track of an earlier bridle-path ; and some of these bridle-paths 
were so convenientT of location that they became public roads by 
common consent, without a formal survey and setting of bounds. 
This accounts for the fact that some well-known roads which were 
built upon and used for travel, are not recorded. 

1700. A road was laid out from the meeting-house to Salem End, 
" as the road goes by Mr. John Swift's, and so to the south side of 
John Town's door by his house, and so over the new bridge over 
Stoney brook, and so over the plain to the corner of Benj. Nurse's 
land, and from thence running over a little spruce swamp on the south 
side of it, and so up to Peter Clayes Sen.'s house, and from thence to 
James Clayes' and so up to John Nurse's ; and a branch runs from 
James Travis' to Caleb Bridges' door, [now Wm. E. Temple's], and 
so to the further side of his land to the Common, said road to be two 
rods wide." This road ran from the Aaron Bullard place (now David 
Neary's) straight to BuUard's bridge ; and from F. C. Browne's to near 
J. Van Praag's, and so west on the north of James Fenton's to George 
Nurse's. The bridle-path from this point westward ran near the 

HigJnuays. 157 

Luther Newton place and so to the north foot of Wildcat hill, and to 
the Richards place, and to the Nathan Bridges place. Benj. Bridges' 
house stood on a knoll northeast (across the little swamp) of the Obed 
Daniels house (now owned by the city of Boston), and a lane ran from 
the plain to his house, which lane was afterwards extended westerly 
and southwesterly to the present road. The cut-off, from the forks to 
Wm. G. Lewis', is of more modern date. 

1703. Road from the meeting-house over Mellen's Neck to John 
Whitney's. "Upon complaint of Simon Mellen, John Haven and 
others, of their want of a way to meeting, an open road of two rods 
wide was laid out as followeth : beginning at the dwelling house of 
John Whitney (now Sturtevant's), and so as the way is laid to the 
norwest corner of John Haven's field which lyeth southward of his 
dwelling house, and from there to run northwardly as the way is 
occupied by the west end of Simon Mellen's dwelling house, and from 
thence northwardly to the river, and over the river (at the fordway) 
south of John Town's dwelling house (now David Neary's), and so 
northwardly to the road laid out froni Salem End to the meeting 
house." This early way had little in common with the present road 
to Park's Corner. It ran on nearly a straight line from David Neary's 
to B. T. Manson's, and only from there followed the present road. In 
1706 the location was changed so that the road ran from Charles J. 
Frost's to the bar at the mouth of Baiting brook, where it crossed the 
river, and turned to the east into the former road. The bridge at this 
point, known as Singletary's bridge, was built in 17 12. In 1744 the 
travelled road turned to the west from the bridge, and went round the 
bluff, and so over the top of the hill by the new meeting-house, at the 
north of Joseph A. Merriam's, and so by the old Merriam house to 
Mr. Manson's. In 1804 the road was straightened "from John Fiske's 
house to Dr. Merriam's." In 1827 the road was established in its 
present course. 

1703. "A road was laid out from the old South Path from Stone's 
mills to Marlborough, leaving said path a short distance west of 
Dadmun's brook, and running by the house of Michael Pike south- 
westerly, to the south side of the now dwelling-house of Jeremiah 
Pike, Sen. (near the Adam Hemenway place), and from thence to 
Dunsdell brook, bounded on the west side by land of Matthew Gibbs ; 
and from thence to run to the easterly corner of Abraham Belknap's 
field fence (now Samuel Hill's corner), and from thence to run to the 
horse bridge over Birch meadow brook (east of the Col. Edgell place) 
and from thence (just west of Mrs. Gordon's house) southeasterly to 
the east side of a spruce swamp nigh to the meeting house and north 
of the same." This was the " way to meeting " from Stone's End, till 

158 History of Framingham. 

within the memory of men now living. From Michael Pike's to 
Abraham Belknap's corner, was the easterly part of "Pike Row." 

1703. A bridle path was opened "for Mr. Lamb and those families 
at the west end of the town to come to meeting." It ran from the 
north side of the Lamb hill, passing near John R. Rooke's, thence 
northeasterly, across the south foot of the Mountain, and over Stoney 
brook at a fordway at the northeast corner of J. H. Temple's farm, 
and thence followed the hard land on the left bank of the brook to 
Ball's bridge, where it struck the Salem End road. In 1706, a 
highway was laid out from Mr. Lamb's via Jona. Rugg's to the road 
near the house of Caleb Bridges, which is thus described : " From 
Samuel Lamb's land to John Singletary's ditch, said ditch being the 
northeasterly bound of the said way till it comes to Jona. Rugg's 
land, then through said Rugg's land as the way is now occupied, 
thence running between the land of said Rugg and the land of Jona. 
Brewer, each giving a like proportion of the land for said highway, as 
far as their lands join together; Then running upon the north of said 
Brewer's land joining upon his line, till it comes to his northeast 
corner; thence running upon a straight line to a tree standing in a 
ledge of rocks on the south side of the road; then as the way is now 
occupied till it comes to a great stump to a crooked black oak 
standing by a ledge of rocks on the south side of said highway, and 
so running to Caleb Bridges' fence." 

1704-5. Col. Buckminster proposed to the town, " that whereas 
the ways from his house are very difficult passing along to meeting, 
and other places, he doth engage, if he is freed from working upon 
other highways for seven years, he will make and maintain all the 
ways in and through his own home farm, and that all the inhabitants 
of the town shall have free use of said ways." Accepted. The ways 
opened by him under this agreement were the road running eastward 
via R. Winch and J, W. Walkup, to Reginald Foster's ; and north- 
ward from George Trowbridge's to Peter B. Davis'. 

1705-6. A road, following the earlier bridle-path to the Thomas 
Hastings place and the Old Connecticut Path, was laid out from the 
meeting-house to Rice's End, and to Elnathan Allen's, at the north 
end of Cochituate pond : " beginning at the great Bridge, and to run 
straight from the bridge to a hollow commonly went up and down 
in by people when it is mirey and dirty riding, the way usually 
occupied over the Thorngutter, and so upon the north side of the 
Little Crambry place, and so over the Thorngutter about 8 or 10 rods 
abovQ the way usually occupied, and so into the way usually occupied 
about 16 or 18 rods eastward of the Thorngutter, and then to run 
as the way is occupied till it comes up upon Pratt's plain, and then 

High zvays. 1 5 9 

to run upon the edge of the phiin by the pond called Sucker pond, as 
near as will allow of a convenient way to lye upon the plain of two 
rods wide, till it conies to the way usually occupied, and then to bear 
a little upon the north side of the old way to the corner of John 
Pratt's field, and to run as the way is till it comes to the way that 
leads from Sherborn to Sudbury, and it follows said way to John 
How's house (now A. S. Furber's), and from John How's running 
through the land of Thomas Walker, and thence (via S. D. Hardy's) 
between the lands of Dea. David Rice and John Bent to the horse 
bridge over Cochituate brook, and so through the lands of Thomas 
Drury and Caleb Drury till we come to the land of Caleb Johnson 
Sen. — said way to be two rods wide." 

1708. On petition of George Walkup and Jonas Eaton, a road was 
laid out "from the south line of the Half Mile Square: i, through the 
land of John Winch; 2, through the land of John and Joseph Gibbs ; 
3, through the land of Samuel Winch (the Elisha Frost place), as the 
way is now occupied; 4, (then turning southwesterly) through the 
land of Nathaniel Stone; 5, through the land of Jeremiah Pike to 
Abraham Belknap's land where it meets the Pike Row." 

1709. Dadmun's lane. A way was laid out " from Benjamin Ball's 
house, just south of Ball's bridge, across the plain to a brook, and so 
over the brook between lands of John Provender, Sen., and lands of 
Philip Pratt, till it comes to Nathaniel Pratt's land, and so through 
his land and John Provender's land till it comes to the Common — 
which way is to be convenient for horse carts and the drift of cattle." 

April, 1709, A road from Mr. Simpson's farm to the meeting-house 
was laid out, " beginning at the river at the southerly corner of the 
land that the said Simpson bought of Joseph Buckminster, and so to 
run easterly, so as to come into that way formerly occupied a little 
before it comes to a pine tree standing on the south side of said way, 
and then to run as the way lyes till it comes near the river, and then 
to run as near the river as will allow of a good cart-way, till it comes 
to the upper end of James Coller's meadow (near Mrs. Cutler's house), 
and then to cross the river (over Coller's bridge), and to run as the 
way lyes till it comes into the highway (at Park's corner) that leads 
from the Havens to the meeting-house." (This became a county road 
when it was extended west from Simpson's farm to Hopkinton.) 

Sept. 6, 1709, John Death, Moses Haven and Thomas Gleason were 
appointed a committee "to lay out such highways as are needful for 
the 17 families to go to meeting, and to mill, and to market." John 
Jaques anticipated in part the work of this committee, as appears 
from the following paper : " March 6, 1709-10, John Jaques doth give 
unto the Sherborn Row an highway through his land, as it is marked 

i6o History of Framinghani. 

out, for their convenient coming to the meeting house, — beginning at 
the most northerly corner of Zacheriah Paddleford's field, and so to 
run to the most southerly corner of Isaac Learned's meadow, and so 
to continue the easterly side of his land next the meadow, untill it 
comes to the Stone's Dam (the Giant's Grave) and so on while it 
comes into the highway that comes from the Pratt's plain to the Great 
Bridge by the meeting house." The original bridle-path from Sher- 
born Row to the first meeting-house, ran between Learned's and 
Gleason's ponds, and so north to the Giant's Grave, and to the Dr. 
Kittridge land. A lane ran from the John Eames house (R. L. Day's) 
easterly to meet this path. Probably the new road was laid on the 
west side of Learned's pond, till it struck this lafie, which it then 
followed to the old bridle-way. 

The road for these families to go to mill and market was laid out, 
but not recorded till May 27, 1713; "beginning at the corner west of 
the South cemetery, and keeping in the old way to the dwelling house 
of Richard Haven, thence via Nathaniel Eames' and Pratt's plain 
and John How's old place and the Albert G. Gibbs place, to land of 
John Adams, and through his land to his dwelling house (northeast of 
Dr. H. Cowles') as the old way did lye, and so round to Daniel 
Stone's mill. Also a way to market, turning over the cart bridge 
over Cochituate brook in front of the house of John Adams, and to 
run as the way now does until it comes to the road that comes down 
from Rice's End. And at the same date, a public road was laid out, 
following the early bridle way from Daniel Stone's mill over the old 
bridge to the house of John Adams aforesaid." 

Jan. ID, 1709-10. "Laid out a highway beginning at a path north 
of Amos Waite's house, running on the west side of a hill unto Samuel 
How's land, and from thence a straight line upon the west side of 
said How's land to the old road that leads from said How's to 

Jan. ID, 1709-10. Return of a highway from John Shears' (now 
George E. Slate's) down to the meeting-house. "Beginning at the land 
of John Shears, and from thence running down to the land of Jona. 
Lamb and Joseph Wetherbee as the way is now occupied, and so 
running between the lands of the aforesaid Lamb and Wetherbee so 
far as their lands extend, and from there to run as the path now is 
till it comes to Abraham Belknap's land and the land of Jeremiah 
Pike, and between their lands down to Jeremiah Pike's shop, on Pike 
Row, and so to the road that leads from Samuel Winch's to the 

The road following the early bridle-path from Daniel Mixer's 
(Addison Belknap's) to the meeting-house, ran nearly as now to the 

HigJnvays. 1 6 1 

Freeman place (E. P. Travis'), and thence through Temple street, to 
the Salem End road at the brook south of R. W. Whiting's. In 1721, 
the way from C. J. Frost's to this corner was re-located, by carrying it 
a little to the north so as to run near the line of Rev. Mr. Swift's land 
which he purchased of Ebenezer Singletary, to the end of Mr. Swift's 
said land, where is a stake and stones, which is also Benj. Ball's 
corner boundary, which is as well to accommodate the road leading 
from said Ball's to the meeting-house, as also a road towards Marl- 
borough. And Nov. 3, 1723, a town road was laid out, two rods wide, 
from Mr. Swift's corner, just named, to and through Temple street to 
Lieut. Samuel How's (the Nathan Goddard place). 

Feb. 26, 1722. Road from near Salem End school-house, southerly, 
''beginning at the highway which leads from Samuel Lamb's to the 
meeting-house, and running southerly, two rods wide, where the lane 
now runs, on the east side of Ebenezer Harrington's line to the bound 
between said Harrington's land and the land of John Drury, and then 
between the lands of said Drury and Harrington, till it comes to the 
south end of their lots, to common or unimproved lands ; thence to 
the land now or formerly of Ens. Jona. Rice (the Badger place) and 
then by marked trees till it comes to the common or unimproved lands 
which lye southerly of said Rice's land." 

Dec. 24, 1722. "After debate had upon Messrs. Samuel and 

Nathaniel Eames their proposals relating to Beaver Dam bridge, it 

was voted^ that a town highway shall lye and be as now occupied to 

Beaver Dam bridge, and so through to Sherborn line : and that the 

bridge be continued where it now is." Feb. 4, 1725, "laid out a 

highway for the use of the town, on both sides of Beaver Dam bridge, 

as follows: beginning at a tree marked with the letter W upon 

Sherborn line (as it is called), Oliver Death being present and 

declaring that the way should lye easterly of said tree, we accordingly 

measured two rods east and set up a stake; then we went to a heap 

of stones which the said Death acknowledged to be his bounds and 

said that the way was formerly laid on the west of said heap of stones. 

We then measured from there and found it two rods to Eames' line 

where stood a marked tree which we made a boundary of said way. 

Then making a bow into Eames' land, Corp' Eames being present 

and consenting to give the land, thence to the foot of the bridge, 

thence a straight line to another W tree standing near Beaver Dam 

bridge, which tree is the tree where Sherborn men began to lay out 

the way more than 40 years ago, as Ens. Death informs us, then by 

marked trees to a town way formerly laid out." In 1749, Benjamin 

Whitney deposed, " that he had known the way from Framingham to 

Sherborn for 60 years, and that the said road and bridge over Beaver 

Dam brook was always the same as now." 

1 62 History of Franiinghani. 

1723. "Laid out a town highway from the county road leading 
from Sudbury to Marlborough, to a town highway which leads from 
John Shears to the meeting-house; beginning between lands of 
Thompson Woods and John Parmenter, each giving one-half of said 
land, then through said Parmenter's land, and Col. Buckminster's 
land, and Thompson Wood's land, and Robert Jennison's land, and 
Nathaniel Wilson's land, and Jona. Jackson's land, and Stearns' land, 
and Joshua Eaton's land to the other highway, all parties consenting." 

"April 26, 1731. An highway laid out from James Clayes" house 
(north of Leander Barber's) as the way is now occupied as far as the 
lane goes, then to John Nurse's land, and so on the north side of said 
Nurse's orchard, so to the north side of his Norwest corner marked 
tree, thence as the road is now occupied by marked trees to 
Southborough line." 

Nov. 27, 1732. "Relocation of road from the old John Adams' 
house over Cochituate brook and eastward : beginning at the house 
of John Pierce, so running easterly over Cochituate brook as the road 
is now occupied till it comes to the northwest corner of Stephen 
Jenning's cornfield, so straight over said field to a tree which is a 
bound between said Jenning's and Thomas Kendall, so running 
easterly on said Kendall's land as the line runs between said K. and 
said T- till it comes to said Jenning's east corner mark, then continuing 
to the road that leads from Rice's End to Sudbury line. Also an 
highway from the house of Ebenezer Stone northeasterly as the way 
is now used till it comes to the land of Thomas Kendall, so by 
marked trees through said Kendall's land to Stephen Jenning's corner 
mark, said mark standing on the Indian Graves (so called), then to 
Sudbury line as the way is now used — said road to lye on the east 
side of said marks — said road to be two rods wide." 

"Mar. 25, 1734. The highway leading from Jona. Jackson's 
through Timothy Stearns' land to Joseph Maynard's, as it is now 
occupied, was accepted by the town." 

These comprise the leading public highways, so far as the town 
records show, which were laid out up to 1735, when the second 
meeting-house was built. 

Industries. — The earliest corn and saw-mills have been described 
in Chapter I. Mechanical trades came with the first settlers. Thomas 
Eames was a mason and brickmaker; Isaac Learned, cooper, was 
here as early as 1679; John How, carpenter, i68g; Isaac Clark, 
carpenter, 1692 ; Caleb Bridges, bricklayer, 1693; Benjamin Bridges, 
blacksmith, 1693; the wife of Joseph Trumbull, weaver, 1693; Jere- 
miah Pike, spinning-wheel maker, 1696; Joseph Buckminster, tanner. 



1703; Jona. Rugg, blacksmith, 1704; Jonas Eaton, carpenter and 
bricklayer, 1706; he afterwards built tan-works; John Singletary, 
cooper, 1709. Ebenezer Hemenway, weaver; Ebenezer Boutwell, 
tinker, Joshua Eaton, tanner, were here early. 

Tax List. — Each matis proportion to a Tax of Ten Pounds to 
procure a stock of A?nmunition, June 27, ijio. 

The town was then divided into two constables' wards; the East 
ward took in all the inhabitants east of Sudbury river and south of 
Stoney brook; the West ward took all north of Stoney brook and west 
of Sudbury river. In the following list, the names of the East ward 
settlers begin with John Bent and end with Nathan Haven; the rest 
belong to the West ward. 





John Bent 



John Haven 



David Stone 



Elkanah Haven . 



Jonathan Rice 



James Coller 


1 1 

Dea. David Rice 



Mr. Savil Simpson 



Thomas Drury 



Thomas Mellen . 



Thomas Walker . 



Simon Mellen 



Caleb Drurj' 



John Jaquish 



Thomas Stone 



Philip Pratt 



John How 



John Provender . 



Samuel Stone 



Samuel Holland . 



John Pratt 



Samuel Barton . 



Joseph Pratt 



Benjamin Ball 



David Pratt 



Benjamin Nurse . 



Jonathan Pratt . 



Benjamin Bridges 



Jabesh Pratt 



James Travis 



Thomas Pratt 



Ebenezer Harrington 



Daniel Pratt 



Peter Clayes 



John Gleason 



James Clayes 



Thomas Gleason 



John Nurse 



Isaac Gleason 



Jonathan Provender 



Zachariah Paddelford 



Caleb Bridges 



John Earnes 



Daniel Eliott 



John Eames, Jr. . 


I I 

Daniel Elliott, Jr. 



John Death 



Jonathan Rugg . 



Samuel Eames 



John Singletary . 



Nathaniel Eames 



Samuel Lamb 



Nathaniel Haven 


05 • 

Jonathan Cutler . 



John Whitney 



John Death, Jr. . 



Moses Haven 



Ebenezer Pratt . 




History of Frarningham. 





Isaac Learned, Sen. 



Samuel Winch 



John Adams 


1 1 

David Winch 



Nathan Haven . 



Michael Pike 
Jeremiah Pike 
William Pike 



Capt. Joseph Buckminster 04 



Dea, Daniel Stone 



James Pike 



Nathaniel Stone 



John Jones 



John Stone 



Abraham Belknap 



Joseph Gibbs 



Edward Wright . 



Thomas Frost 



John Town 



Samuel Frost 



Israel Town 



Isaac Clark 



Ephraim Town . 



John Gibbs 



John Bruce 



Samuel Gibbs 



Ichabod Hemenway . 



Joseph Sever 



Amos Waite 



Isaac Heath 



Daniel Mixer 



Jonas Eaton 



Benjamin Willard 



George Walkup . 



Benjamin Provender . 



Joseph Wetherbee 



Philip Gleason . 



Jonathan Lamb . 



Caleb Johnson . 



John Shears 



Nathaniel Wilson 



Thompson Wood 



Nathaniel Wilson, Jr. . 



Benjamin Neland 



Thomas Frost, Jr. 



Abial Lamb 



Dea. Joshua Hemenway 



Samuel Frisell 



Samuel How 



Joseph Parker 



Matthew Gibbs . 



John Wood 



John Frost 



Table showing the relative valuation of the four neighboring towns 
by their proportions of the Province Tax, in the years specified. 
Marlborough then included Southborough, Westborough and North- 
borough : Sudbury included Wayland ; Sherborn included Holliston. 

1703 1704 1708 1710 1717 

^123.5 ^246.10 /250.10 /250.10 ^138.4 

124 248 251 251 II 2.9 139 139 1 14.8 59.15 

42.5 80 90 114.11 72.18 



• ISA 


. 76.1 






Dark Days — Duties of Town Officers — Emigrations — Bills of 
Credit — How Col. Buckminster Disposed of the Common and 
Reserved Lands — Meeting-House Land — The Neck — The Six 
Hundred Acres on Nobscot — Father Ralle's War — The Second 
Meeting-House — Attempted Division of the Town — Rev. Mr. 
Swift — New Framingham — Rev. Matthew Bridge — Organiza- 
tion of the Second Church — Rev. Solomon Reed — Old French 
and Indian War — Great Sickness — Last French and Indian 
War — Brinley Farm — Temperance — Colored Inhabitants — 
Industries — Taverns — Highways — Population. 1710-1763. 

rj'rHIS chapter covers what may be termed "The Dark Days" of 
our town's life. As stated in an earlier chapter, Frsmingham 
lands were taken up by families and clusters of families, each 
with ties of its own, and with no previously formed and common 
associations to bind them together as a community. There were no 
less than six independent centres of interest and influence, to be 
drawn together and harmonized, in order that the new town might 
become, in the true and best sense, one body. 

The Stone families, influential from numbers, from large landed 
estates, and social position, as well as control of the principal water- 
power, stood aloof from both civil and ecclesiastical affairs, as 
appears by the following vote on the town records: " Voted, in town 
meeting, that Joshua Hemenway and Thomas Mellen should go and 
entreat the Stones to join with us." 

There were disaffections in the church, which led to the calling of 
ecclesiastical councils; to the withdrawal of a considerable number 
of members, who joined the church in Hopkinton; and ultimately to 
the formation of a second Congregational church. 

There were sectional jealousies, which cropped out and burned 
fiercely when the project of building a new meeting-house was brought 

But the main source of frictions and antagonisms was the cupidity 
of the principal lessee of the Danforth lands. Indeed this last was 
probably the real cause of the dissensions in the church, and the 
quarrel about the new meeting-house site. 

1 66 History of Fratningham. 

The consistency and truth of history require that these things be 
told; otherwise the cotemporaneous and subsequent annals of the 
town and church are an inexplicable mystery. But the writer will be 
fortunate, if he shall succeed in giving the facts in the case, so as to 
do injustice to no individual or party, and yet furnish a true and 
finished picture of the times. 

Duties of Town Officers. — The moderator of a town meeting, 
in addition to his duty of presiding, was required to keep minutes of 
the action and votes of said meeting, and report the same to the town 
clerk, who copied the minutes into the town book. The selectmen 
had the whole charge "to order the prudentials of the town;" 
generally acted as assessors; often as town treasurer. The constables 
were required to warn town meetings, keep order, and collect the 
taxes. And they were held responsible for the full amount of each 
man's rates, in their several wards, and their property was liable to 
be distrained for any delinquency in collections. At least one such 
officer was committed to prison, and kept there a long time, for such 
delinquency. And when chosen by the town, a constable must serve, 
or pay a fine of five pounds, unless the town could be induced to 
excuse him, which was not often done. The inhabitants were called 
together in town meeting " to give in the invoice of their polls and all 
other ratable estates unto the selectmen." Town meetings were com- 
monly warned by posting up a notice in the public meeting-house; but 
on special occasions, by the constables going from house to house. 

Emigrations. — The same spirit of adventure, and hope to better 
their condition, which brought families upon our soil, led them to 
seek new homes where new towns were projected. In 17 13, the 
following names are found among the grantees of Oxford: John Town, 
and his sons Ephraim and Israel ; Daniel Elliot, and his sons Daniel 
and Ebenezer; Isaac, Jr., and Ebenezer Earned; Thomas Gleason, 
Benjamin Nealand, Abial Lamb, Jr., Samuel Barton, Hezekiah Stone. 
John Town, Abial Lamb and Samuel Barton, were dismissed from 
our church, to found a church at Oxford, 1721. 

At the incorporation of Hopkinton, or soon after, Joseph Haven, 
John Hood, James Coller, Nathaniel Pike, Henry Mellen, Samuel 
Streeter, John Butler, James Wilson, John How, and others, removed 

Before 1720, John Singletary and Dr. John Page had removed to 

Joseph Stevens, Moses How, William Brintnall, David Bent, 

Stone, Rice, settled at Rutland. 

Emigrations. 167 

Capt. Benjamin Willard and his son Joseph, and Thomas Drurj', 
Jr., left Framingham and settled in Grafton. 

Isaac Stone, Edward Goddard, Jr., Daniel Drury and others 
removed to Shewsbury, 

"The records of Templeton, in 1735, present among the first 
proprietors of the township, the names of John and Henry Eames, 
John Provender, and Isaac Learned; and others soon followed from 
the families of Lamb and Shattuck, and others." [Barry.] 

Isaac Gleason, Jr., David Stone and others went to Nichewaug, now 

The Haven, Goddard and Drury families sent their children to 
settle Athol. 

Our families are also well represented in the early settlers at 
Westmoreland, Marlborough, and Fitzwilliam, N. H. 

About the close of the Revolutionary War, Robert Eames, Nathaniel 
Hemenway, Joseph and Uriah Jennings, Luther Clayes, Richard 
Sanger, Joseph and Needham Maynard, and others, settled at Whites- 
town, N. Y., near Utica. 

Ezekiel and Thomas Williams, tanners and curriers, removed to 
New Hartford, N. Y. 

Bills OF Credit. — In 1720-1, the General Court, to meet public 
charges, authorized the Province treasurer to issue bills of credit, 
which were to be distributed by loan at five per cent per annum, to 
the different towns, in a specified proportion, /. e., according to each 
town's proportion to the last Province Tax, one-fifth part of which 
sum loaned was to be refunded each year. The first emission 
of bills, under this act, was to the amount of ;^5o,ooo. The 
share of Framingham was ;^ At a town meeting, Oct. 3, 
1721, it was '"'' voted, that the town will take the sum of money allotted 
to them by the General Court, for the use of the town." And Col. 
Buckminster, Lieut. Isaac Clark and Lieut. Thomas Drury were 
chosen Trustees, to manage the loan, who were to receive one per cent 
for their trouble. Nov. 13, ''■voted, that the said bills be lett out 
upon good personal security from year to year, not under 6 per cent, 
per annum; and that not more than £\o nor less that ;^5 be lett to 
one man, and that none hereof be lett out of town, provided enough 
of the inhabitants appear to take the whole." 

Nov. I, 1722, the town '•'■voted, that the interest money coming due, 
for the loaned bills, be disposed of to pay town debts." A similar 
vote was passed the next year. In 1725, ;^8. 6. 9 of the interest was 
used to pay the salary of James Stone, the schoolmaster. 

In 1727-8, the General Court authorized anew emission of ^60,000, 

1 68 History of Framingkam. 

bills of credit, to be loaned to the towns, as formerly. Framingham's 
share of this emission was ;^382.i5. Edward Goddard, Thomas Stone 
and Peter Clayes were chosen Trustees of this fund, and were 
directed to "lett out the same to individuals on sufficient security." It 
would seem that there was considerable delay in the repayment of 
the said loaned sums; for May 21, 1739, the town ^'' voted, that the 
Trustees be directed to sue for said money in x^ugust next, if the 
same be not paid in before.'' 

How Col. Buckminster disposed of the Commons and Reserved 
Lands. — The Meetmg-hoicse land. In Mr. Danforth's lease to Mr. 
Buckminster. given in full in Chapter III., is this clause: "Also for the 
accommodation of the Meeting house, and settlement of the Minister, 
said Danforth reserveth 140 acres, and is laid out in two or more 
places, as they the above named Danforth and Buckminster have 
ordered ajid appointed.'" The boundary lines of the main body of this 
reservation were marked out by Messrs. Danforth and Buckminster, 
in the presence of three witnesses, without regard to the number of 
acres contained therein; and such laying out, by estimation, was 
always purposely made sufficiently large. These boundaries, as given 
in the affidavit of those three witnesses, were, Sudbury river on the 
south and east sides; a line from a marked tree standing on the 
bank of the river due north of the meeting-house (which, of course 
included the meeting-house site) running in a southwesterly course to 
near the top of Bare hill ; and thence southerly to the river. The 
south part of this tract was, by a deed of the town and a deed of the 
executors and overseers of Mr. Danforth's will, conveyed to Rev. Mr. 
Swift, as the " Ministerial Land." The balance, /.<?., the " Meeting 
house Land" comprised the north part of the reserved and marked 
out tract, including the old cemetery, and was estimated at thirty-five 

No doubts existed about the boufids of this meeting-house land; but 
a question was raised as to the town's title: and Mar. 24, 17 12, the 
town voted, " that the selectmen be a committee to go procure (from 
the executors of Mr. Danforth's will) a title to the lands on which our 
public meeting house standeth, as it is referred to in Mr. Buckminster's 
lease." The action of this committee is not recorded. Mar. 23, 17 15, 
a committee was appointed " to see about the confirmation of the 
land given by the Hon. Mr. Danforth for the use of the town, for 
setting a meeting house, and for a burial place and training field." 

The matter appears to have rested till 1725, when the town ''voted 
to build a new meeting house, and set it near where the old one 
stands:" to which vote Col. Buckminster entered his dissent. In 

Meeting-House Land. 169 

connection with this action, the town voted that a committee be 
chosen " to procure a title to the meeting house land of Mr. 
Danforth's heirs," to which vote Col. Buckminster entered his dissent, 
giving as a reason, "because it is propriety land, and none but the 
occupants of land formerly Mr. Danforth's ought to have a vote in 
that affair." This reason, as is seen, admitted the town's claim to 
proprietorship in the land in question. 

The committee made application to Mr. Danforth's heirs ; and they 
all united in giving a deed, dated April i, 1726,10 Joshua Hemenway, 
Peter Clayes and Edw. Goddard, feoffees in trust for the town of 
Framingham, and their successors, of " that remaining part of the 
140 acres of land reserved for the accommodation of the meeting- 
house and settlement of a minister, which lyeth round the Meeting- 
house in said Framingham, containing by estimation about thirty five 

A month after this date. Col. Buckminster engaged William Ryder, 
surveyor, to measure the farm of Rev. Mr. Swift ; who found that 
said farm, including the three pieces of meadow now in possession of 
Mr. Swift, contained the quantity of 140 acres. At the same time 
Col. Buckminster made declaration (not under oath) that the land 
reserved by Mr. Danforth and himself for " Meeting-house Land," 
was a piece containing three acres, thirty rods, lying east of Stone's 
meadow (the present Moses Ellis house-lot). The steps of the 
contest need not be detailed ; but the upshot was, that in 1730, in a 
suit at law, Col. Buckminster recovered the thirty-five acres of meeting- 
house lan^, on the ground that the town had already in possession 
the full quantity of 140 acres named in the reservation, and of Col. 
Buckminster's declaration concerning the three-acre lot. It should be 
added, that the Colonel failed to convey to the town the title of this 
three acres. 

The Common, or Neck Lands. — This tract, bounded by Hopkin- 
ton river, Stoney brook, and Southborough line, was reserved by Mr. 
Danforth, " to lye in Common for the accommodation of those that do 
or shall occupy other the lands of the said D., as for the tenants and 
farms of him the said Buckminster," except 600 acres part thereof, 
which Mr. Danforth retained in his own right. 

The purpose and policy of Mr. Danforth, in this reservation and 
setting apart of this large tract, was to induce settlers to take up his 
other lands, by giving such tenants " liberty of timber, wood and 
pasturage " on said commons. And Col. Buckminster, having no 
leasehold or other title, had no power to either lease or sell these 
commons. He had only the privilege of commonage therein, the 

1 70 History of Framinghavt. 

same as the other tenants of Mr. Danforth. But within about a 
month after receiving his first lease, he consented that the colony 
from Salem village should take up the lands at Salem End (which 
were included in the reservation) ; and in March, 1696-7, he gave them 
tmstgned \e^sQ:s, running 999 years from March 25, 1693. Under this 
parole title, these farmers proceeded to erect buildings, fence in fields 
and cultivate the soil. And as early as 1706, Mr. Buckminster began 
to sell and execute warrantee deeds of these common lands, as well 
as of his leased estate. A part of the said deeds contained this 
significant clause : " Also, (nothwithstanding what is written in this 

deed of sale) he, the said , his heirs and assigns, shall have 

as much right and privilege in the Commonage in the township of 
Framingham, as if he held the premises only -by a lease." 

Thus, before 1730, he had sold the farms at Salem End, and 
westerly, via W. E. Temple's to the Rugg and Lamb places ; and 
the meadows and intervales on Hopkinton river as far up as Ashland 
Centre. This comprised the best of the common lands. 

The full history of this neck or common, may best be told in this 

To make sure that Mr. Danforth's intention should be carried out, 
in order to perpetuate and preserve the right of commonage to present 
and future occupants of said Danforth's lands forever, Feb. 17, 
17 15-16, his heirs at law, viz., Francis Foxcroft, and Elizabeth his 
wife, John Whiting, Mary Brown and Sarah Sparhawk, executed a 
deed to John Whitney, Simon Mellen, Peter Clayes, John Winch and 
Joshua Hemenway, as feoffees in trust, of all this neck of land 
(except 600 acres thereof). Whatever the special occasion for this 
movement may have been, if there was such special occasion, it shows 
conclusively that Mr. Buckminster's plea, that in 1706 he "purchased 
the reversion in fee of all these lands of Mr. Danforth's heirs," was a 
deceptive plea. He purchased the reversion of the leased lands ; but 
not of the resei~ved lands. 

The immediate result of this movement of Mr, Danforth's heirs at 
law, is not apparent. It was manifestly for the precuniary interest of 
all parties in occupancy, to keep still. Col. Buckminster was deriving 
a good income from the sale of these lands. The Salem End and 
other farmers who had bought of him, might be disturbed in their 
titles, and dispossessed of all their estates. The major part of the 
inhabitants whose location permitted, without respect to freehold 
right, were accustomed to cut wood and timber and pasture their 
young stock on these lands. 

But troublesome questions were raised; certain parties "made 
great strip and waste, by cutting the young wood and timber growing 

Neck or Com^noii Lands. 171 

on the premises and converting the same into coal, as also by cutting 
ship-timber, cord-wood, bark, hoop-poles, posts and rails in large 
quantities, and selling the same, whereby great injury was done to the 
property, and great injustice to the proprietors." This state of things 
continued many years. 

June 4, 1753, acting under the general laws of the province 
respecting Propriety lands, a meeting was held of (so styled) "the 
Proprietors of the Common Lands in Framingham," of which Joseph 
Haven, Esq., was elected moderator. After organization, it was 
voted to have the common lands divided. It was also 7)oted to 
petition the General Court to remove any difficulties that may be in 
the way of a division. This petition was signed by ninety of the 
inhabitants, living at the north part of the town, at Stone's End, on 
the Eames grant, and on the Mellen and Haven lands. A remon- 
strance was sent in signed by seventy-one inhabitants, comprising all 
who were living on these Neck lands, and the dwellers at the Centre 
and on the Hemenway road. The Buckminsters earnestly protested 
against the proposed division. And after a hearing of all parties, 
the petition was dismissed. 

The following paper, in the handwriting of Joseph Buckminster, 
Jr., and signed by some of the Salem End farmers, which was sent to 
the General Court, will show the grounds on which Buckminister 
claimed a right to convey the fee of these Neck lands, and has value 
in other respects : •' The Petition of sundry of the inhabitants of 
Framingham, and settlers on the Neck of Land, so called, in said 
town — Sheweth 

"That many of your Petitioners' ancestors settled on said Neck 
in the year 1693, under a Lease from Joseph White and Joseph 
Buckminster, who derived their titles from the Hon. Thomas Dan- 
forth, and that they and their heirs or assigns have been in peaceable 
possession of said lands ever since, and have been at great pains and 
cost to subdue them, which was then a howling wilderness, and much 
exposed to the Indian enemy: That on the 25th day of March 1699, 
the said Buckminster took a lease in his own name alone of the said 
Mr. Danforth of the same Lands and by the same bounds. 

" That in the year 1706, the said Buckminster purchased the reversion 
in fee, of Mr. Danforth's heirs; and in the year 1707, many of us and 
our predecessors purchased the fee of the said Buckminster; so that 
many of us have been in the peaceable possession of our lands more 
than 60 years, and others of us more than 40 years, without the least 

" That a number of our neighbors who call themselves Proprietors, 
have petitioned this Honourable Court for a division of the Land in 

172 History of Framingham. 

said Neck, which they say is all common, except 600 acres which the 
heirs of Mr. Danforth claim as theirs (tho' we deny it) : So that 
between said heirs and those that call themselves Commoners, your 
petitioners are like to be stript of all they have in this world. 

"Wherefore your poor petitioners humbly pray your Excellency and 
Honours would dismiss the Petition, and suffer us to take our chance 
for the whole of our estates at the common Law, which we cannot 
but think every English subject has a right to plead for ; or otherwise 
secure us in our ancient possessions, as your Honours in your wisdom 
shall see meet." [Afass. Archives^ cxvi. 690.] 

It is to be borne in mind, that the foregoing pajDcr is Mr. Buckmin- 
ster's special plea. 

But the " Proprietors of the Common Lands in Framingham," who 
had organized June 4, 1753 (and it would appear organized according 
to law), proceeded to divide such of the Neck lands as had not been 
sold by Col. Buckminster. Profiting by the experience of his father, 
soon to be narrated, and making a virtue of necessity, Joseph 
Buckminster, Jr., in order to protect his remaining interests, and to save 
the titles which his father had given, did, Sept. 8, 1758, in conjunction 
with the Salem End and other purchasers, enter into an agreement 
with the organized proprietors, by which their recorded division of 
the unappropriated commons (which appears to have been an 
equitable division) should be confirmed. And on petition of the 
parties in interest, the Legislature passed, Feb. 7, 1759, "An Act to 
confirm and render effectual an Agreement between sundry persons 
claiming Propert}'^ and Interest in the Common and Undivided Lands in 
a Neck of Land in Framingham." By this act it was provided, " that 
all persons holding lands in the Neck aforesaid under any grants 
made by Joseph Buckminster, be quieted in the possession of the 
number of acres expressed in their original grants: that Joseph 
Buckminster release to the Proprietors of the Common Lands on the 
Neck all the right and interest that he now hath in said Neck: that 
the Division of the Lands on said Neck into lots, made by the 
Proprietors aforesaid, be confirmed ; and that the Residue of the 
land there belonging to the Proprietors, be laid out into such Lots 
as may best accommodate the proposed division: that each Proprietor 
subscribing to said Agreement draw a share thereof in proportion 
to the number of acres mentioned in his original title deed or lease : 
that the owners of all the lands in Framingham leased by Thomas 
Danforth Esq. deceased, be considered as Proprietors of the Common 
Lands on the Neck aforesaid ; but the Lands in the Neck aforesaid, 
conveyed by Joseph Buckminster, shall not draw any share in the 
division of the Common aforesaid." S^Mass. Perpetual Laws, in loc.l 

Neck or Common Lauds. 173 

The general division of the Common was into five ranges, as they 
were called. Two of these, called the First and Second River 
ranges, ran east and west parallel with and back from Hopkinton 
river. Two, called the First and Second Southborough line ranges, 
ran northerly and southerly oh the west side of the common, next the 
town line. A fifth division, called the John Nurse range, included 
the lands lying west and north of the John Nurse homestead. This 
left a considerable tract in the central part. But whether this was 
reckoned the "600 acres" reserved by Mr. Danforth ; or whether it 
was embraced in what was termed the " Second division," as well as 
how this central part was finally disposed of, does not appear on the 
scanty records extant. 

In the apportionment, the large estates in town, of course, drew large 
lots in these commons ; and the most of such proprietors continued 
to hold their lots as an investment, or for the family supply of wood. 
The smaller proprietors, especially the heirs of original grantees, and 
such as lived at inconvenient distances, and such as had removed 
from town, sold their lots to the Salem End farmers, and to farmers 
living in the easterly part of Southborough. A number of families 
immediately settled on their draught or purchased lots ; and as the 
town records show, highways were laid out for their accommodation. 

Mr. Barry says, " The organization of the Proprietors was dissolved 
about the year 1785 ; when the last of the lands (about 40 acres), 
near Wild Cat hill, were sold to John Parker. The proceeds of this 
sale were suitably appropriated to the purchase of a public library." 

The Six Hundred Acres on Nobscot and Doeskin Hill. — In 
his lease to Buckminster, Mr Danforth reserved six hundred acres of 
land, "to be laid out adjoining to Sudbury line, containing Nobscot 
and Doeskin hill, to be laid out in one entire piece, and to bound 
southerly upon the path leading from Dea. Stone's mill to Marlbo- 
rough." In his will, Mr. Danforth directs how this reservation shall 
be disposed of. 

Notwithstanding the fact that he held no title nor rights in this 
tract, except in so far as he had purchased of some of the Danforth 
heirs their undivided interest in said tract, and in the reversions and 
remainders of his leased lands, yet Col. Buckminster proceeded, as he 
did with the Neck lands, /. e., sold all the more valuable parts of the 
said 600 acres reservation. And to destroy evidence, and enable 
him in case of need to show that this reservation was situated 
in another place, he dug up and burned the marked tree which was 
commonly known as the southeast corner bound, and marked another 
tree standin": nearlv a mile avvav. 

I 74 History of Framingham. 

On discovering the condition of things, and failing to secure an 
equitable adjustment, one of the Danforth heirs brought a suit of 
ejectment against one of the grantees holding under Buckminster ; 
which suit Buckminster, as warrantor, was obliged to defend ; and on 
trial, the jury decided adverse to Buckminster. 

Other suits were then commenced, by the remaining heirs of Gov. 
Danforth, for the recovery of their rights, all of which were decided 
against Buckminster. 

In this dilemma. Col. Buckminster appealed to the Legislature, in 
the following petition : 

" To his Excellency William Shirley Esqr. Capt. Gen^ and Govern- 
our in Chief in and over His Majestys Province of the Massachusetts 
Bay aforesaid, to the Hon*^' His Majesty's Council and Hon^'^ House 
of Representatives in Gen' Court Assembled the twenty sixth of May 
1742 — 

'"'Humbly Sheweth Joseph Buckminster of Framingham Esqr That 
the heirs of the Hon'^^ Thomas Danforth Esqr late of Cambridge 
dec'^, are now pursuing a controversy with him and his tenants 
concerning a certain tract of land containing about six hundred acres 
at a place called Nobscot and Doeskin Hill in Said Town of 
Framingham, and now have Twenty Six actions — Depending concern- 
ing it. These Heirs are numerous and principally inhabit and dwell 
in Cambridge, and the towns set off from Cambridge vizt Newton & 
Lexington and by that means have had their kindred & neighbours 
strongly influenced by them upon the jurys in times past, and wholly 
undiscovered to many, and will again without some singular provision 
against it made. 

"To the end thereof that your petitioner may have such jurymen as 
stand indifferent while they stand unsworn to try these clames which 
are beyond measure multiplied against him, he humbly prays the 
Order of this Court that the Jurors in the Tryal of this Title may not 
come from either of these Towns, but from other parts of the County 
more remote and out of the influence of the parties, that so, fair and 
impartial Justice may be done between them and your Petn"" who, as 
in duty bound shall ever pray &c Jo^ Buckminster " 

" In the House of Repi^^ June 16, 1742, Resolved X\\-3il the Justices of 

the Sup'' Court give order to their Clerk that the venires for Petit 

Jurors to such Towns in the County of Middlesex, and so many of 
them as shall be necessary to obtain a sufficient number of Jurors for 
the Tryal of the several causes that are or may be depending between 
said Buckminster and the heirs of Mr. Danforth respecting certain 
lands in Framingham, so that no Juror returned from Cambridge 

The Six Hundred Acres on Nobscot. 175 

Newton Lexington or Framingham may be on the Tryal of said causes 
at the several Superior Courts in said County next coming where such 
causes are to be tryed ,; ( A ) and that notice hereof be given to said 
Justices by said Buckminster : Sent up for concurrence. 


" In council June 16 1742 Rec"^ & non concurred, & ordered that this 
Petition be dismissed, for as much as the law for the better regulating 
the choice of Petit Jurors has made Sufficient Provision in the case 
within mentioned. 

" Sent down for concurrence J. Willard Sec>' 

"In the House of Rep'^^ June 17, 1742 Read, and non concurd ; 
and the house adhere to their vote with the. amendment at A. 
" Sent up for concurrence T. Gushing, Spk'' 

" In council, June 18, 1742 Read & concurred, J. Willard Sec>' 

Consented to W. Shirley 

" (A) Provided nevertheless that the said Jurors be chosen in the 
usual Method of drawing their names out of the Jurors Box, agreable 
to law."' 

But this extraordinary expedient did not avail. The evidence of 
fraud on the part of Col. Buckminster was so plain, that in all the 
pending suits, judgment was rendered against him. And in his 
extremity, he appeals again to the Legislature. His petition, and the 
rejoinder thereto, contain all the facts in the case, as seen from the 
two sides thereof, and are here given in full, without fcomment. These 
papers, besides their relation to the case in hand, have great historical 
value, as bearing on other transactions and events connected with our 
early annals. 

*' To his excellency William Shirley Esq"" Captain General & Gov- 
ernour in Chief. The honb' the Council & House of Representatives 
in Gen' Court assembled at Boston 25 May 1743. 

" The petition of Joseph Buckminster of Framingham Esq"" against 
the Hont'' Fran^ Foxcroft Esq"" the Rev^ Thomas Foxcroft, the Rev'' 
John Whiting, Cap' John Winchester, M'' Sam' Sparhawk & M"" 
Dan^ Champney, heirs of the Hon'^' Thomas Danforth Esq'' late of 
Cambridge deceased : 

" Humbly Showeth, That ye Hon"^' Thomas Danforth Esqr having 
by the grant of the Massachusetts Colony, the most part of ye lands 
now called Framingham, in 167 1 gave 150 acres of it to Andrew 
Belcher, bounded on John Stones land Southerly, on the path leading 

^ Mass. Archives, XLii. 86, 87. 

I 76 History of FraTuingham. 

from John Stones house to Marlborough the most southerly path 
northerly, and on his own land by marked trees easterly & westerly. 
And in 1693 he demised to Samuel Winch & Thomas Frost two 
messauges & 300 acres of land bounded on Sudbury line northerly, 
Cap' Appleton and deacon Stones easterly and south-easterly, Mr 
Lynds (ye 150 acres above purchased of Andrew Belcher) Southerly, & 
his own land from M' Lyndes north-west corner, straight to Sudbury 
line, westerly, for 999 years, with free commonage on the lands referred 
by the lessor to ly in common on Doeskin Hill. And in 1699 he by his 
indenture with the petitioner, reserving a certain neck of land to ly in 
common for the use of his own & the pef^ tenants : Reserving also 
to Mellins & Collar certain medows on Sudbury River, and to his 
other farmers a highway to the neck; also 600 acres of land to be 
laid out adjoining to Sudbury line, containing Nobscot & Doeskin 
Hill, & bounding Southerly on the path from deacon Stones to 
Marlborough: also for the meeting house & minister 140 acres: All 
the rest of his lands at Framingham he demised to the petitioner for 
999 years at a certain rent. Then he made his will, and after several 
devises & legacys gave his executors power to sell the rest of his 
estate & divide it equally among his children, grand children & great 
grand children, and died. 

" That the petitioner for ;^30o in current silver money of New 
England in 1706 purchased of Hopestill Foster & Elizabeth his wife, 
one of Mr. Danforths grand children, their grant & confirmation of 
one half of all those lands in Framingham holden by him upon 
lease from Mr. Danforth, being bounded northerly by Sudbury line, 
westerly by Marlborough line, easterly by lands of Thomas Frost & 
Samuel Winch, by Sudbury river & lands of Mellens, Coller & the 
Whitneys, & Southerly by Sherborn line, and all their right in the 
moiety of ye said land & the reversions & remainders thereof; To 
hold to him & his heirs with warranty against all men, alledging they 
had full right so to do; and afterwards for ;^iooo he purchased of 
the Rev<^. M"" Thomas Foxcroft, Samuel Sparhawk & John Sparhawk 
grand child & great grand children of the said Mr. Danforth, the like 
grants & confirmations for ye other moiety thereof: 

"That in 1714 Francis Foxcroft Esqr & Daniel Champney execu- 
tors of the said Tho^ Danforth, made Joshua Hemenway & John 
Whitney their attorneys to join with the petitioner, & lay out the six 
hundred acres at Nobscot, without intruding on any of the tenants who 
enjoyed leases before 25 March 1699. Whereupon they with the 
petitioner laid out the west bounds of it from Sudbury line at the west 
end of Nobscot hill, running upon several courses, so as not to 
intrench upon the lands of John Shears (late Joseph Berry's) Stephen 

The Six Hundred Acres on Nob scot. 177 

Jennings (late William Brintnals) or George Walcup (late Ebenezer 
Winchesters), tenants that enjoyed their leases before 25 March 1699, 
down to Marlborough path; and immediately registered their power of 
attorney in the County Registry. 

"Afterwards in May 1735 Benjamin Gerrish & Martha his wife 
one of the grand children of ye said Tho^ Danforth, brought their writ 
of ejectment against the petitioner, Winchester, & Berry, for her ^l 
part of 600 acres of land bounded north on Sudbury line & south on 
Marlborough path & containing Nobscot Hill, under colour of ye 
devise aforesaid. The Superior Court in January appointed Ephraim 
Williams Esq'' to survey & plat that 600 acres, mark out the de- 
fendants improvements, & make return thereof to the Court. This 
surveyor afterwards, thereupon reported, that he had fully heard the 
partys & their evidences, and platted the 600 acres, bounding east on 
the quit claim line & containing part of Winchesters & Berrys 
improvements ; Whereupon y'' petitioner was obliged to go to trial 
for himself & tenants under most unreasonable disadvantage, and 
therefore lost. 

" For this surveyor, though earnestly desired, would not represent 
in his return the facts & pretentions of ye petitioner, but set himself 
for a judge, upon hearing the partys & evidences, to determine which 
was the 600 acres, & plat it; which the court could not impower him 
to do. The design of a plat in trials is, to represent the matters of 
fact alledged on either side fairly, that each party may bring their 
evidences to support their respective pretentions; to be judged of in 
a lawful trial. Whereas by this judicial act of M'' Williams, sinking 
all the evidences in his judgment, your petitioner was disabled upon 
the trial, either to avoid or overballance their evidences, which 
remained only in Mr. Williams' breast, & were sunk in his judgement ; 
& his cause was effectually prejudged thereby. Mr. Williams deter- 
mineth that this 600 acres, bounds east on the quit claim line ; but 
there is nothing to ascertain that in the reserve or writ, which 
determines only the north & south sides & leaveth it intirely at- 
descretion where or in what form the east & west end shall be, 
so that Nobscot hill be included: and it cannot help, to say the 
petitioner had quitted his claim of all eastward of that line to Winch 
& Frost, and therefore none of that ought to be taken into the 600 
acres; for Mr. Danforth's reserve is superior to the petitioners quit- 
claim, & shall be answered without any regard to it. But if that 
would hinder it, much more shall his absolute deeds of bargain & sale 
to Winchester & Berry, that their land could not be taken into the 
600 acres. Therefore there is no reason nor colour for this judicial 
act of Mr. Williams. 


178 History of Framingham. 

" Moreover this judgement of Mr. Williams is certainly wrong, for 
the 600 acres reserved to be laid out, that was not done during 
M"" Danforths life, which naturally left it to the discretion of the 
Petitioner: yet he joined with Mr. Danforth"s executors, and they by 
joint consent determined & bounded out the west end, which in effect 
was laying the whole out; the two sides being certain by the 
indenture. And it is not in the power of any man to depart from 
it, no, not of ye tenants and farmers for whose common use the 
indenture reserves it. 

"Yet under the unjust influence of this partial survey & plat, other 
children, grand children & great grand-children of M"" Danforths, & 
some against their own deeds, have ever since been & still are loading 
your petitioner with their several actions, wherein upon the particular 
representation of ye petitioner's right, jurymen have sat playing by 
the hour without any attention to his cause, having the matter pre- 
judged by this survey & plat: and by this means have rooted out 
your petitioner's children & familys, & disperst them abroad from their 
settlements, & forced your petitioner at his advanced age of 77 years 
to part with his mansion House & all his demised lands of 900 acres 
of great value about it; while your petitioner is patiently waiting for 
justice in the premises. And at this time y'' petitioner hath two 
actions depending 6n review against him touching the premises, at 
ye next Superior Court in Cambridge : Ye suit of Capt. John 
Winchester, & two suits more upon appeals .... at s^ Cambridge 
Court at ye suit of ye Hon^i Fred Foxcroft & the Rev^ M"" Tho^ 
Foxcroft, & 12 more that are yet to be reviewed, which were first 
brought by ye said Fred Foxcroft, Tho^ Foxcroft, John Whiting, John 
Winchester, Sam' Sparhawk & Daniel Champney. In all which he 
ought in justice & good conscience to have relief against this partial 
& unwarrentable return of Mr. Williams; which with great cost & 
vexation he hath long sought but cannot find at common law; & 
therefore that there be no failure of justice ought to have here. 

" Now therefore your petitioner humbly prays the order of this great 
& gen' Court for some sufficient & indifferent surveyor by them 
named, to survey & plat the lands between Sudbury line & Marlbo- 
rough path from ye lands formerly, of Capt. Appleton & Deacon John 
Stone in the east, to the west end of ye 600 acres, platted by Mr. 
Williams in the west : with such boundaries of any particular parcell 
thereof or bordering thereupon as either party shall desire, each 
party to pay for so much as they shall direct the surveyor to do 
therein, & none of the actions aforesaid be tried till such surveyor 
returns his doings therein to ye court where ye said actions depend; 
or otherwise to relieve y petitioner, as to the justice & wisdom of this 

The Six Hzcndred Acres on Nobscot. 1 79 

great & gen' Court shall seem fit. And your petitioner as in duty 
bound shall ever pray &c Jo^ Buckminster 

Jn° Read. " 

In General Court, this petition was read. Ordered, that the pe- 
titioner serve notice on the adverse party, and a hearing be appointed, 

"To his Excellency William Shirley Esq""., and to the Honb'<= the 
Council & House of Representatives in General Court Assembled, 

" Humbly shows Edmund Trowbridge attorney to the hon^''*^ Fran- 
cis Foxcroft Esq"" & Others, in answer to the petition of Joseph 
Buckminster Esqr, preferred to your excell'^y & Honors the 25 of May 


" That the hon'^'s Tho^ Danforth Esqr being seized of the greatest 
part of the lands, which now are the Township of Framingham, in ye 
sixth of March 1672 gave one hundred & fifty acres thereof to Mr. 
Andrew Belcher, bounded on John Stones land southerly, the path 
leading from John Stones house to Marlborough, the most southerly 
path, northerly, and the lands of the said Danforth easterly & 
westerly, & also bounded the same by marked trees. 

"And afterwards .... the said Belcher, in consideration of forty 
two pounds silver money, conveyed the same to Coll" Buckminster. 

"That on the 16''^ of March 1704, the Coll" conveyed ninety acres 
thereof to Isaac Clark by the name of Lind's Land, and the said Clark 
holds the same to this day. . . . That on the twenty fifth of March 
1693 the said Danforth leased to Samuel Winch and Thomas Frost, 
two houses & 300 acres of land 7}iore or less, bounded on Sudbury line 
northerly j easterly on Appleton and Stones land; southerly on his 
own land & the said Lind's (now in posesssion of the said Clark); 
southerly & westerly on the said Danforth's own land; to rim on a 
straight line from the north west corner of said Lindas land to Sudbury 
line ; the said Danforth reserving to himself out of the said tract of 
land. Called three hundred acres, one hundred & fifty thereof near unto 
the easterly end of Doeskin Hill, to lie in one entire piece halfe a 
mile square, bounding northerly on Sudbury Line & the Easterly 
Bounds to be a tree, then jointly agreed upon and marked T. D. now 
to be seen. 

" He also leased to them ten acres of the nearest medow, and also 
gave them privilege of Commonage on Doeskin Hill, to hold for nine 
hundred and ninety nine years, paying four pounds ten shillings 
silver money yearly to the said Danforth, for the rent of the premises. 

"That in May 1693, the said Danforth leased all his other lands in 
Framingham, excepting a Neck, and sundry other tracts of land 
particularly mentioned, to Joseph White and the said Buckminster, to 

i8o History of Framingham. 

hold for nine hundred and ninety nine years, paying annually twenty 
two pounds like money; and 600 acres about Nobscott, alias Doeskin 
Hill was to lie in common. The land leased to them was above ten 
thousand acres, and they held it about six years, when, because the 
rent was so hard and the money so difficult to be got, the said White 
gave up his interest therein to Coll" Buckminster, he paying the rent 
arrears, being sixty pounds; and the said Buckminster applied to 
M'' Danforth for a new lease, and desired Mr. Danforth to take to 
himself the six hundred acres about Nobscott & Doeskin Hill, which 
by that lease made to \^'hite & Buckminster was to lie in common, & 
which Winch & Frost had a privilege of commonage in, for the rent 
arrear, & to give ye said Buckminster a lease in his own name ; which 
the said Danforth refused to do, because Winch & Frost had a 
priviledge of comonage in the said six hundred acres ; to remove 
which difficulty the said Buckminster then applied himself to the said 
Winch and Frost for their consent, and obtained it upon his promise, 
that they should each have forty acres of land about their further 
meadow, out of the land which should be leased to him by Mr 
Danforth; and the said Winch & Frost (taking only the said Buck- 
minster's word for the eighty acres aforesaid) gave their consent that 
Mr. Danforth should take the said six hundred acres at Nobscott 
and Doeskin Hill to himself, & relinquished their right of comonage 

"And on the 25th day of March 1699, the said Danforth made a 
new lease to the said Buckminster of his land in Framingham, before 
leased to the said White and Buckminster, making the same reserva- 
tion to himself as in the former lease; and also reserving to himself 
the said six hundred acres at Nobscott Hill, to be laid out in one 
intire piece adjoining to Sudbury Line northerly, to contain Nobscott 
and Doeskin Hill, and to bound southerly on the path leading from 
Deacon Stone's Mill to Marlborough ; which 600 acres he accepted 
in satisfaction of the aforesaid sixty pounds rent arrear. 

"Afterwards the said Danforth by deed conveyed the greatest part 
of his estate to his relations, and in 1699 made his last will, and thereby 
among other things, devised the residue of his estate to his children, 
grand-children and great grand-children, and made a schedule of the 
residue of his estate, wherein he mentions this six hundred acres on 
Nobscott and Doeskin Hill, valuing it at sixty pounds, being the 
money he allowed the said Buckminster for it. 

" And afterwards the said Danforth died : and his will was proved ; 
and two of his executors agreed to join with the said Buckminster, 
and bound out this six hundred acres. But while they were upon the 
business, the said Buckminster opposed the surveyor, & prevented 

The Six Hundred Acres on Nob scot. i8i 

its being done. So the matter rested untill 1709, when the said 
Buckminster, having purchased half of the demised premises, he 
together with Winch and Frost, by deed settled the western Bounds 
of their lease aforesaid, to run from Lind's norwest corner, straight 
to Sudbury Line; and soon after the said Buckminster purchased the 
other half of the lands leased to him [the leased, not the reserved 
lands] and then proceeded to sell all the lands that were of any value 
on or near Nobscott and Doeskin Hill ; and sundry persons entered. 
Whereupon Benjamin Gerrish and Martha his wife, one of ye grand- 
children, in her right, brought an action of ejectment against the 
persons that had entered upon the said six hundred acres for her one 
and twentieth part thereof, bounding cSr describing the same as in the 
reserve; and at the Superior Court in Charlestown in January 1735, 
in the trial of the cause, it being conceeded by Coll" Buckminster & 
his counsel, that there was 600 acres of land in Framingham about 
the hill aforesaid, reserved by Mr. Danforth ; & that the said Gerrish 
& wife had right unto a one and twentieth part thereof ; and the only 
question then being where the six hundred acres lay; it was proposed 
by the Hon^'^ Paul Dudley Esq"", that a surveyor should go, and bound 
out the same, and take a plan thereof; and he named Ephraim 
Willams Esq'', for the surveyor; and all parties knowing the said 
Williams to be a skillful, honest and sensible man, on whose 
judgement and veracity they could depend, agreed thereunto; & the 
action was continued to the next term, to wait for his plan and 

" And the said Williams taking with him two chainmen under oath, 
namely Deacon Thomas Greenwood and Mr. Fuller, surveyed and 
platted the said 600 acres, describing therein the aforesaid Hill, and 
also the buildings thereon ; which plat & return was accepted by the 
said Superior Court in Jan 1736, and the said Martha being dead, your 
resp"^ being adm'or of her estate, and admitted a party in the action, 
had judgement for possession of a one & twentieth part of the said 600 
acres; and it was then supposed that the 600 acres included in that 
plan would have been given up to the said Danforth's heirs. 

" But to their surprise, the said Buckminster reviewed that action, 
pretending that Mr. Danforth never reserved the 600 acres to h'nnsclf 
out of the lease made to the said Buckminster, but that the same was 
to lie in common, which he argued from Winch & Frost having a 
privilege of commonage there; and further that if it was reserved to 
Mr. Danforth, yet it did not lie within the limits of that plan, and that 
it had been bounded out by Mr. Danforths ex'ors. But notwithstand- 
ing all, the last judgement was affirmed. 

" Since which date, Mrs. Sarah Sparhawk another of the grand 

1 82 ^ History of Framingham. 

children has brought her action; and upon a full hearing at the 
Superior Court held at Cambridge in July 1741 had a final judgement 
in her favour, upon the same title. During all which time the Ter 
Tenants have been cutting all the valuable timber off the land ; 
which was the occasion the heirs brought so many actions so 

" And now whether the success the said Buckminster met with, in 
regard to having the jurymen of three towns, viz, Cambridge, Newton 
and Lexington taken off by order of the General Court upon his 
pretense, that some of Mr. Danforth's heirs lived in each of those 
towns, & would be likely to influence the jurymen there (when in 
fact there was not an heir lived in either of those towns except 
Cambridge) ; or whether it was to prolong the time, that he might 
take every thing valuable from off the land; or with a design to 
destroy the evidence, induced him to prefer his aforesaid petition, is 
uncertain : however your resp' will endeavor to give a particular 
answer to the several things he has therein alledged against the 
surveyor and his survey ; and shew why the prayer thereof should not 
be granted. The facts alledged seem to be these, viz. That the said 
Williams refused to represent in his return the facts and pretentions 
of the petitioner: Made himself a judge of the bounds of the 600 
acres, which the Superior Court could not impower him to do : Fixed 
on the quit claim line for the east boundary of the 600 acres, which 
he ought not to have done ; but to have gone further eastward ; and 
lastly this 600 acres being reserved to be laid out for the use of the 
tenants, and not being done by Mr. Danforth in his life time, it 
naturally fell to Coll" Buckminster to lay out the same. 

" In answer, your Resp' would beg leave to say : 

" ist. That by the evidence of George Walkup, it appears that Mr. 
Danforth and the said Buckminster intended the 600 acres for Mr. 
Danforth's own use, and he allowed sixty pounds to Coll'^ Buckminster 
for the same ; and by the same evidence it also appears, that Winch 
and Frost understood by the said Buckminster that Mr. Danforth was 
to reserve the 600 acres to himself, and that they were to be excluded 
the privilege of commonage there, which they would not consent 
unto, untill they had the Coll''* word that they in lieu thereof, should 
each of them have forty acres of land about their further meadow; 
and altho the ColP has never been as good as his word to them, but 
as soon as he had got the lease from Mr. Danforth, most scandalously 
insulted them, telling them that no bargain respecting lands was good 
without writing, and that they might get the eighty acres of land 
aforesaid if they could, and that they were fools for taking his word 
only for the land, with much other such provokeing language; yet 

The Six Hundred Acres on Nobscot. 1 83 

neither the said Winch and Frost, nor their heirs have to this day 
claimed any privilege of commonage there, & now according to their 
agreement with Mr. Danforth wholly relinquish the same, notwith- 
standing they were so shamefully tricked out of it. 

"2nd. As this land was reserved to be laid out, if, because Mr. 
Danforth did not lay it out in his life time, it naturally fell to 
Coll' Buckminster to do it, as he alledges ; then surely he can have 
no just grounds to complain of this survey of Mr, Williams ; for as 
Mr. Danforth bounded the land leased to Mr. Buckminster on the 
lands he before had leased to Winch & Frost, and reserved the six 
hundred acres out of the lands last leased, it made it necessary that 
the bounds between the two leases should be settled before the six 
hundred acres could be ascertained ; and that was accordingly^ in 
the year 1709 done by Coll' Buckminster, and the said Winch & 
Frost. And if by the death of Mr. Danforth it naturally fell to 
Coll' Buckminster to lay out the 600 acres, (as he in his petition 
alledges) then surely he might well settle the easterly bounds thereof ; 
and accordingly he by that settlement made with Winch and Frost 
in effect did it; for after that settlement of the line which was the 
westerly bounds of Winch and Frost's lease, and easterly bounds of 
the Coll''* lease, the Coll" could not pretend to lay out the six hundred 
acres or any part thereof, to the eastward of that line made and 
settled by him as aforesaid, not by word only, but by deed; so that 
as the Coll" had fixed the eastern bounds of the land leased to 
himself, and as the six hundred acres was reserved out of the lands 
leased to him^ no part of the 600 acres could possibly extend further 
East than the lands leased to him did ; and the reserve having fix't 
the north and south boundaries, the surveyor had nothing to do, 
but to begin at the eastern line settled by the Coll' as aforesaid, 
commonly called the quit claim line, and run from thence westward, 
keeping Sudbury line on the north, and the jDath leading from Stone's 
Mill to Marlborough on the south, untill the six hundred acres were 
included ; and then the Coll' could not reasonably complain, that the 
surveyor had not gone far enough east, because the surveyor had 
gone as far eastward as he could have gone himself. 

"Now this the surveyor in fact did ; and then hardly extended so far 
west as to include Nobscott and Doeskin Hill, which by the reserve 
he was oblidged to do, as by the plan herewith presented appears; 
so that if he had gone further eastward as the Coll" would have had 
him, he could not only have destroyed the western line of Winch and 
Frost's lease settled by Mr. Danforth in his life time, as by the 
evidence of Trowbridge and Hancock, Brown & Walcup, each appears, 
and confirmed by the Coll" himself with Winch and Frost in 1709 as 

184 History of Framingham. 

aforesaid and lapped on upon ^^'inch and Frost's lease; but then he 
could not have included the said Hill within the six hundred acres as 
he was oblidged to do ; and this was what the Coll" desired; for altho 
Nobscott and Doeskin Hill was to be included within the six 
hundred acres which was to lie in one intire piece, and to bound 
north on Sudbury Line and south on the path aforesaid; yet he would 
have persuaded Mr. Williams to have laid out the greatest part of the 
six hundred acres not only to the Eastward of the Hill, but also to the 
Eastward of that Line he had settled with Winch and Frost, called the 
quit claim Line ; and so most of the 600 acres must have been taken 
out of Winch and Frost's lease, and would have included the very 
hundred and fifty acres that Mr. Danforth first reserved to himself 
out of Winch and Frost's lease, and bounded it in his life time by 
marked trees well known to this day. And his pretentions for this 
(being as your Resp' supposes what he would have had the surveyor 
have taken notice of in his return) \vere, that the Bounds of the south- 
west corner of Winch and Frost's lease (being the same that was the 
northwest corner of Lind's Land) was an oak tree which he and his 
sons in 1734 or 1735 marked with the letter L for Lind's norwest 
corner, near a mile to the east of that very land that the Coll'^ himself, 
in the year 1704 sold to Cap' Clark, and in the deed, called by the 
name of Lind's Land, & a full mile to the east of the place where a 
large crotched Chestnut Tree stood that was marked by Mr. Danforth 
for Lind's northwest corner, known by him for such ; and known and 
acknowledged by all the ancient people thereabouts to be so ; being 
that same tree which was first defaced, then cut down, and the stump 
thereof at the said Buckminster's desire, dug up and burnt, that it 
■ might never after appear, and this other tree marked in the stead 
thereof, as by the evidence of Bezaleel Frost and Rachel Walcup & 
others herewith presented appears. Twas not therefore because the 
jury were prejudiced that they disregarded what the ColP''^ Councel 
said, but because such black attempts to destroy ancient bounds were 
glossed over and endeavoured to be smothered; and a valuable tract 
of land that in 1703 Coll" Buckminster gave forty eight pounds silver 
money for, and was as well known as any piece of land in that town, 
was attempted to be removed a mile distant from the true place, on 
to a barren rockey pitch pine Hill, which no man would give that sum 
in Old Tenor Bills for at this day ; and this not only against the 
testimonys of many ancient wittnesses before the jury sworn, but also 
against the Coll"'* own deed which had just before been read unto 

" 3ly. This survey of Mr. ^^'illiams was taken by the consent of 
both parties ; and if it be proper evidence the courts of Judicature will 

The Six Htmdred Acres on Nobscot. 185 

receive it; and your Resp* apprehends the heirs ought not to be 
stripped of the benefits of it ; but if it is not legal evidence, the courts 
will reject it. And that plan never did prevent the CoU'^'^ calling in 
question the Eastern line called the quit claim line. He has always 
done it in the late trials doubtless, and will always do it, notwith- 
standing that plan and return & his own deed too ; altho' he pretends 
a new survey would give light. The heirs don't apprehend it will, nor 
do they think the Coll" would desire it, unless he expected to have 
some friend of his (tho' unknown to your Excellency and Honours 
and to them also) appointed to survey and platt the same ; and thereby 
to make an unjust advantage thereof. 

" The granting his petition will be to introduce a new method of pro- 
ceeding, which as your Resp' apprehends is unnecessary, and Big with 
inconveniences. The Coll" may have a view by a jurv if he pleases ; 
that the law knows of ; tho' not of taking plans, without the consent 
& ag' the will of the parties, more especially when it is to set aside a 
plan before taken by the consent of all parties concerned. 

"Wherefore your Resp' humbly prays that the said Buckminster's 
petition aforesaid may not be granted ; but that the same may be dis- 
mist, as causeless and vexatious, and the parties suffered to proceed 
in the trial of their causes by the known standing laws of the land. 
And your Resp' as in duty bound &c. 

Ed"^ Trowbridge."^ 

The whole matter was referred to a committee ; and said committee, 
after hearing all parties in interest, reported that Mr. Buckminster's 
petition be dismissed. The report was accepted, and the petition 
dismissed accordingly. 

At the trial before the Superior Court, the following depositions, 
among others, were received in evidence : 

George Walkup of lawful age testifieth and saith, that Thomas Danforth, 
Esq. was with him about the year 1693 or 94, upon the land that is now in 
the possession of Mr. Ebenezer Winchester, which he the deponent was in 
the possession of at that time. Then the said Mr. Danforth asked him how 
his land lay, and where his bound was? and he informed him. Mr. Danforth 
asked him why he had not gone to yonder Chestnut tree, which is your 
Landlord's corner : which tree stood near the spot where Capt. Isaac Clark's 
barn now stands; a tree that ran up crotched, which the said Danforth said 
was Mr. Lynde's northwest corner, and Winch and Frost's corner, and 
might have done for your corner too; and the land that Capt. Clark now 
possesseth hath always been called Lynde's Land, since he hath known it. 

Rachel Walkup of lawful age testifieth and saith, that to the best of her 
remembrance, near about four or five years ago, Capt. Isaac Clark was at 

1 Mass. Archives, cxv. io8, 113. 

1 86 History of Framingham. 

her father's, and that she heard her mother ask Capt. Clark what made him 
remove Lynda's norwest corner mark, and told him it was a crotched chest- 
nut tree : And Capt. Clark said he knew the crotched chestnut tree that folks 
called Lynde's norwest corner mark; for he said he cut it down and dug up 
the stump. And her mother asked him what made him dig the stttnip tip? 
And he said, Col. Buckminster Esq. told him to dig it up to prevent further 
trouble. And further saith that to the best of her remembrance, about six 
or seven years ago, she was at the house of Ebenezer Boutwell in Framing- 
ham, and said Col. Buckminster Esq. and one or two of his sons come up to 
a black oak tree standing near said Boutwell's now dwelling house, and that 
Col. Buckminster marked the said tree on the easterly side with the letter L, 
which said tree she hath heard some people say Col. Buckminster would 
have to be Lynde's norwest corner. 

Though he was beaten at all points, yet Col. Buckminster continued 
to fight the Danforth heirs, by reviews and appeals, until his death in 
1747. After this, the defence was taken up by his son. 

In March, 1767, the Superior Court appointed Ezekiel How, Josiah 
Stone and Stephen Hosmer, commissioners to make partition of the 
said tract of land, by whom the 600 acres was divided among the 
heirs of Geo. Danforth. \See Midd. Deeds, lxiii. 539 ; lxvi. 541 ; 
Lxvii. -375-80.] 

There can be no doubt, that the animosities and scandals which 
grew out of the transactions now detailed • the combinations of 
sectional interests; and the antagonisms between the adherents and 
opposers of Col. Buckminster, furnish the clew to, and were the 
remote causes of, the dissension in the church and town, which 
developed into the contest over the site for the new meeting-house, 
and the attempt to divide both church and town. 

Father Ralle's War. — This war lasted from 1722 to 1726. It 
was instigated by Sabastian Ralle, a Jesuit missionary to the Indians, 
whose headquarters was at Norridgewock, Me., and hence its name. 
It was a Massachusetts war. The Governor and Council of Massa- 
chusetts made declaration of hostilities against the eastern Indians 
and their confederates, June 13, 1722 ; and it was ended by a treaty 
of peace with those Indians, signed at Boston, Dec. 15, 1725, and 
ratified at Falmouth, Me., Aug. 5, 1726. Massachusetts people, aided 
by New Hampshire, bore the brunt of the fighting, and paid the costs 
of the war. But while the two parties in the struggle were in 
appearance, the provinces of Massachusetts and New Hampshire 
on the one side, and the eastern Indians on the other, the real 
power with which these two small colonies were contending, was the 
Governor-General of Canada, backed by the King of France. It 

Father Ralle s War. 187 

was a chapter in the history of the struggle for French supremacy in 
New England. 

The principal theatre of the war was in the province of Maine ; 
but the French Indians from Canada made assaults on the infant 
settlements along the entire northern border of Massachusetts; and 
all our towns were called upon to contribute their quotas of men. 
Framingham shared in these levies, Jonathan Lamb was employed to 
transport military stores from Boston to Rutland. Col. Joseph 
Buckminster, then in command of the south Middlesex regiment, sent 
troops to the relief of exposed points. A detachment of horse, under 
command of Sergt. Thomas Buckminster, known as the " Rutland 
Scout," was in service from July 25, to Nov. 14, 1722. Besides the 
sergeant in command, were David Pratt, Philip Pratt and Thompson 
Wood of this town. In a detachment under Sergt. Nahum Ward of 
Marlborough, out from x\ug. 25, to Nov. 28, 1722, were Gideon 
Bridges, Jeremiah Belknap, Hackaliah Bridges, Simon Goddard, 
Jeremiah Wedges, and Benoni Hemenway, of Framingham. 

Rutland was one of the exposed frontier towns, and an objective 
point of attack by the savages, in this war. It had just been settled, 
and largely by Sudbury and Framingham families. Moses How 
and Joseph Stevens, with their families, had removed there from 
Framingham, only two years before the war broke out. The family 
of Mr. Stevens were great sufferers. As he and his four sons were 
making hay in a meadow, Aug. 14, 1723, they were surprised and fired 
upon by five Indians. The father escaped to the bushes ; two of the 
boys, Joseph aged ten, and Samuel aged twelve, were killed; and 
two, Phinehas aged sixteen, and Isaac aged seven, were made 
prisoners. A few minutes later, two Indians of the party met the 
minister. Rev. Joseph Willard, who was armed. Both the Indians 
raised their guns, but one missed fire, and the other missed aim, Mr. 
Willard fired, and wounded one of his assailants. The other closed 
upon him; but he would have proved more than a match for the 
savage, had not three other Indians come up. Mr. Willard was 
killed and scalped ; and with his clothes, and the two boys, the 
Indians started for Canada. Phinehas was redeemed in about a year, 
and became the distinguished captain and hero of No. 4, in the next 
war. Isaac was given by his captors to the Cagnowagas, and was not 
redeemed till April, 1725,* The redemption money -was raised in part 
by contributions in the different towns. A collection was taken up in 
the Framingham meeting-house, Apr. 19, 1724, amounting to ^^15. 5. 
This close relation to Rutland explains why our men were so ready to 
volunteer for service in that neighborhood. 

In Capt. Samuel Wright's Rutland company, in service from 

History of Framingha7n. 

Nov. lo, to June lo, 1724, are the names of Daniel How, Benjamin 
Hemenway, Mark Wliitney and Daniel Rider, of this town. 

In February, 1724, Col. Buckminster was ordered to impress four men 
from his regiment and send them to guard the new block-house above 
Northfield (Fort Dummer). Among the names are Jona. Stanhope 
of Sudbury, Jeremiah Wedges and Uriah Clark of Framingham. 
They were in service from Feb. i, to May 31, 1724. 

Daniel How and William Brintnall were in Capt. Samuel Willard's 
scout from Lancaster to Rutland and north, in 1725. They found on 
Miller's river, south of Monadnock, the site of an Indian camp which 
had been occupied the fall before, where were left " sixteen of their 
spits on which they roast their meat ; also a canoe and paddle, and 
some squash shells." It was not uncommon for a party of savages to 
camp in the neighborhood of an English settlement, and remain two 
months before a favorable chance offered to make an assault. 

In 1725, June to November, Daniel How, promoted to be sergeant, 
Thomas Walkup, Benoni Hemenway, John Stone and Samuel Hudson, 
apprentice to Jona. Rugg, were in Capt. Samuel Wright's company. 

Muster Roll of Capt. Isaac Clark's 
Aug. 21 to Sept. 18, 1725. 

Capt. Isaac Clark, Fram. 

Lt. Jona. Lamb, " 

Cor' Joseph Ware, Sherb. 

Corp. Nathaniel Fames, Fram. 

" Eben"" Leland, Sherb. 

" Jonas Eaton, Fram. 

" Eleazar Rider, Sherb. 

Trump"" Tho^ Bellows, Marl. 

" Nero Benson, Fram. 

Clerk, Samuel Stone, " 

James Clayes, " 

John Bent, " 

Joseph Haven, " 

Josiah Rice, " 

Daniel Pratt, " 

Matthias Clark, " 

Thomas Winch, " 

Jacob Pepper, " 

Abraham Rice, " 

Ezekiel Rice, " 

Robert Seaver, " 

Samuel Frizzell, " 

company of Troopers, out from 

Phinehas Rice, Fram. 

Moses Haven, " 
Uriah Drury, 

Joseph Brintnall,. " 

Bezaleel Rice, " 

Georgea Wlkup, " 

Isaac Stanhope, '• 
Samuel Walker, 

Thomas Stone, " 

John Stacy, " 

Jonathan Nutting, " 

Oliver Death, " 
Samuel Williams, Sherb. 

Joseph Leland, " 

Asa Morse, " 

Edward Learned, " 

Isaac Leland, " 

George Fairbank, " 

Joseph Morse, " 

Jonathan Fairbank, " 

David Morse, " 

Jonathan Dewing, " 

Second Meetuig-House. 1 89 

The Second Meeting-house. — The old meeting-house became 
somewhat dilapidated; and a necessity presented itself, either of 
repairing or rebuilding. 

At a town meeting, Feb. 3, 1724-5, the question was put, whether 
the town would remove the place of the meeting-house to the Centre, 
or continue the place where it now stands. And " a great majority 
voted to continue the place where the house now stands." Voted^ " by 
a great majority, to begin to build a meeting-house the summer now 
advancing, and to proceed therein so as to complete it in about 3 or 4 
years, or sooner as the town shall hereafter agree," The Buckminsters 
and the inhabitants living near them in the north part of the town, 
twenty-five in all, entered their dissent. 

At a town meeting April 19, 1725, warned by the constables going from 
house to house. Col. Buckminster proposed " to have the exact centre 
of the town found, and to have the meeting-house placed at the nearest 
convenient place thereto;" voted in the negative. He then proposed 
that it be placed on the east side of Bare hill, north of a path which 
leads from the present meeting-house to Benjamin Treadways ; and 
that himself would procure conveniency of land for a meeting-house 
there on his own land, and it was voted in the negative. [The terms 
of this proposal involved the title to the " Meeting-house land," as 
the spot named was on the tract reserved by Mr. Danforth for " the 
accommodation of a Meeting-house."] At the same meeting the town 
voted to raise the sum of ^100 towards the building of a new meeting- 
house, and chose Caleb Johnson, James Clayes and John Gleason a 
committee to agree with a workman to build the house. According to 
the list of names preserved, it appears that not less than two-thirds of 
the real estate owners in town were in favor of rebuilding on the old 
spot. It was further voted within a few months, that an additional 
sum of ;^ioo be assessed for the building of the meeting-house; and 
that " the pine trees standing on the land reserved for the accommo- 
dation of the meeting-house, and fit to make boards, should be cut for 
the use of the town, and improved about the building of the meeting- 
house. And it was further voted that any person of the town that will 
cut and carry the said pines to a saw-mill, and get them sawn into 
boards, shall be paid by the town for his labour." A contract was 
made with Ephraim Bigelow of Holliston, to construct the frame of a 
house, sixty feet long, fifty feet broad, and twenty-three feet between 
joints, the committee to provide the timber, and the contractor to 
receive ^120 bills of credit. The timber was cut and hewed, and 
brought upon the ground ; but Col. Buckminster took possession of 
the same, and used it in the frame of a barn, which he erected near 
where E. H. Warren's store now stands. 

1 90 Histojy of Framingham. 

A petition was sent by the town to the General Court, and a com- 
mittee, of which Samuel Thaxter was chairman, was appointed and 
sent out to Framingham to decide upon the site of the meeting-house. 
This committee reported Dec. 29, 1725, that "the meeting-house 
proposed to be built shall be set on the southerly side of the path 
leading from the old meeting-house to Bare hill, and not more than 
ten rods from the path, and as near the said hill as the land appro- 
priated for that use will conveniently admit of;" which report was 
accepted by both Houses of the Legislature. This report, as is seen, 
was a compromise offered to the north inhabitants; and at the same 
'time it recognized the right of the town to the " Meeting-house land."' 

Under this sanction, and in conformity to the order of the General 
Court, the committee of the town proceeded to mark out the spot ; and 
May 2, 1726, the town voted \\i2X the meeting-house be set on a certain 
piece of ground on the southerly side of the path which leads from the 
present meeting-house to Bare hill, nearly opposite to the place called 
the Square, where the committee have marked a pitch pine tree, being 
as near the hill as the land will allow, and not more than three or four 
rods southerly of said path. Col. Buckminster declared that the land 
was his, and expressed his resolution to obstruct the setting of a 
meeting-house there. And it was voted that a committee be chosen 
to vindicate and defend the title of the land in case any molestation 
were made or suit commenced. The said committee consisted of 
Nathaniel Eames, Peter Clayes and Joseph Haven. Vott'd, "that the 
underpinning of the meeting-house siiall be a foot and a half high on 
the highest land, and so upon a level round the house in proportion. 
Voted, that if any persons will advance any money beforehand to carry 
on the building of the meeting-house, so as it may be covered and 
enclosed as soon as may be after it is raised, that the same shall be 
discounted in their future rates." The spot selected was a little north 
of where the old Games tavern (now George Graham's dwelling-house) 
stands. At an adjournment of said meeting, May 30, "it being urged 
by many of the inhabitants that the place marked out for a new 
meeting-house on the 2d instant, is too flat and moist, and also so near 
the hill that the shadow of the trees will darken the house at some 
times ; and that another place had been viewed by sundry persons 
who esteemed it more convenient, and also agreeable to the order 
of the Court, the meeting was adjourned for one quarter of an hour ; 
and being returned, the question was put whether tiie town were 
of opinion that the place viewed this day is more convenient than the 
one formerly staked out ? It passed in the affirmative by a great 
majority of votes. The committee before appointed, together with 
Sergeant Bridges and the Selectmen, proceeded to stake out the spot 

Second Mee ting-House. 191 

selected, seventy feet one way and sixty feet the other way, that so the 
committee for underpinning may take the advantage of the ground. 
Voted, that Samuel How Jr. Moses Haven 3'^' Nathan Haven, David 
Bent and Ichabod Hemenway be a committee to provide such drink 
and provisions as may be thought necessary, to be brought to and be 
spent at the frame at the raising of the meeting-house." Col. Buck- 
minster objected to all these votes ; and proposed, " that the new 
meeting-house should be erected on the easterly side of the river near 
to Joseph Stone's (the Abner Wheeler placej. On taking a vote, the 
northern inhabitants generally voted in favor of the proposition ; yet 
they being by far the minor part, it passed in the negative." The 
town then voteti, " to annul all former votes relating to a place for 
setting the new meeting-house ; and that said house be placed at 
the west end and as near the old meeting-house as it may conveniently 
be raised." 

'J'he warrant for a town-meeting to be held July 25, 1726, recites: 
"Whereas Col. Buckminster hath commenced an action of Trespass 
against Ephraim Bigelow, whom the Town's committee indented with 
to frame a new meeting-house on the lands reserved for the accom- 
modation of said house (and ministry), and hath at several times and 
in diverse manners, carried off from the lands aforesaid, several parts 
and parcels of the timber of the said frame, whereby the vi^ork hath 
been greatly hindered, etc." And at the meeting so warned, the town 
" voted, that Thomas Stone, Joseph Haven, and John Jones of 
Hopkinton be a committee to act in behalf of the town, at any court, 
before any magistrates, justices or judges, at all times; and in behalf 
of the town to sue and defend in any action, commenced or to be 
commenced concerning the Meeting-house lands; or any Trespass 
committed thereon by any person, in carrying away, defacing or spoil- 
ing any of the Town's timber, which has been supplied to Ephraim 
Bigelow to work into a frame for a meeting-house ; and generally to 
act for the town's best advantage, according to their best discretion. 
Voted, that the money already expended on the town's behalf, in 
proving out the bounds of the Meeting-house land, and prosecuting 
those persons that carried away a part of the framed timber; and also 
what money hath been expended in feeing lawyers in order to 
further prosecutions, be defrayed out of the ;^2oo heretofore granted, 
and the remaining part of said ^200 be put into the hands of the 
agents this day appointed." 

Early in the fall (1726), Col. Buckminster and a part of the 
northern inhabitants sent a petition to the General Court, then in 
session, praying that a committee of the Court may be appointed, who 
shall view the premises and report; or else, failing in this, that the 

192 History of Framingham. 

petitioners and such inhabitants dwelling near them may be set ofif as 
a separate precinct. 

The town chose Peter Clayes and Nathaniel Eames as agents to 
answer the foregoing petition of the northern inhabitants. 

In the meantime, on advice of the General Court, the following 
agreement was drawn up by Edward Goddard and Col. Buckminster, 
as representing the two parties, viz: "That the town be exactly 
measured, and the true centre thereof determined by a skillful 
surveyor and chainmen under oath, the chainmen to be from other 
towns; and that a line be drawn from said centre towards the present 
meeting-house, and the new meeting-house be set up at the half-way 
centre ; and if it fall out that the land here be inconvenient for a 
meeting-house spot, that then it shall be set up at such place as shall 
be determined on by three indifferent men, one of whom shall be 
selected by each party, and the third by the mutual consent of ten 
men of each party — provided that said spot shall be within the 
circumference of thirty rods from the said middle spot; the whole 
charge to be borne by the town." This agreement was signed by 
eighty-eight of the leading citizens of the town, and embraced a 
considerable majority. Those living at the northwest part, who had 
petitioned for a new precinct, refused to sign. 

The agreement, thus signed, was presented to the General Court, 
as the town's answer to the petition of the northern inhabitants; and 
Dec. 16, 1726, it was ordered and resolved that the aforesaid agree- 
ment be approved and confirmed to all intents and purposes. 

At a town-meeting, Dec. 12, the town voted to pay Ephraim 
Bigelow ;^8o for the labor and expense upon the meeting-house frame. 
At a subsequent date, he was paid in full. 

"Upon the"25th of January 1726-7, the inhabitants of both parties 
generally assembled, and by the very full consent of both parties 
made choice of Col. William Dudley for the surveyor, and James 
Brown and Deacon Fisk of Sudbury, and Lt. Samuel Brigham and 
Ens. Zorobabel Ager of Marlborough, for the chainmen, in measuring 
the town." 

The minutes of this survey have not been found ; but in a subse- 
quent survey, made by Col. Ward, the exact centre of the town was 
stated to be a point near the present dwelling-house of Moses Ellis, 
which would carry what was known as the half-way centre, to near 
the present site of the Baptist meeting-house. 

The effort to harmonize the conflicting interests appears to have 
been fruitless; for Oct. 13, the selectmen sent a petition to the 
General Court, in which they complain of divers unwarrantable actions 
and proceedings of Joseph Buckminster, Esq., relating to the placing 

Second Meeting-House. 193 

of a meeting-house, and name especially a warrant issued by Francis 
Bowman, Esq., for a call of a town meeting, said warrant being 
clandestinely obtained, etc. The Court promptly ordered the said 
warrant, so issued, and the call under it, to be superseded. 

"Nov. 17, 1727. The town voted, to proceed no further (under the 
present difficult circumstances) in their endeavours to erect or build a 
meeting-house in said town." 

" Voted to raise £/^, to be laid out in repairing the windows and 
amending or setting up some seats that are fallen down in the galleries 
of the meeting-house, and Lt. Gleason was appointed to lay out the 
money to the best advantage." 

"May 19, 1729. Matthew Gibbs was desired to do what is needful 
to secure the galleries of the meeting-house, by raising them and 
fastening the pillars." 

"At a town meeting Dec. i, 1730, Col. Buckrninster made the fol- 
lowing Proposals, viz. That the said Buckrninster will make good all 
the timber that he has made use of either in his barn frame, or any 
other way to his own private use, that the town prepared for a meeting- 
house in Framingham, either in money as it shall be prized by men of 
judgment indifferently chosen, or in good timber to the same value, 
which the town shall think fit : Also that he the said Buckminster will 
deliver to the town all the remainder of the Town's timber prepared 
for a new meeting-house, now in his custody, or give free liberty for the 

town to take the same. 

"Signed Joseph Buckminster." 

"Upon debate had on the above proposals. It was voted, that the. 
same be accepted, in case Lieut. Gleason and Ensign Pike do give 
good security to the Town's Agents forthwith to their acceptance, that 
the said proposals shall be fulfilled according to the true intent thereof, 
and not otherwise." The said bondsmen did not qualify. 

At near the same time (December, 1730), the inhabitants living on the 
easterly and southerly sides of the river sent a petition to the General 
Court, representing, " That they are principally consisting of those 
Farmers taken from Sudbury and Sherborn, etc. Those of Sudbury 
Farmers, with others remote from meeting, before the Court had taken 
'em off from Sudbury and annext them to Framingham, were designing 
to address the General Court to have been made a separate town ; but 
the Hon. Mr. Danforth making some motion to bring forward a settle- 
ment of a town off his Farms in Framingham, it put some stop to their 
proceeding. Those of Sherborn Farmers and others have secluded 
themselves from their rights in the Common and undivided Lands, for 
the sake of being nearer to the place of publick worship of God ; and 

194 History of Framingham. 

also for about the spaces of 9 or 10 years were under a necessity to 
pay their proportion of the minister's rates to both Sherborn and 
Framingham, which has been a very great burden and damage to them. 
And since of late years (tho' once very peaceable) the town of Fram- 
ingham has been in great broils in several respects, and particularly 
in the concern about the public meeting-house, which is now shame- 
fully gone to decay : So that your petitioners have sundry of us several 
times addrest the selectmen of said town, and also in several town 
meetings earnestly prest that something might be done to the meeting- 
house as to repair or new building of it in the place where it now 
stands; but the town b}- reason of the fermentation they are in wholly 
declined to act anything, altho' much urged. And your petitioners 
for some years have laboured under these difficulties, besides a vast 
expense that we are exposed to to uphold and maintain the many 
litigious quarrels in said town, which have been ver}' impovershing. 

Now therefore we do most earnestly pray that the Great and 

Honourable Court would be pleased to Divide the town of Framing- 
ham, and set off all the inhabitants and families with their possessions, 
situate on the southern and eastern sides of the River, consisting of 
the number of 60 families or more, and erect the same into a separate 
town, etc. Which we humbly conceive will very much conduce to 
your petitioners peace, and not disoblige the other parts lying on the 
northerly and westerly sides of the River, which are far greater in 
number, and will be much to the glory of God. And your petitioners 
would intimate that we of Sudbury farmers and Sherborn farmers 
should never have yielded to be annext to Framingham, had we not 
expected the meeting-house place had been fixed in the place where 
it now is; but since Col. Buckminster by a course in law has recovered 
the land, the place for the accommodation of a meeting-house is 
very uncertain, and now we understand it's likely may be removed." 
Signed by David Stone, Thomas Pratt, John Gleason, Uriah Drury, 
John Adams, John Bent, Bezaleel Rice, Nathanael Fames, Jr., Richard 
Haven, and others, to the number of fifty-two tax-payers. 

To checkmate this move. Col. Buckminster drew up a petition to the 
General Court, which was signed by eighty of the inhabitants living on 
the Danforth lands and at Stone's End, praying for a division of the 
town, "by a line near southeast and northwest, crossing the Centre 
and leaving the house of Ebenezer Stone (now Hollis Hastings') ten 
rods on the south side of said line." 

June 7, 1 73 1, Rev. Mr. Swift sent the following letter to the 
Hon. Josiah Willard, Esq., at Boston, for use before the General 
Court : 

Second Meeting-House. 195 

Sir : I hear that the Hon. House of Representatives have granted a 
division of the town of Framingham (which upon 30 year's experience or 
more of the capacity of the said town) I fear will prove subversive to the 
best interests of the said town. 

Such a division would be a great ease to me in my official performances, 
were the town capable of it: but by reason of the town's deficiency in the 
payment of my dues, and trouble they have given me about my settlement, 
I have been greatly impoverished, spent a considerable part of my paternal 
estate to support the ministry in Framingham, as I can easily make it 

Settling in the year 1700, before there was any paper money in the 
government fas I suppose), and having had but an inconsiderable allowance 
for the change of the species, I can't suppose my loss to be much short of 


The deficiency of the arrears, since the town had a receipt from me, 
which I know ought to be made good, and am well informed are recoverable 
in the law, together with new charges which will accrue unavoidably, will be 
what one-half part of Framingham cannot accompHsh without help, in my 
humble opinion. Verte Do/nine. 

In the year 1729, the Hon. House of Representatives received it for good 
doctrine, I think, vizt. "that our Legislature have it in their power to make 
reasonable allowance for the discount upon the paper currency whereby 
minister's small annuities are much diminished : " and I depend (under God) 
upon the goodness and justice of your Hon. Board that nothing shall be 
done to my hurt. 

Your obedient 

and humble Servant 

John Swift. 

The effort to procure a division of the town was unsuccessful. 

A new move was now made, in another quarter. Despairing of 
peace at home, a considerable number of the leading families living on 
the Hemenway road, on Mellen's Neck, and at Salem End, determined 
to seek religious privileges in the neighboring town of Hopkinton, 
And in the fall of 1732, six of the male members of our church 
applied for admission to the church in that town, without presenting 
letters of dismission from the Framingham church. The facts in this 
case, famous in the annals of Congregationalism, are best told in the 
language of the Hopkinton church records: "Nov. 27, 1732. The 
church met to consider of the desires of Edward Goddard, Thomas 
Mellen, Benj. Whitney, Simon Mellen, Richard Haven and Simon 
Goddard, all belonging to the church of Christ in Framingham to be 
admitted into full communion with this church. Voted, to send to the 
church in Framingham to know what objections they had against our 
receiving them. Jan. 10, 1732-3, the church met, and voted to 
receive the above-named brethren, as members in full communion 

196 History of Framingham. 

with us, without a dismission from Framingham church (^they being 
before in full communion with that church). The reasons inducing 
this church hereto were: i. Those brethren having used all possi- 
ble pains with the pastor to obtain a dismission from that church. 
2. This church having sent a letter to the Framingham church, desir- 
ing their consent for our receiving the above-named members, or offer 
such objections to us as might justify our denial of their admission 
with us. 3. Upon the foregoing reasons, this church looked upon 
it as agreeable to the Platform of Church Discipline, Chap. 13, 
section 2." 

A few years later, /. e., April 16, 1735, Deacon Joshua Hemenway, 
William Ballard, Elkanah Haven, Moses Haven, Jr., Joshua Hemen- 
way, Jr., members of the church, petitioned to be received to the 
church in Hopkinton. That church " voted, that the elders write to 
the church in Framingham, in the name of this church, to inform 
them of the above petition, and the grounds of the request, in order 
to gain their consent, or receive their objections. At a church 
meeting, May 12, was read the letter sent by the elders to the church 
in Framingham; also, the answer thereto by Rev. Mr. Swift, and the 
letters of Dea. Hemenway to the church, and Mr. Swift's answer to 
the same. After debate, the church voted to call in a convenient 
number of Congregational Churches to advise in the said affair." 
The ecclesiastical council met the third Wednesday in September. It 
comprised the churches under the pastoral care of Rev. Messrs. 
Cheever of Chelsea, Moody of Yorkj Wise of Berwick, White of 
Gloucester, Loring of Sudbury, and Dr. Sewall, Thatcher, Webb, 
Prince, Gee, and Mather, of Boston. After hearing all parties in 
interest, the council gave its sanction to the doings of the Hopkinton 
church thus far, and advised that Deacon Hemenway and the others 
be received without letters of dismission from the Framingham church. 
Thereupon they, and their wives, and the wives of the six brethren 
previously admitted, were received to the fellowship of the Hopkinton 
church. About the same time, Nero, the slave of Rev. Mr. Swift, 
made application, and was received to the church in Hopkinton on 
the same terms as the others. 

1733. A presentment was issued by the Superior Court against the 
town, for not having a decent meeting-house in said town ; and Ens. 
Micah Stone and Edw. Goddard were chosen agents to make answer 
to the said presentment. 

In the spring of 1734, certain parties petitioned the selectmen for 
liberty to repair the old meeting-house as they shall think fit. Other 
propositions were made, which were severally included in the warrant 
for the March meeting. At the meeting, March 4, " the question was 

Second Meeting-House. 197 

put, whether the town will raise a sum of money to build a new 
meeting-house on Benj. Treadway's land ; and it passed in the nega- 
tive." " Put to vote whether the town will repair the old meeting-house 
by re-setting the glass, and clapboarding the fore side of said house; 
and it passed in the negative." " Put to vote whether the town will 
allow the Petitioners to repair the old meeting-house ; and it passed in 
the negative," 

"At an adjournment Mar. 25, 1734, after some debate, the meeting 
took a recess for three quarters of an hour that the people might go 
and view several places then in nomination to build a new meeting 
house on ; and after the people returned, Put to vote whether the 
town will erect and build a new meeting house at an Oak tree marked, 
standing on William Pike's land, at the north end of Bare hill ; and it 
passed in the affirmative. " Voted, that the sum of ;^4oo be assessed, 
to carry on the building of a new meeting house ; ^200 whereof to be 
paid in in December next, and the other ;^2oo in April next after." 

Mr. William Pike sold the town four acres of land, for ;^i4. [See 
ante p. 105.] 

The new meeting-house was built the next year (1735). It stood at 
the northeasterly corner of the Centre common, nearly opjDOsite the 
Otis Boynton dwelling-house, fronting south. 

At a meeting May 19, 1735, Lt. Samuel Moore, Henry Eamms, 
Amos Gates, Ens. Joseph Stone, Michael Pike, Capt. Buckminster and 
Uriah Drury were chosen a committee to provide for the raising of 
the meeting house. " Voted, that they procure one barrel of Rum, 
three barrels of Cyder, six barrels of Beer, with suitable provision of 
Meat, bread, etc. for such and only such as labour in raising the 
meeting-house : That the said provisions be dressed at a private house 
or houses, and that the same (together with the drink) be so brought 
to the frame ; And if a sufficiency of victual be brought in by particular 
persons, then that the town in general be not charged for the same ; 
if otherwise, then the committee to procure and pay for the same. 

Voted, that this committee procure a Gin and a man to manage it, 
by Tuesday come fortnight." 

The cost of raising the meeting-house, as reported by this committee, 
was ;^68. 19s. And in addition, the town voted to allow them los. 
each for their services. 

In size, this house was fifty-five by forty-two feet, and thirty feet 
between joints. It had three stories, with doors on the front side, and 
at the east and west ends. ^150 more were granted to build the 
house, making ;^55o the cost of finishing the outside — though it was 
not painted till 1772. The sum of ^^350 was granted at different 
times for finishing the inside of the house. The pulpit was on the 

1 98 History of Framingham. 

north side, and double galleries extended around the other three sides. 
The committee was instructed to build a pulpit, a body of long seats 
below, leaving an alley between the men's and women's seats, lay the 
floors, make seats in the lower gallery, and two pairs of stairs (men's 
and women's) to said gallery. The space next the walls under the 
galleries was reserved for pews. The ministerial pew was the first on 
the left hand side of the pulpit ; and a pew in the northeast corner 
was reserved for the town's use. 

" Voted, That the pew room on the lower floor be given to the highest 
payers; the several persons to enjoy their pews, provided they build the 
same, and finish the meeting-house against their several pews as high as the 
lower range of girths, within six months ; the backside of the pews be ceiled 
by being double-boarded up to the lower part of the windows; and then up 
to the girths to be boarded, lathed and plastered, and white-washed; and at 
all times, keep the glass against the pews in good repair; and in case of 
neglect, to forfeit their pews to the town." A little later, liberty was given 
to such as desired it, "to make windows to their pews, under the inspec- 
tion of the committee; the owners of said pews to provicfe the glass." 

A committee, viz., William Ballard, Richard Haven, Henry Eames, 
John White, and Joshua Hemenway, was appointed to find out by 
viewing and comparing the lists, who the highest payers are that were 
entitled to pews under the foregoing votes, and report to the town. 

The lower front gallery was disposed of on the same principle as the 
ground floor — pews being allowed to be built next the walls, and long 
seats in front. The upper gallery was (when finished) fitted with long 
seats, which were free. 

"March 10, 1737-8. Ens. Pike, Benj. Treadway, Abraham Rice, 
Wm. Ballard and Wm. Pike were appointed a committee to seat the 
meeting-house." The same method was adopted to " dignify" the seats, 
and to " seat the people," as in the first meeting-house ; only that " age " 
was more honored — one penny being added to the assessed "rate" 
of persons between fifty and sixty, to raise their dignity ; five pence to 
persons between sixty and seventy ; while those over seventy were 
honored at the discretion of the committee. The rule, however, varied 
at each re-seating. 

The last vote for reseating the people was passed in 1794. Some 
years before, the young men of the better class had established the 
practice of buying " a right " on the back seat of the lower gallery, 
which included the right to place a chair before them (for a wife when 
needed). The price of such a right was $3.50. Thus, without "a 
vote," the " right " of a new wife to sit with her husband, broke down 
the "bar" between the men's and women's seats, which had been up 
for near a century. 

Rev. Mr. Sivift. 199 

In 1771, the town voted "to sell the ground of the two hind seats in 
the body of the meeting-house, to build six pews on, to raise money 
for repairing the said house." The committee sold the same for 681 
pounds old tenor, equal to ^90. 16. Lieut. Samuel Gleason, James 
Clayes, David Haven, Thomas Temple and Maj. John Farrar were 
appointed a committee to examine the meeting-house and report the 
proper repairs to be made, and the estimated cost of the same. And 
on their report, the town " voted, that the meeting-house be new shingled 
the backside, and new clapboarded all round, with new doors, and 
sash glass; also that the outside be well painted.' ;^8o was granted 
for said repairs. 

Rev. Mr. Swift. — Mr. Swift's salary, by the terms of his settle- 
ment, was £(io a year. In providing for the pa3mient of said salary, 
the town annually made what was called " a Minister's rate." At 
first this was paid in from week to week, at the option of individuals, 
by enclosing the money in a paper parcel, on which the contributor's 
name was written, and of which the deacons took account, and 
handed the sum to the pastor. Afterwards, the minister's rate was, 
with the other rates, committed to the constables, who as they 
collected money on this rate paid it over to Mr. Swift. So that 
whenever it happened that this special assessment fell in arrears, by 
that amount the minister's salary was behind. The first squaring 
of accounts between the town and the pastor, is indicated by the 
following receipt: 

The eighth of Octot>i' 1705, Then Reckoned with Samuel Winch Simon 
Mellen John How and Benjamin Bridges (they being appointed by the 
Town of Framingham a Committee to Ballance Accompts between the said 
Town and myself the Subscriber) and These are to signify that all Accompts 
between the said Town and myself are Ballanced, and the said Town is 
hereby discharged from all and all manner of Debts and Dues to me from 
the said town, from the beginning of the world to the first day of March 
last past from the date hereof. 

Witness my hand John Swift. 

The next settlement with the town was in April, 1710 ; and Mr. Swift 
was often under the necessity of asking for the amount of arrears due 

" Aug. 26, 1723, the town voted, that it be tried for this present year 
by way of contribution, to raise a sufficient sum for the better support 
of the Rev. Mr. Swift." Mr. Swift sent a letter to the next town 
meeting, containing some objections against this method of advancing 
his salary; and after debate, "it was voted, That in consideration that 
the value of the Province Bills is depreciated, whereby the Rev. Mr. 

200 History of Framijigham. 

Swift's salary is rendered insufficient for his honourable support, that 
therefore the sum of twenty pounds Bills of public credit be added to 
the salary, for the better support of the pastor for the present year : 
And that the said addition be assessed in the next half year rate; 
And that the same addition be continued yearly for the future, unless 
recalled by some further and other vote of the town. Voted, that Mr. 
Swift's salary be henceforth raised in manner as was agreed on at a 
town meeting on August 21, 1700." 

Mr. Swift's family expenses were large. His wife was subject to 
periods of mental derangement, which obliged him to build a small 
house for a study, remote from his dwelling. This study was erected 
near the present house of Orre Parker. After the death of Mr. Swift, 
it was used for various purposes. A family of French refugees was 
quartered there for a time, at the town's charge. It was finally 
remo\'ed to where E. H. Warren's dwelling-house now stands, and 
converted into a store. 

In 1733, Mr. Swift entered a complaint in the Court of General 
Sessions for Middlesex County, "for that the selectmen of the last year 
have not assessed the sum of 35 pounds for my first half-year's salary 
in the year 1732." The town chose a committee to defend the suit, 
and voted the sum of twenty pounds to pay the committee's and 
Court's charges. At the same time, it was " Voted that whereas the 
town have already voted the sum of £'i\o. Bills of credit, for the Rev. 
Mr. Swift's salary for the year past, it is the true intent and meaning 
of the Town that (upon his acceptance thereof as satisfactory) the like 
sum of one hundred and forty pounds shall be paid him the year 
advancing, and so yearly, so long as provisions and clothing bear 
such prices as now they do; and that the sum be augmented as they 
rise higher. And that the town will also raise and pay to Mr. Swift 
the sum of one hundred pounds bills of credit, in consideration that 
provisions and clothing have been high some past years, when no 
more than one hundred pounds per annum has been paid him." 

"And whereas the Selectmen made their assessments for the whole 
of the year 1732, according to the former vote and usage of the town, 
so that if there be any deficiency it must be on the town's part, and 
therefore ought to be answered for by the town ; Voted that the town 
do accordingly assume and take upon them the said cause ; and that 
the committee, or any one of them, answer, defend and reply to the 
said complaint of Mr. Swift, in any court or courts of justice where 
the said cause may be brought or presented. And further voted, that 
the above committee do wait upon Mr. Swift and (in the most effica- 
cious manner they can) press the proposal of the town this day passed, 
in order to an accommodation with respect to his salary and complaint 

Rev. yohii Swift. 201 

relating thereto, that so the inconveniences which must attend the 
prosecution thereof in the law may (if possible) be prevented." 

The next settlement of the town with Mr. Swift is hereby indicated : 

Framingham March i, 1739-40. Received then of Jeremiah Pike Treas- 
urer of the town, the sum of Four hundred and twenty-five pounds in Bills of 
Credit on the province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, in full of 
all Accompts, bills, bonds, debts, dues and demands whatsoever due from the 
town of Framingham to me, from the beginning of the world to the first day 
of this instant March. I say received the said ^425, by me 

John Swift. 

"Mar. 7, 1742-3. Voted by the town, that there be a Monthly Lec- 
ture set up, according to Mr. Swift's writing, sent into the town 

"Aug. 13, 1743. At a meeting to see if the town will come into 
some method to provide help for Mr. Swift, he being unable to preach. 
Deacon Adams and Caleb Bridges were chosen to wait on the Rev. 
Mr. Swift, to advise with him ; and Dea. Adams and Dea. Pike to 
supply the pulpit for the present." 

" Mar. 5, 1743-4. Voted, to proceed to proper methods in order to 
settle a minister with the Rev. Mr. Swift at this time ; and Ens. Stone, 
Dea. Balch and Joseph Haven were chosen, to provide suitable gentle- 
men to supply the pulpit in order for settlement." 

Feb. 6, 1744-5. At a meeting, "to see if the town would concur 
with the church's vote in choosing Mr. John Newman to be their 
minister, it passed in the negative." 

During the last four years of his life, the failure of Mr. Swift's health 
disabled him a large part of the time from ministerial duties. After a 
protracted illness, he expired April 24, 1745, having held the pastorate 
here for the long term of forty-five years. 

Sept. 2, 1746. The town '■'voted, to grant the sum of one hundred 
and twenty-five pounds, old tenor, to defray the funeral charges of their 
late Reverend Pastor, and to purchase a decent Tomb-stone." 

Rev. John Swift was son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Vose) Swift ; 
was born at Milton, March 14, 1678-9 ; graduated at Harvard Uni- 
versity, 1697. He married Sarah, daughter of Timothy and Sarah 
Tileston, of Dorchester, by whom he had six children. 

Mr. Barry says : " Of his ability as a preacher, we have no means 
of judging. His printed sermons are marked with a pure and classical 
taste. He was free from all affectation of style as well as extravagance 
of zeal, or rashness of opinion. The subjects of his ordinary pulpit 
discourse (as one may infer from his diary) were often suggested by 
passing events. Some of these discourses bear marks of extempora- 
neous composition. Thus he notes on one occasion, his preaching 

202 History of Fra^ningkam. 

from the words, ' The voice of the Lord is upon the waters ; the God 
of glory thundereth;' adding, 'it being a day of thunder.' On 
another, ' Behold ! this day I am going the way of all the earth, ' 
with an allusion to a neighbor who was then dying. A time of severe 
weather suggested the text, ' Who can stand before His cold ; ' and a 
few weeks later, doubtless while the snow drifted through the dilapi- 
dated meeting-house, the motto of his sermon was, ' a covert from the 
storm.' The halt of a detachment of soldiers in the village, on a 
march to the eastward, induced him to discourse from the words, 
'a devout soldier.' And again, 'it being a very rainy day,' with rare 
felicity he adopted for his text the verse, ' For the earth which 
drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs 
meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God; 
but that which beareth thorns and briars is rejected, whose end is to 
be burned.' " 

Two discourses by Mr. Swift were printed, and are preserved in the 
library of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

I. A funeral Discourse, delivered at Marlborough, on occasion of the 
Death of the Reverend and learned Mr. Robert Break, late Pastor of the 
church there; who died Jan. 6, 1730-31, in the 49th year of his age. By 
John Swift, A.M., Pastor of the church in Framingham. Boston, N. E. ; 
Printed by J. Kneeland and T. Green, 1731. 

II. A sermon preached at Boston, before the Great and General Assembly 
of the Province of the Mass. Bay, in N. E., May 31, 1732; being the Anni- 
versary for the election of, his Majesty's Council for the Province, by John 
Swift, M. A., and Pastor of the church in Framingham. Printed, at Boston: 
in N. E., by B. Green, 1732. 

The Boston Evening Post, of May 13, 1745, gives this brief obituary 
notice : " On the 24th of the last month, died, at Framingham, after a 
long indisposition, the Rev. Mr. John Swift, the first Pastor of the church 
in Framingham, in the 67th year of his age, and the 4Sth of his min- 
istry. As he was a gentleman of considerable natural powers, so he 
acquired a considerable degree of human knowledge and useful learn- 
ing. He particularly excelled in rhetoric and oratory, and as a critic 
in the Greek language. His piety was sincere and eminent. His 
preaching was sound and Evangelical. As a pastor, he was diligent, 
faithful and prudent ; and in his conversation, he was sober, grave and 
profitable, yet affable, courteous and pleasant. When he received 
injuries at any time, he bore them with singular discretion and meek- 
ness ; and the various trials and sorrows with which he was exercised, 
especially in the latter part of his life, gave occasion for showing forth 
his wisdom, humility, patience and resignation to the Divine will. He 
was had in high esteem by the Association to which he belonged." 

Petition for a New Town. 203 

Mr. Swift was accustomed to meet the young people in the autumn 
months, at not less than two places (notified from the pulpit), to ques- 
tion them on the catechism. When the practice of catechising in 
public ceased in this town, is not known. But all Christian parents 
were expected to hear their children recite the Assembly's Catechism 
on Sabbath evenings, till within the memory of persons now living. 

Mr. Swift was often called to sit on ecclesiastical councils. Nineteen 
instances of this kind are noticed in his journal, in the space of about 
eight years. He preached the Thursday lecture in Boston, in the 
place of Mr. Checkly, April 20, 1727. 

Miscellany. — 1717- Deep snow. Mr. Swift writes in his journal, 
under date of Feb. 24 : " We had no meeting by reason of a very deep 
snow, that fell on the Thursday before, and a great storm on that 
Sabbath." "March 10: the Lord's Supper adjourned till the next 
Sabbath, by reason of the restraint of the season by deep snow." The 
annual town meeting, which was to have been held March 4, " pro- 
vided the town can come roundly together, and are not hindered by 
reason of the extremity of the season," was not held till the eighteenth 
of the month. Contemporary accounts represent the depth of the snow 
this winter, as about six feet. 

1720, Feb. 21. Under this date in his journal, Mr. Swift mentions 
a great deluge, Diluvium magnuni. 

1727, Oct. 29. Mr. Swift enters in his journal the following account 
of the great earthquake : " Node subsequente fuit terrae motus valde 
terribilis, circiter horas 10 m. and 11 ;;z." 

1736. The town " voted, that 30s. be paid or abated to Moses Haven, 
late constable, in consideration that the like sum is said to have been 
burnt of the town's money, when his house was burnt." 

1736. August. A very fatal disease prevailed in this and the 
neighboring towns, of which many died. 

"Nov. 26, 1739. Voted, that Henry Emmes and Capt. Thomas 
Buckminster be a committee to take care for the preservation of the 

Petition for a New Town on our Northwest Border. — March 
14, 1739-40. A petition, signed by David How, Wm. Brintnall, John 
Weeks, and sundry others, living in Marlborough, Framingham, Sud- 
bury and Stow, was sent to the General Court, praying to be set into 
a separate township of the measure of four miles square, etc. 

At a town meeting. May 19, 1740, '■^ Voted that the selectmen be 
directed to prepare an answer to the petition of some of our northern 
inhabitants for a separate township." The answer is as follows : 

204 History of Framingham. 

" We the subscribers, by the order of our said town, with our humble 
and hearty thanks to the Hon^^ Court for their kindness in giving us 
opportunity, do humbly make the following remonstrance. Which we 
humbly conceive will make it evident that the granting the prayer of 
the said petition will be very hurtful and injurious to our town : for in 
the first place, it has been well known (as we believe) to this Hont"' 
Court, as well as to others, that our said town has laboured under ver}'^ 
great difficulties in times past, on the account of our disagreement 
about the placing of our new meeting-house, by which means we have 
been exposed to the loss of a great deal of money and time. And the 
chief motive which induced the party that was for removing the 
meeting-house more to the northward to strive about it was this, viz. 
the injury and injustice that was done to the northerly inhabitants of 
the town (which are the signers of the said petition) by placing the 
new meeting-house where the old one stood. And accordingly they 
prevailed so as to obtain what they pleaded for, tho' with much pain and 
fatigue, so that our new meeting-house is placed northward from the 
place where the old one stood, at least three times so far in favor to 
the said petitioners as it was ordered to be placed by an Hon^^ Com- 
mittee sent up to us from the Great and General Court, to adjust and 
decide the differences that we were then labouring under, who viewed 
the town in every part of it, and as we are obliged to believe, did that 
which they tho't was just and equal. 

"from all which, we humbly think that we may thus plead, that now, 
after we have thus placed our meeting-house, to cut off two miles from 
the north or northwesterly part of our town (as of necessity it must> 
according to their petition, and their proposed centre) which will draw 
the Centre of the remaining part of our town as far to the southward, 
if not farther than to the place where the old meeting-house stood. 
Which will open a door to as much contention if not more than ever 
we had : and will greatly hazard the loss of our meeting-house, just 
now finished : for we have some among us who begin to say that if the 
said petition be granted, one will give five pounds, another ten, etc. 
towards the taking down of the meeting-house, and setting it up at the 
old place. 

" Again, secondly, the prayers of the said petition look to us to be 
unreasonable : first, because of the uncertainty which way they will 
run their lines by which their 4 miles square is to be governed ; and 
secondly, because their bounds may chance to split men's farms to 
their prejudice and damage, but not to be further tedious, being con- 
fident that the above mentioned ill consequences is what the great 
wisdom and foresight of this Hon''' Court will easily discern ; and we 
therefore leave this our humble remonstrance, to you Excellency and 

New Framingham. 205 

Honours wise and judicious consideration, nothing doubting but that 
which will be most for the glory of Almighty God and the peace and 
interest of our town, will be acted and resolved. 

" So your humble petitioners, as in duty bound, shall ever pray 

"Jera" Pike 1 

Amos Gates i Selectmen 
Henry Emms \ of 

Dan"- Stone 1 Framingham.^ 
James Mellen I 
"May 28, 1740." 

A similar remonstrance was sent in from the selectmen of Sudbury; 
and the petition was dismissed. 

New Framingham. — At an early date in our town's history, 
petitions, more or less numerously signed, were sent to the General 
Court, asking for grants of country land, of greater or less extent. 
Some of the tracts asked for lay adjacent to or sufficiently near the 
town bounds, to render them available to our inhabitants, for various 
purposes. The more distant and larger grants would be of advan- 
tage, as giving the first proprietors opportunity to sell their lots at a 
gain on cost, or to enable emigrants, as first settlers, to secure 
homesteads at a cheap rate. 

Mar. 22, 1739-40, Samuel Jackson and seventy-five others, inhab- 
itants of Framingham, petitioned the General Court for a grant of 
unappropriated lands of the province, for a township. 

The resolve granting the prayer of the petitioners is as follows: 
"Jan. 8, 1741-2. On the petition of the inhabitants of the town of 
Framingham, read and ordered, that the petition be received, and the 
prayer thereof granted ; and that the petitioners be allowed and 
impowered, by a surveyor and Chainmen on oath, to survey and lay 
out a township of the contents of six miles square, adjoining on the 
N., on the Indian town, so called, lying on Housetonnock river, or as 
near that place as the land will allow, not interfering on any former 
grants; and that they return a plat thereof to this Court within 12 
months for confirmation ; and for the more effectual bringing forward 
the settlement of the said new town, Ordered, that there be 79 equal 
shares, the house lotts to be laid out in a suitable and defensible 
manner, one of said shares to be for the first settled minister, and one 
for the school; that there be 60 families settled on 60 of the other 
shares or house lotts, in three years from the confirmation of the 
plan ; who shall each have an house built thereon of 18 feet square, at 

1 State Archives, xii. 136, 158. House Journal, in loc. 

2o6 History of Framingham. 

the least, and seven feet stud, and six acres of land, part thereof 
ploughed or brought to English grass, and fenced, and build and 
finish a convenient meeting house for the publick worship of God, 
and settle a learned orthodox minister ; that said 60 settlers give bond 
to the Treasurer of this Province, in the sum of ^^"25, for complying 
with the terms of the grant. And if any of said settlers fail of 
performing the conditions of settlement aforesaid, then his or their 
right, share or interest in said town to revert to and be at the 
disposition of the Province; and the Province Treasurer shall im- 
mediately sue out their bonds. 

"Nov. 19, 1742, a plan was reported and accepted, and the lands 
were confirmed to Caleb Bridges and others." 

At a meeting of the proprietors, Oct. ig, 1742, it was voted to call 
the town Richfield, until the Legislature shall give it a name. It was 
afterwards called New Framingham. It was incorporated by the 
, name of Lanesborough, June 20, 1765. 

Among the names of the grantees, are Samuel Jackson, Moses Pike, 
Hezekiah Rice, Matthias Bent (who sold his share to John Nurse), 
Peter Gallot, James Boutwell, Caleb Bridges. John Butler was soon 
admitted as a proprietor. 

Noxious Animals. — The statutes provided that towns might pay 
a bounty for the killing of wolves, crows, squirrels and other wild 
animals and birds that were destructive of crops and stock. One 
cent each was paid in this town, as a bounty for chipping squirrels. 
The bounty for killing crows in the months of April, May and June, 
varied in different years: sometimes it was twenty-five cents per head 
for old crows, and twelve and one-half cents for young ones ; in other 
years, three cents per head was paid for crows, and one-half a cent 
for redwing blackbirds. In one year it was " voted, that each man 
kill his own blackbirds and pay himself." 

Swine and Neat Cattle. — The policy pursued in this town, in 
early times, was to allow swine to go at large, on their being properly 
yoked and rung. The law provided, "That no yoke shall be ac- 
counted sufficient which is not the full depth of the swine's neck 
above the neck, and half so much below the neck : and the sole or 
bottom of the yoke to be three times so long as the breadth or 
thickness of the swine's neck." 

The annual vote passed in relation to neat cattle, in this town, with 
scarcely an exception, was that " they shall not be suffered to go at 

Rev. Matthew Bridge. 


^Second Minister. — Feb. 6, 1744-5, before the death of Rev. Mr. 
Swift, the church voted to give a call to Mr. John Newman, to settle 
as colleague pastor, but the town non-concurred. 

Early in June of this year, the church voted to give a call to Mr. 
William Vinal ; and at a meeting June 25, the town voted concurrence. 
But at an adjournment, the next day, the town " Voted that thev will 
not make any grant of money for the settlement or salary of the said 
Mr. Vinal." 

At a town meeting, Dec. 2, 1745, " Voted, to concur with the church 
in their choice of Mr. Matthew Bridge to be their minister. Voted, 
to give Mr. Bridge for his yearly salary ^260 old tenor bills of 
public credit, or that which shall be equivalent thereunto, to the 
acceptance of Mr. Bridge. Voted, to give Mr, Bridge, to enable him 
to settle among them, ^600 old tenor." His salary commonly equalled 
^80 lawful money. 

Mr. Bridge accepted the call, and suggested that the town should 
furnish him his firewood ; but the town declined to accede to the 

The town appointed the day for the services of ordination ; and 
ordered " provision to be made at the house of Joseph Stone for the 
ministers and messengers." 

" Amos Gates, Hezekiah Rice, Henry Emms, Capt. Ebenezer 
Winchester, Abraham Rice, Francis Moquet and Stephen Jennings 
were appointed a committee to provide for the ordination." 

"Caleb Bridges Jr., and John Jones Jr. were chosen to strengthen 
the meeting-house against the ordination." 

" Ezekiel Rice, James Clayes Jr., Gideon Bridges, John Bent Jr., 
Phinehas Rice and Timothy Stearns were appointed to take care of the 
meeting-house upon the ordination day." 

The Council "were desired to meet the day before the ordination 
at 12 o'clock." '■'•Voted (by the church) that Col. Joseph Buckminster, 
Ensign Stone, Deacons Adams and Pike and Mr. Bridges be the 
mouth of the church to the council." 

The following bill of expenses for the ordination was allowed and 
paid by the town : 
" Amos Gates, for sundries, 

Abraham Rice, do. 

Henry Fames, do. 

Stephen Jennings, do. 

Francis Moquet, do. (tavern supplies) 

Capt. E. Winchester, 

Hezekiah Rice, 

Joseph Graves, for fowls and tendance 






















. . ;^i. 















2o8 History of Frammgham. 

Ezekiel Rice Jr., for 3 days tendance 
John Rice, for 3 days tendance 
Joseph Stone, for entertainment 
Nero Benson, for 3 days tendance 
Phinehas Rice, for beef 

i:io9. 8. 2" 
The ministers, with their churches, invited to compose the ordain- 
ing council, were, Rev. Messrs. Hancock of Lexington, Appleton of 
Cambridge, Loring of Sudbury, Peabody of Natick, Williams of 
Weston, Cook of East Sudbury, Turell of Medford, Porter of Sher- 
born, Stone of Southborough, Williams of Waltham, Barrett of 
Hopkinton, Swift of Acton. Some of the church desired to invite 
Messrs. Sewall and Prince of Boston, but the majority negatived the 
proposition. At the same meeting, it was proposed " to vote the 
church Congregational ;" but it was not carried. 

Ordination Day. — Feb. 19, 1745-6. Mr. Bridge was admitted a 
member of the church, by letter from the First Church in Cambridge. 
The following questions were proposed to the pastor elect, on behalf 
of the church: "As far as you have had an opportunity to study the 
principles of church discipline, and the Platform of church discipline 
of these churches, and the general practice of the churches, do you 
approve thereof as to what is agreeable to Scripture, and do you 
purpose to conduct yourself accordingly ? Are you willing, when 
you have occasion to take a vote of the church in any matter of 
importance, to take the vote by uplifted hands?" — both of which 
questions were answered in the affirmative. 

The following protest was submitted to the Council. Its insertion 
in full is necessary to elucidate events which transpired both before 
and after the settlement of Mr. Bridge. 

Whereas we the subscribers, inhabitants of the town, and some of us 
members in full communion with the church, having diligently observed the 
scope and tenor of Mr. Bridge's preaching, while under Tryal, do hereby 
declare our great dissatisfaction therewith ; for that many such doctrines 
as we esteem to be of the greatest in^ortance, are wholly omitted, or, at 
best, slightly touched on, in his sermons — particularly the doctrine of 
Original Sin ; the Imputation of it ; the total loss of the Image of God in 
the fall of Adam ; the wrath and curse of God consequent thereon ; the 
Freeness and Sovereignty of Divine Grace in electing some to everlasting 
Life, and the provision made in the way of the New Covenant for their 
salvation by Jesus Christ ; the Nature and Necessity of Regeneration, and 
an Almighty Power of the Spirit of God for the production of the New 
Creature, and renewing the Image of God upon the Soul in Sanctification ; 
the nature of that Faith whereby the Souls of Believers are united to 

Rev. Matthezu Bridge. 209 

Christ ; the way of a sinner's Justification by the Imputation of the 
Righteousness of Christ; as also those discriminating Doctrines which 
shew the difference between that Faith, that Repentance, and that Obe- 
dience, which is merely legal, superficial and servile, and that which is 

On this account we desire that this venerable Council will consider us as 
wholly dissenting in the settlement and ordination of Mr. Bridge, and 
countenance us in our just plea of liberty, to hear and judge for ourselves, and 
to try the Doctrines we hear by the Holy Scriptures, the only Standard of 
Truth, and Rule of Faith and Practice ; and to provide and attend a public 
ministry, which may be agreeable to our Understanding of those Sacred 
Oracles ; especially, since it is no new or strange Doctrine which we desire 
to adhere to, but the pure doctrines of the Gospel, as we find them avowed 
in the Assembly's Catechism, and the Confession of Faith owned and 
consented to by the Elders and Messengers of the Churches, met at Boston, 
anno, 1 680. And for the settlement of such a ministry, we have determined 
to use all proper endeavors, and desire your prayers for success therein. 
Signed, Jonathan Hemenway, Simon Mellen, Jr., Dan. Haven, John Hill, 
Rich Mellen, James Haven, Isaac Fisk, Daniel Mellen, Elkanah Haven, 
Ebenezer Goddard, Eben Singletary, Richard Haven, John Hemenway, 
Joseph Nichols, Nathan Haven, John Haven, Eb. Hemenway, Jr., Thomas 
Temple, Micah Haven, Joshua Hemenway, James Cook, Benj. Hav-en, 
Joshua Hemenway, Jr., John Bruce, Daniel Stone, Benj. Whitney, James 
Mellen, Edward Goddard, Richard Haven, Jr., Benjamin Whitney, Jr., 
John Bruce, Jr., Moses Haven, Jr., William Ballord. , 

Framingham, February, 1745-6. 

The protest did not prevail ; and, according to the church records, 
" Mr. Matthew Bridge was ordained Pastor over the Church of Christ 
in Framingham, upon the old Foundation." 

Voting by Silence. One of tlie questions put to Mr. Bridge by the 
church, before his ordination, was, "whether he was willing, when he 
should have occasion to take a vote of the church in any matter of 
importance, to take the vote by uplifted hands? He answered Yea." 
At a church meeting, April 7, 1746, ^'' Voted, that members should be 
admitted into the church as usual, taking a silentius vote, notwithstand- 
ing a vote to the contrary in general heretofore." In explanation of 
the above, it should be stated, that the custom during Mr. Swift's min- 
istry was, whenever any matter was before the church (and no question 
could be brought before the church for action without his consent), the 
pastor, as moderator, made the motion in such form as he saw fit, and 
it was carried by a silent assent, i. e., without show of hands — no one 
contradicting, because the contrary minds were not called for. 


2IO History of Framingham. 

The signatures attached to the protest presented to the ordaining 
council, both as to numbers and the high character of the signers, were 
a prophecy of disquiet to the church and pastor. And this prophecy 
was reaHzed, as will shortly appear. 

Excepting the movements and counter movements connected with 
the organization and competitory efforts of a new church, the pastorate 
of Mr. Bridge was prosperous. Though not distinguished as a preacher, 
he was a man of attractive and conciliatory manners, and secured the 
attachment of his people by fidelity in his pastoral duties. At the 
breaking out of the war of the Revolution, in common with other 
ministers, Mr. Bridge volunteered his services as chaplain to the 
American army, then stationed at Cambridge. While in the discharge 
of his duty, he was seized with an epidemic disease, which prevailed in 
the camp, of which he died shortly after his return home, Sept. 2, 1775, 
in the fifty-fifth year of his age, and thirtieth of his ministry. 

Mr. Ebenezer Eaton, who knew him well, described Mr. Bridge's 
personal appearance as dignified and imposing. He was more than 
six feet high ; his hair very black, which he wore in curls over the cape 
of his coat ; his eyes black, his figure erect and " bony," resembling 
that of Gen. Washington, by whose side he had seen him stand when 
the army was stationed at Cambridge. Mr. Eaton added, that he was 
much beloved by his people, and esteemed by those of other towns. 
He was extremely benevolent in his feelings. He was good himself, 
and wished to make everybody else so. 

Rev. Matthew Bridge was the son of Matthew and Abigail (Bowman) 
Bridge of Lexington ; was born July 18, 172 1 ; graduated at Harvard 
University, 1741. He married Anne, daughter of Rev. Daniel and 
Anna (Foster) Perkins of West Bridgewater, by whom he had seven 

Mr. Bridge published " A Discourse delivered at the Ordination of 
Mr. Eliab Stone, over the Second Church in Reading, May 20, 1761 : 
Printed by Thomas and John Fleet, Boston, 1761." 

The Second Congregational Church. — Among the remoter 
causes which led to the formation of a Second Congregational church 
in this town, were, as before intimated, the dissensions and alienations 
connected with the controversy about the meeting-house lands ; and 
the right, claimed and exercised by Mr. Swift, of allowing no case of 
complaint or discipline to be brought before the church for considera- 
tion, except at his own option ; and his method of deciding all questions 
by "silentius vote." In the two last-named points is found the 
explanation of the attempt made by the signers of the protest, at a 
meeting held Jan. 24, " to vote the church Congregational," i. e., to 

Second Congregational Church. 2 1 1 

formally adopt the Cambridge Platform as to the rules of discipline ; 
and the question put to Mr. Bridge about taking a vote of the church 
" by uplifted hands." His affirmative answer to the question was 
rendered nugatory by the subsequent action of the church. And this 
vote of the church, taken in connection with the omission of Mr. 
Bridge, during his candidacy, to preach on certain doctrines which 
they " esteemed to be of the greatest importance," and the refusal of 
the ordaining council to give heed to their protest, hastened a con- 
summation which had become a moral necessity. 

The signers of the protest were earnest supporters of the Revival 
which spread through New England at this time (1734-1745), pro- 
moted primarily by the preaching of Edwards and Whitefield. Some 
of them defended, or at least excused, its attendant disorders \ while 
the body of the old church, in common with most of the neighboring 
churches, stood aloof, or disapproved of the extraordinary measures. 

This explains the effort of the minority to secure the presence on 
the council of Messrs. Sewall and Prince, who were known to be in 
sympathy with the Revival ; and also the movement for a formal 
adoption of the Cambridge Platform, in order to introduce stricter 
church discipline. The visit of Mr. Whitefield to Framingham the 
preceding summer (July 5, 1745), doubtless had great influence in 
augmenting existing difficulties, and promoting a formal separation. 

The records of the Second Church being lost, the materials for its 
history can only be gathered from the recorded action of the church 
and town. These recorded votes, being the decisions and opinions of 
an adverse majority, probably fail to do full justice to the motives and 
purposes and methods of the supporters of the new enterprise. 

In about a month and a half after the ordination of Mr. Bridge, i. e. 
April 7, 1746, Nathan Haven, James Haven, John Haven, Daniel 
Brewer and Ebenezer Singletary requested a dismission from the 
church in order to be embodied into a second church ; " which request 
was negatived by a great majority." May 2, these five brethren, 
together with Joseph Haven and James Cook, sent in a petition to 
the church, "earnestly requesting a charitable dismission from this 
church ; and it passed unanimously in the negative." 

At a church meeting, Sept. i, "A petition signed by the above named 
brethren, earnestly requesting the church either to reconsider their 
case, and grant 'em a dismission, or to join in calling an equal number 
of churches to unite with a Council consisting of five churches, who 
were by their request some time since convened to advise, direct and 
assist 'em under the present difficulties." Both propositions were 

2 12 History of Framingham. 

In October or November (before Nov. 17, 1746), those aggrieved 
brethren and otliers called an ecclesiastical council, by which they 
were embodied into a church state. 

A meeting-house was erected on the Hemenway road, near the 
Joseph Morse place, now owned by John Johnson. The house was 
afterwards removed to Mellen's Neck, and placed on the height of 
land nearly due north from the house of Joseph A. Merria:m. 

"November 17, a petition signed by Elizabeth Mellen, Abigail 
Mellen, Lydia Haven, Silence Haven, Mehitable Haven, Sarah Haven, 
Mehitable Haven, Lydia Haven, Mehitable Haven, Mary Munsell and 
Hannah Mayhew, requesting dismission, and recommendation to the 
second church in this place, was read, and unanimously refused, for the 
reason (among others), of not being able, consistent with their con- 
sciences, to own said church as a sister church of our Lord Jesus 

The new church gave a call to Mr. Solomon Reed to become their 
pastor, who was instituted in his ofifice in January, 1746-7, by an 
ordaining council regularly convened. 

"Sabbath evening, April 19, 1747, a petition signed by eighteen 
sisters, was read to the church, earnestly desiring a dismission from 
the First and a recommendation to the Second church in this place, 
containing these several reasons to enforce their request, viz., because 
they belonged to families who met with the Second Church ; were 
nearer to it ; and could attend the administrations of it more peaceably 
with their consciences — The vote was put to grant the petition, and 
passed in the negative." 

The new church prospered numerically, so that its total membership 
amounted to eighty and over. 

The old church steadily refused to recommend its members to the 
new organization, or in any way to acknowledge its existence as a 
church. Nor did it fare better in its relations to the town. 

In the warrant for a town meeting, March 2, 1746-7, was an article, 
"To see if the town will release Edward Goddard Esq. and others 
(who ha,ve requested it) such sums as have been assessed on them, on 
account of the Rev. Mr. Bridge's settlement and salary, and exempt 
their polls and estates in all future assessments that shall be made 
towards the support of Rev. Mr. Bridge ; " and it passed in the negative. 
The same petitioners sent a request to the General Court, asking 
that they may be freed from assessments for the support of the minis- 
try in the First church in Framingham, while they supported the 
ministry in the Second Congregational church ; or that the ministers 
of both churches may be supported by the town. The petition was 

Rev. Solomon Reed. 2 1 3 

Nov. 27, 1749. On the questions, " i. To see if the town will 
dismiss Edward Goddard Esq. and other petitioners to the number of 
42, from any further charge toward the support of the Rev. Mr. 
Bridge ; and it passed in the negative. 2. To see whether the town 
will mutually support the Rev. Mr. Bridge and the Rev. Mr. Reed by 
a town rate ; it passed in the negative. 3. To see if the town will 
adjourn the meeting for a short time for consideration and advice, and 
that the matters of agrievance might be heard and considered by wise 
and judicious men mutually agreed upon by both parties, and that the 
town would not come to a full resolve till after they have heard the 
opinions of the said referees, and that they will then act what may 
then appear to them to be just and reasonable ; it passed in the 

In 1752 the town voted to raise a tax to repair the meeting-house; 
and Edward Goddard, Ralph Hemenway, Thomas Temple, Ebenezer 
Goddard and Wm. Brown, commissioners for the Second church in 
Framingham, petitioned the General Court for relief, " not being able, 
by position, to have a separate precinct," wdiile yet Ihey supported 
church ordinances of the established order. The petition was 

The burden of double taxation was grievous to be borne. And the 
death, during the great sickness of 1754-5, of Edward Goddard and 
his wife, and Joshua Hemenway, father and son, and other leaders, 
crippled the enterprise. 

Mr. Reed was dismissed near the end of 1756, or beginning of 1757 ; 
but the church survived some years longer, and maintained the ordi- 
nances till October, 1759. Probably it was not formally dissolved. 

Rev. Solomon Reed was son of Capt. Wm. and Alice (Nash) Reed 
of Abington ; graduated at Harvard University, 1739. He married 
Abigail Houghton of Connecticut, by whom he had (born in Framing- 
ham) five children. Of his sons, yo/m graduated at Yale College, 
1772 ; D.D. ; pastor of the church in West Bridgewater ; representative 
in Congress, 1794, six years; Solomon graduated at Yale, 1775 '; '""ii^- 
ister at Petersham; ^'aw//^/ graduated at Yale, 1777; ordained at 
Warwick, Mass.; Timothy graduated at Dartmouth, 1782 ; a lawyer, 
settled in West Bridgewater. Mr. Reed " was esteemed an able, pure, 
zealous, devout preacher of the Orthodox order, was highly respected 
and esteemed by his society, and lived a quiet and peaceable life. He 
instructed and prepared in his family, as the custom then was, a con- 
siderable number of young men for college, among whom were his own 
sons." So writes his descendant, Lt. Governor John Reed. That he 
was highly esteemed in his own neighborhood, is shown by the fact 
that in July, 1756, he received a unanimous call to settle over the 

214 History of Fra^ninghain. 

church in Natick. Soon after leaving Framingham he was installed 
over the North Parish in Middleborough, Mass., where he remained 
till his death in 1785. 

The following anecdote of Mr. Reed illustrates his reputation among 
his opposers, and his ready wit. In a company, where were some 
members of the First church, the conversation turned on points of 
doctrine, when one of those present categorically demanded if he was 
a "New Light." Mr. Reed promptly answered, "No, I am not a 
New Light ; I am an old light iietv smijfedf" 

"Nov. 4, 1756. At a church meeting held this day, to consider the 
petition of Mr. Moses Haven, ' to return to his duty and privileges 
with this church : ' Voted, every man as one, that since Mr. Haven had 
no other objection against returning, but his relations to the society, 
termed Mr. Reed's church, which relation he was apprehensive would 
soon be dissolved, therefore it was prudence for him to wait, till he 
were satisfied how that affair would turn." 

"June 4, 1759. The church having some months past come to a 
resolution that such as had lately been of Mr. Reed's party, and were 
now desirous to return, and profess to do it in full charity, should be 
heartily welcome ; but finding that motion insufficient with respect to 
a number, had a meeting at the House of God, where after some 
serious and free discussion of the broken state of the church, came to 
the following votes, namely. First, that 'tis the duty of the church 
not to stand at a distance from those members, but send to 'em: 
Secondly, they voted to send them a letter of the following tenour, 

Brethren — As the repetition of controversies is like blowing the coals, so 
we have no disposition to renew the charge of separation against you, but 
would observe that we are grieved to behold this church still rent with 
divisions. We don't look on ourselves qualified to give you advice; but 
there are undoubtedly some within the verge of your acquaintance, whose 
characters have long been established for great power and precious graces, 
whose councill with that of their churches you would willingly have. Such 
long and sore contentions are a certain indication of the Divine displeasure, 
an undoubted evidence of the guilt of each person concerned in 'em; and as 
councills in cases of perplexity are agreeable to our constitution, spiritual 
and political, so we recommend the measure to you, and would gladly join 
you in it; and we trust through the prayers and praises of many, it may 
redound to the glory of God, and the benefit of this church. We shall 
readily agree on some persons that will be agreeable to you. We expect 
to hear from you, and subscribe ourselves 

Your Brethren in Christ 

Matw Bridge, Pastor." 

Second Congregational Church. 2 1 5 

In answer to the above proposal, a letter was received by the church, 
signed by Nathan and James Haven, a committee of the Second 
church, proposing a conference of the two churches, in order (among 
other things) to agree upon particulars about the membership of the 
ecclesiastical council, the matters to be submitted, etc. 

This conference was held at the meeting-house, July 10. "Our 
brethren whom we had wrote to met with us, and the principal part of 
their society. The meeting was opened by prayer ; the letters that had 
been sent and received were read, and a free conference ensued. After 
which it was unanimously agreed by both parties, that a council be 
called, and that each society or church be allowed to bring every thing 
(except the matter of the proper constitution of the Second church, 
which was conceded) into the council (when convened) that the council 
will receive, that has a direct tendency to give light to the cause or 
ease the pained mind." \C/mrch Records.'] 

The members of the council chosen, were the Rev. Messrs. Pemberton 
of Boston, Dunbar of Stoughton, Stone of Southborough, Wells of 
Attleborough, Hutchinson of Grafton, Eliot of Boston, Wigglesworth 
of Ipswich, with the churches under their pastoral care. 

The committee to send the letters missive were Rev. Matthew Bridge, 
Col. Buckminster, Ebenezer 'Goddard, Deacon Pike and Thomas 

"Sept. 18, 1759. The council met, all the members being present 
and went into a full hearing of the reasons and objections that the 
Second church and society had to offer against submitting to Mr. 
Bridge as their minister, and unanimously came to a Result, in which 
their objections are judged insufficient ; they are advised and urged to 
return to their union with the First Church, and the First Church are 
advised to receive them. 

" Matthew Bridge." 

A part of the members of the Second church accepted the advice of 
the council ; and a part, perhaps the majority, united soon after in the 
formation of the First Baptist church in Framingham. 

Duty of Tythingmen. — "March 7, 1757. The town voted, that if 
the tythingmen see any youths of said town disorderly in the public 
worship, and they will not forbear by being once stamped at by any of 
the tythingmen, in such case said tythingmen are desired to call them 
by name." 

Expedition to the West Indies. — An expedition against the 
Spaniards in the West Indies was projected in 1740, and a bounty of 
;^5 offered to volunteers. Capt. Stephen Richards raised a company, 

2 1 6 History of Framingham. 

in which were at least three men from Framingham, six from Hopkin- 
ton, two from Southborough, three from Brookfield, several from Sud- 
bury, Marlborough, etc. The men who enlisted from this town were, 
Jonathan Jackson, farmer, aged twenty-two ; Benjamin Gleason, farmer, 
aged twenty-three ; Joseph Seaver. 

Old French and Indian War. — War was declared by France 
against Great Britain, March 15, 1744; and on the 29th, England 
declared war against France in return. 

Intelligence of the opening of hostilities was not received in Boston 
till towards the end of May, though it had been known in Canada a 
month earlier, which gave the French an important advantage. 

This contest between the powers over the water, meant for New 
England a war with the Indians, with a repetition of all the atrocities 
and distress of former struggles with the savages. 

This town was not the theatre of any of the thrilling events of this 
war; but our men took an active part in the defence of the frontiers. 
Joseph Buckminster, Jr., was colonel in commission and command of 
the militia at this date, and was active in enlisting and forwarding 
troops as called for by the provincial authorities. 

In the memorable expedition against Louisbourg in 1745, in Capt. 
Ephraim Baker's company, Sir William Pepperell's regiment, were 
Lieut. John Butler (who died in the service), Philip Pratt, James Clayes, 
John Nixon (then eighteen years old), John Seaver, Robert Seaver the 
father, and his two sons Joseph and Benjamin (one of whom died at 
Louisbourg). Jonathan Youngman, Jonas Gleason and Shears Berry 
were out in the same expedition. 

In June, 1746, Capt. Josiah Brown (of Sudbury) with his troop, com- 
posed of men from Framingham and Sudbury, was ordered to march 
to the Connecticut valley, and take post at No. 4 (Charlestown, N. H.), 
then the extreme frontier, town. June 19, Capt. Phinehas Stevens, in 
command of the post, and Capt. Brown, with about fifty of their men, 
started to go from the fort in the village to the meadow, to look after 
some horses, when by the action of the dogs, they had intimation of 
an ambush, and shortly discovered the lurking-place of the savages 
near a causeway they were intending to cross. They were moving 
cautiously, when one of Capt. Brown's men caught sight of an Indian 
lying flat on the ground, and fired upon him, when the whole ambush 
arose and fired in return. " Our men were commanded to halt there 
and fight them, which they did, and drove the Indians off their ground, 
and got upon it, and maintained it in spite of them. Ours received 
the loss of no men, but four or five were wounded. Capt. Brown sent 
a party of men to carry the wounded to the fort, and the rest maintained 

Old French and Indian War. 217 

the fight and stood them manfully. After the fight was over, they 
found where the Indians drew oft' several of their dead into a swamp. 
Cornet Noah Eaton of Framingham, and Jonathan Stanhope of Sud- 
bury were wounded, but recovered." 

The unadorned statement of Mr. Stanhope, in a petition to the 
General Court for aid, will give us a characteristic picture of a soldier's 
life in this war. He says : " In the battle with the Indians at No. 4, 
June 19, when I was a Trooper in his majesty's service, I received a 
shot which broke my arm all to pieces, and caused me great pain, and 
cost for the injuries, and has incapacitated me from obtaining a sub- 
sistence for myself, and I have very little hopes of ever having the use 
of it again. The Account of the time I have lost and expenses which 
I have been exposed to since I was wounded is as follows : 
" To sixteen weeks at said No. 4, when I lay confined 
with my wound to the first months when I had 
Province billeting at ^3 per week besides said billeting ^i. 5. o 
"To 12 weeks more when I found myself altogether, and 

had no Province pay nor billeting at '^^fi pr wk. . 7. 10. o 

" And to my son's attending on me then and finding 
himself from the 23d of June to the 17th of October 
following, being 16 weeks and 3 days: to my son's 
nursing and attending me the said 16 weeks, at s per 
week . . . . . . . , . 4. 2. 6 

" And to 9 weeks board when he had neither Province pay 

nor billeting at 7 ^ per week . . . . • 3- 7- 6 

The above account was allowed. And in 1750, the General Court 
granted him a further allowance of £,(i. 13. 4. 

Capt. Brown's troop was ordered out on an alarm Sept. 23, 1747, 
and was in service till Oct. 27. On the muster roll are the names of 
Lieut. Thomas Winch; Corp. Daniel Gregory; Clerk Daniel Stone; 
trumpeters, Jonathan Belcher and NathanielSeaver; centinels, Thomas 
Winch, Samuel Winch, Phinehas Gibbs, Jonathan Maynard, Isaac 
Read, Benjamin Eaton, William Brown, John Bruce, Elias Whitney, 
John Hemenway, Micah Gibbs, Samuel Frost, Joseph Brintnall, 
Matthew Gibbs, John Gould, of Framingham. 

Thomas Walkup was in Capt. Elisha Hawley's company at Fort 
Massachusetts, Dec. 15, to Mar. 20, 1747-8. 

Daniel Brewer, John Harris, Isaac How, John Parmenter and 
William Hutson were in Lieut. John Catlin's detachment, at Fort 
Shirley, Dec. 10. 1747, to Oct. 31, 1748. 

2i8 History of Framingham. 

In Capt. Humphrey Hobbs' company of rangers, out from Feb. 
i6, to Oct. 20, 1748, were Thomas Walkup of Framingham and Uriah 
Morse of HolUston. 

John Edgell, an aijprentice to Jacob Pil<;e of this town, was 
impressed, and joined Capt. Josiah Willard, Jr.'s company at Fort 
Dummer, Feb. 10, 1748. He was in a detachment of men under 
Sergt. Thomas Taylor, marching from Northfield to the fort, July 14, 
when they fell into an ambush of French and Indians. Two of 
Taylor's men were killed, and eleven were taken prisoners and 
carried to Canada. Edgell was among the latter. He lost everything 
of arms and clothing; and during the march to the north was 
subjected to great hardships, by which he was incapacitated from 
labor. He with the other captives was sold to the French, and 
remained in Canada till the last of September, when he was released 
and returned home. 

Thomas Walkup was at No. 4, under Capt. Phinehas Stevens, from 
April 14, to Oct. 20, 1749. 

Early in July, 1749, levies were raised out of several Middlesex 
and Worcester regiments, and ordered to rendezvous at Northfield. 

" Province of Massachusetts Bay to Joseph Buckminster, Dr. 

" To subsisting twelve soldiers in their march from Framingham to 
Fort Dummer, So miles ...... £(). o. o. 

Rec^ pay' Joseph Buckminster. 

"Framingham Aug. 3, 1749." 

The names of the men, the first seven of whom belonged to this 
town, were, Corp. John Butler, Jonathan Brewer, Moses Parker, 
Edmund Town, Josiah Stone, Joseph Pegonit, Jonathan Cole, Fuller 
Putnam, Joseph Young, Samuel Adams, Jonathan Farwell, Henry 
Snow. They were attached to Capt. John Catlin's company of scouts, 
and were billeted one-half the time at Northfield, and one-half at 
Ashuelot (Keene, N. H.), and were in service from July 13, to Oct. 
12, 1749. 

The Treaty of Peace was signed at Aix la Chapelle, Oct. 7, 1748, 
but was not proclaimed in Boston till May 10, 1749. Actual hostilities 
continued on our frontier for some months longer. 

As will be seen from the foregoing military rolls, two of our men, 
who afterwards became distinguished commanders in the war of the 
Revolution — viz., John Nixon, and Jonathan Brewer, — took their first 
lessons in the camp and field in this French and Indian war. 

As an incident of this war, closely connected with our history, the 
fortunes that befel the family of Daniel How, once a resident here, 
have special interest. In 1726, Isaac Gleason, son of the first 
Thomas, sold his one-third of the paternal estate to Daniel How, who 

Daniel Hozu. 2 1 9 

at once opened a tavern, which he kept for about ten years. It stood 
on the Old Connecticut path, about forty-five rods southeasterly from 
the old Charles Clark house. In 1736 or 37, he sold to his son-in-law, 
Samuel Gleason, who continued the house of entertainment, known 
throughout the region as Gleason's tavern. Mr. How moved to 
Westmoreland, N. H., where in a new and exposed frontier settle- 
ment, he led an eventful life for about eight years. W' hen the war broke 
out in 1745, he and his family were forced to leave their home, and 
flee across the Connecticut river to a fort in the "Great Meadow," 
now Putney, Vt. The family were obliged to remain here; and he 
died in the fort, before the close of the war. 

His son Daniel, born in the old tavern house, in 1730, became one 
of the sufferers and heroes of this and the succeeding Indian war. At 
the age of sixteen (June 24, 1746), while quietly at work in a meadow 
near Bridgeman's Fort, in the present Town of Vernon, Vt., he was 
taken captive by a skulking party of savages, and carried to Canada. 
At the end of two months he was redeemed and returned home. Owing 
to the hardships he suffered, he was laid up in the hospital in Boston 
from August 18 to 28. But in two days after his discharge from the 
hospital he enlisted (at Cambridge) in the army, and was immediately 
sent out to fight his former captors. He joined Capt. Josiah Willard's 
company, and for the next two years was constantly engaged in 
scouting and skirmishes on the Connecticut and Ashuelot rivers. 

July 14, 1748, he was again captured by the Indians, in the town of 
Hinsdale, N. H., by the ambush that took John Edgell prisoner, and 
carried a second time to Canada. On the route and after his arrival, 
he was subjected to great cruelties, being forced to " run the gauntlet " 
between two files of savages. At the end of two and a half months he 
was released and came home, broken in health but not in courage, for 
he promptly reported himself for duty to his captain, and continued in 
service to the end of the war. He afterwards received a commission 
as captain, and in 1752 settled in Westmoreland. 

Miscellany. — "April 29, 1747. The wife of David Harrington of 
Framingham, returning from market at Boston, while crossing a river 
in that town, fell from her horse and was drowned." 

October, 1748. The house of Robert Seaver was destroyed by fire. 
In a petition to the General Court for relief, he says : " My house was 
burnt, and consumed all the little substance I had in the world, it 
being in moveables and bonds and bills of credit ; and amongst the 
money your petitioner lost one eight pound, and one three pound and 
one four pound, all of this Province, old Tenor." He adds the fact 
that himself and two of his sons were at the taking of Louisbourg in 

2 20 History of Franiingham. 

1745, "and one of them is there still." The Court granted him as 
reimbursement for the bills destroyed, ;^3, 15. 

1754. The first four months of this year are made memorable by 
the prevalence of a fatal distemper, known as the "great sickness." 
The town records notice the death of seven persons as victims of the 
disease ; but it is nearly certain that other deaths occurred, which 
were not recorded. The Goddard family, living on the place now of 
J. H. Temple, and the families living north of the Mountain, appear 
to have been the greatest sufiferers. Rev. David Goddard, minister, of 
Leicester, while on a visit here, was taken down, and died Jan. 19. 
His mother died Feb. 4, and his father, the Hon. Edward Goddard, 
died Feb. 9. Others of the family were sick but recovered. Joshua 
Hemenway, Jr,, died Jan. 30. 

The distemper broke out in Holliston about the middle of Decem- 
ber, and between that date and March there were forty-six deaths in 
a population of four hundred. " Four families were wholly broken up, 
losing both their heads. The sickness was so prevalent that but few 
families escaped. For more than a month there were not enough 
well to tend the sick and bury the dead ; tho' they spent their whole 
time in these services ; but the sick suffered and the dead lay unburied ; 
and that, notwithstanding help was procured and charitable assistance 
afforded by many in neighboring towns. In the height of the disease 
there were from two to five burials each day." [Journal of Rev. Mr. 
Prentice.] The selectmen applied to the Legislature for aid, and " the 
sum of ;^26, 13, 4, was granted and paid out the public treasury to the 
selectmen of Holliston, (in consideration of the calamitous circumstan- 
ces occasioned by the late mortal sickness that prevailed there), to be 
applied for the use and relief of such poor, indigent persons as may 
most need the same." 

The number of deaths in Sherborn was between twenty and thirty. 

1755, Nov. 18. A terrible earthquake took place a little after four 
o'clock, in a serene and pleasant night, and continued near four and a 
half minutes. The shock was the most violent ever known in the 
country. Its course was from northeast to southeast, and it extended 
entirely across New England and the Middle States. 

1756-7. During this winter snow fell to the depth of nearly six 
feet. The following extracts from a journal kept by Henry Fames, 
indicate the progress of the storms: "Dec. 17, 1756, snow 15 inches 
deep. Snow 20th day, 15 inches more. Snow 23d day, 7 or 8 inches 
more. Cold rain, 26th day ; 27th, warm three days, then some rain. 
Jan. 3, 1757, cold N. W. snow, about two or three inches. Jan. 9, 
about noon very hot fog, then rain. 17th, very cold N. W. wind. 22d, 
rain, and thaw very fast. 24th and 25th, snow to the value of 10 

Last French and Indian War. 221 

inches; the night after, eight inches more. 30th and 31st, thawed 
away most of the snow that came last ; the whole depth above 4 feet 
and 4 inches. Feb. 2, snow and hail seven inches deep. 5th, snow 
seven inches deep more. 6th, rain most of the day. 7th, snow three 
inches deep. 10th, S. wind and rain, till the snow wasted the most 
of it." 

The Last French and Indian War, 1754-1763. — The treaty of 
Aix la Chapelle proved to be little more than a truce. The Indians 
continued their depredations till June, 1749, and re-commenced hostil- 
ities in May, 1754. Assured that there could be no permanent peace 
to her American colonies so long as the French power was dominant 
on the northern frontiers, Great Britain determined to effect the 
conquest of Canada. 

The gates to the French possessions on the St. Lawrence, were, 
first, by way of the River St. Lawrence ; second, by way of Crown 
Point and Lake Champlain ; third, by way of Lake Ontario. The 
reduction of Canada then involved the taking of Louisbourg, which 
had been restored to the French by the late treaty ; the capture of 
Crown Point, and the capture of Fort Niagara and its outpost. Fort 
Du Quesne. 

The English government called on the Provinces to furnish their 
full quotas of men to these great expeditions, which were placed under 
command of British officers ; and the intermediate frontiers were left 
in the main to look out for themselves. 

This general statement seems necessary, in order to explain the 
different and widely-scattered expeditions in which our militia were 
called upon to take part. 

In April, 1757, by requisition from the provincial authorities, returns 
were made of all the enrolled militia of the town, both active and 
retired or exempted men. Framingham was then divided into two 
military districts ; one included the inhabitants dwelling east of 
Sudbury river and south of Stoney brook ; the other took in all living 
west of the river and north of the brook. 

These lists are given in full, partly for reference in the pages 
immediately to follow, and partly for their statistical and genealogical 
value, as comprising the tax-payers then resident in town. 

The "Alarm List" includes all between the ages of 16 and 60, who 
for any reason vv^ere exempt from ordinary military duty. They were 
liable to be called out to do duty in their own town upon extraordinary 


History of FraminghaTn. 

List of officers a?id soldiers in 

the company of 

militia under co7)i7nand of 

Capt. He7iry 

Emmes, April 

26, 1757. 


Henr}' Emmes 

Abraham Rice, Jr. 


Josiah Drury 

Uriah Rice 


Ezekiel Rice 

Joseph Stone, 3d 


Samuel Dadman 

Josiah Gregory 


James Haven 

Phinehas Rice, Jr. 


Samuel Gleason 

John Haven 


William Mellen 

David Rice, Jr. 


Bezaleel Rice, Jr. 

Thomas Temple, Jr. 


David Brewer 

Daniel Haven, Jr. 


Henr}- Emmes, Jr. 

John Ballord 


Joseph How 

William Graves 


' Abner How 

Eliab Brewer 


Jesse Emmes 

Daniel Taylor 

Hezekiah How 

John Whitney 

Joseph Hemenway 

James Allen 

Thomas Kendall 

Nat. Stow 

Isaac Fisk 

Jason Newton 

Samuel Emmes 

Joseph Sanger 

Joseph Adams 

Henry Rice 

Ezekiel Rice, Jr." 

Jonathan Flagg 

Simon Learned 

John Matthews 

Zaccheus Ballord 

Josiah Rice 

Thomas Emmes, Ji 

Joseph Nichols 

Thomas Stone 

Josiah Drury, Jr. 

Caleb Death 

Ebenezer Bruce 

Daniel Biglow 

Benjamin Angier 

Timothy Emmes 

Gideon Haven 

Thomas Drury 

Peter Jennison, Jr. 

Simon Pratt 

David Haven 

Joseph Biglow 

Richard Mellen, Jr. 

James Haven, Jr. 

Hananiah Temple 

Squire Haven 

Caleb Drury, Jr. 

Peter More 

Isaac Stone 

Elisha Bemis 

David Drury 

Isaac Fisk, Jr. 

Abner Stone 

Elijah Drury 

Jason Haven 

John Pratt 

Micajah Gleason 

Benj. Morse 

John Stebbins 

Phinehas Butler 

Timothy Anger 

James Page 

Caleb Drury, Clerk. 

Last French and India^i War. 


Alarm . 

List in Capt. Henry Emmes' 

company, 16 to 60 years 

April 26, 



Matthew Bridge 

Benjamin Whitney 


Joseph Haven 

Ebenezer Goddard 


Abraham Rice 

Thomas Temple 


John Sparhawk 

Micah Drury 


Moses Learned 

Phinehas Rice 

Oliver Death 

Bezaleel Rice 

Thomas Pearse 

William Brown 

John Nurse 

Jonathan Rice 

Gideon Bridges 

Samuel Stone 

Richard Mellen 

Joseph Stone 

John Parker 

Jason Stone 

Ebenezer Marshall 

Elijah Kendall 

Elkanah Haven, Jr. 

John Whitney 

Benjamin Haven 

Moses Learned, Jr. 

Peter Jennison 

John Clayes 

Daniel Haven 

Joseph Bixbe 

Nat. Emmes 

William Merritt 

Lieut. William Jones 

Nat. Pratt 


. John Butler 

Peter Gallot 


. Samuel Mellen 

John Mayhew 


. Jonathan Brewer 

Peter Parker 


. Jonathan Gibbs 

List of officers and soldiers in Col. 
Militia, April 26, 1757. 
Jeremiah Belknap 
Aaron Pike 
Josiah Warren 
Timothy Pike 
Samuel Underwood 
Phinehas Parmenter 
Benoni Pratt 
Bezaleel ^^'right 
" Sylvanus Hemenway 
" Samuel Hemenway 
" Amos Darling 
Drum"^ John Pike 

" Isaac Hemenway 
Jonathan Edmands 
Nehemiah Wright 
John Jones 



jFoseph Buckminster's company oj 

Hezekiah Stone, Clerk. 
Gideon Haven 
Samuel Edmands 
Nathan Stearns 
John Dunn 
Samuel Angler 
Phinehas Goodnow 
Jonathan Morse, Jr. 
James McFarland 
Jacob Townsend, Jr. 
William Dunn 
Jesse Stone 
Thomas Stone 
Joseph Barret 
John Darling, Jr. 
John McFarland 
Abner Pratt 


Histoiy of Framingham. 

William Pike 
James Boutwell 
Icabod Hemenway 
Josiah Wait 
Samuel Fairbank 
Samuel Lamb 
William Jones 
John Angier 
Ralph Hemenway, Jr. 
Joshua Parmenter 
Jonathan Clark 
Isaac How 
John Wait 
Azariah Walker 
John Bullen 
John Edgell 
Jonathan Edmands, Jr. 
Moses Cutting 
Timothy Stearns, Jr. 
Benj. Hemenway 
Simon Edgell 
Thomas Trowbridge 
Eleazar Kendall, Jr. 
Ebenezer Boutwell, Jr. 
Henderson Walkup 
Daniel Hemenway 

Jonas Eaton 
John Barret 
Aaron Edmands 
Eben"^ Hemenway 
Elijah Houghton 
Caleb Harrington 
Jonathan Winch 
John Hemenway 
Joseph Nichols 
James Gallot 
Daniel Mixer 
Stephen Harris 
James Barret 
Asa Pike 
Benjamin Barret 
Ebenezer Phillips 
Jonathan Stearns 
William Parkhurst 
John Willard 
Amasa Frost 
Jonathan Hemenway 
Ebenezer Hemenwa}', Jr. 
John Eaton 
Oliver Robinson 
Abijah Warren 
Isaac Goodnow 

Alarm List in Capt. jferefniah JBeIk?iap^s company, i6 to 6o years of age, 

April 26, 1757. 
Dea. Moses Pike 

Dea. Jonathan Morse 

Dea. Daniel Stone 

Lieut. Isaac Mixer 

Corp. Noah Eaton 

Capt. Josiah Stone 

Dr. Eben'' Hemenway 

Adjt. John Farrar 

Capt. John Nixon 

Ralph Hemenway 
John Trowbridge 
Jonathan Barret 
Jonathan Robinson 
Timothy Stearns 

Jeremiah Pike 
Ambrose Tower 
Daniel Winch 
Wm Buckminster 
John Gitchell 
Elijah Stone 
Phinehas Gibbs 
Matthew Gibbs 
John Darling 
Ebenezer Boutwell 
Thomas Brown 
Jonathan Belcher 
Isaac Reed 
Isaac Clark 

Last French and Indian War. 


Jeremiah Belknap Jr. 
Thomas Nixon 
Joseph Morse 
John Winch 
George Walkup 
Benjamin Holden 
James Holden 
Daniel Belcher 

John Mixer 

Jona. Hemenvvay 

John Bruce 

James Clayes 

John Johnson 

Jona. Maynard 

Joseph Maynard 

Nath. Belknap 

Abraham Pike 

1754. In the opening campaign of this war in 1754, the following 

Framingham men enlisted in Capt. John Johnson's company, and were 

out three months, viz., Jonathan Brewer, Simon Larned, JosephButler, 

Phinehas Butler, John How, Eliab Brewer, John Pierce, Simeon 

Gleason, Phinehas Gleason, William Dunn, William Graves, Phinehas 

Graves, Micah Haven, Simon Pratt. 

1755- John Nixon enlisted, March 27, 1755, in Capt. Ebenezer 
Newell's Roxbury company, and received a commission as lieutenant ; 
but before marching, he was transferred to Capt. Jonathan Hoar's 
Concord company, and was promoted, Sept. 8, to be captain. The 
company was attached to the Crown Point expedition, and was in 
service till Dec. 17. 

The Muster-roll is here given. 
Capt. Jonathan Hoar, Concord 
" John Nixon, Framingham 
Lieut. Jona. Gibbs, Framingham 
Ens. Daniel Fay, Hardwick 

" Peter Prescott Jr. Concord 
Sergt. Abijah Mason, Concord 
" Amos Gates, Framingham 
" Oliver Harris, Holden 
Clerk John Felch, Natick 
Corp. Timothy Fletcher, Pepperell 
" Adam Gilbert, Sudbury 
" Eben"" Boutwell, Framingham 
" Thad. Harrington, Concord 
Uriah Chuchett, Sudbury 
Benoni Chalcom, Natick 
Jacob Chalcom, Natick 
Wm. Dority, Brookfield 
Peter Frank, Boston 
John Peacock, N. Braintree 
Robert Gording, Chester 
Oliver Gould, Sudbury 


Charles Bailey, Sudbury 
Solomon Hartwell, Concord 
Peter Prescott, Concord 
Daniel Harris, Springfield 
Joshua Jackson, Leicester 
John Mathis, Framingham 
George Walkup, Framing'm 
Gershom Newton, Marlboro 
Samuel Grant, Marlboro 
John Fletcher, Billerica 
Silas Warner, N. Braintree 
Oliver Lampson, Acton 
Zech. Parker, Acton 
Barth° Goyer, Natick 
Jona. Treadway, Hopkinton 

Jona, Stanhope, Sudbury 
John Law 
Michael Fitzgerald 
Abel Ray 
Joel Bradford 

2 26 History of Framingham. 

The company marched by way of Springfield and Blandford. Lieut. 
Nixon took his horse and a man as far as Blandford, when he sent 
them back. Jona. Treadway was taken sick and sent home on fur- 
lough Nov. 3, and died Dec. 17. George Walkup was drummer, and 
was promoted to be drum major. 

The expedition against Crown Poini was under command of Gen. 
William Johnson \ but for various reasons the summer was passed in 
inaction. The fall campaign was rendered memorable by the death 
of Col. Ephraim Williams, who fell in an ambuscade, Sept. 8. 

As an inducement to enlistments this year, the Massachusetts 
authorities offered to furnish each man, at the time of enlisting, one 
blanket ; twenty-four shillings to such as provide themselves with good 
arms ; £,\2 for arms and bount}', and one month's pay in advance. 

The following Framingham men enlisted in Capt. Eben'r Newell's 
company at the same time as Lieut. Nixon, and were in the Crown 
Point expedition, in service from March 27, to Jan. 3, 1756: Sergt. 
Shears Berry, Sergt. Isaac Gleason, Corp. . Jona. Belcher, privates 
Abijah Berry, Eben'r Darling, John Darling, John Edgell, Simon 
Edgell, Thomas Nixon, Joseph Sever, Benjamin Tower. 

In Capt. Stephen Hosmer's company. Crown Point expedition, this 
year, were John Hemenway, clerk, Timothy Stearns, Jr., Jona. Flagg, 
David Sanger. The latter died at Albany, Dec. 15. This company 
was out from Sept. 10 to Dec. 31. 

In Capt. John Taplin's company, same expedition, were Benjamin 
Barrett, aged 27, Nathan Barrett, aged 25, Joshua Train, aged 33, all 
of Framingham. The company was in service from Mar. 28 to 
Dec. 28. 

Eliakim Robinson, son of Jonathan, was in Capt. William Pierce's 
company, at Crown Point, April i to Jan. 2, 1756. 

Joseph Bigelow of Framingham, was in Capt. Joseph Whitcomb's 
company. Crown Point expedition, from Mar. 27 to Jan. 3, 1756. 

In Capt. Benjamin Wood's Hopkinton company, out from Aug. 9, 
1755, to Jan. 22, 1756, were Daniel Hemenway, Nathan Knowlton, 
Peter Gallot and Jonas Pierce, of this town. 

1756. The plan of the campaign of 1756, embraced the reduction 
of the forts at Crown Point and Niagara. But through the incapacity 
of the British commander. Gen. Abercrombie, " the summer passed in 
fruitless labor." Massachusetts raised about 6,000 men. 

April 15. Col. Joseph Buckminster received orders to raise by 
enlistment or impressment, fifty men out of his regiment for the expe- 
dition against Crown Point. The following descriptive rolls give the 
names, ages, etc., of the men. 

Last French and Indian War. 


In Capt. jfohii Nixon's company : 
Capt. John Nixon, 
Ens. Thomas Nixon, 
Sergt. Simon Edgell, 
Clerk Wm. Puffer, 

Ezra Barker, 

Joseph Antonio, 

Peter Mezen, 

Patrick Organy, 

Henry Savage, 

Thomas Walkup, 

Jonas Flagg, 

Gideon Haven, 

George Fairbanks, 

































New London, 
















do. " 








In Capt. William jfones' company : 

Jacob Townsend, 50, b. Framingham, res. Framingham. 

Eben"" Boutwell, 54, b. Reading, res. do. 

William Shay, 29, b. Ireland, res. do. 

Ralph Hemenway, 27, b. Framingham, res. do. 

John Hemenway, 25, b. Framingham, res. do. 

Cornelius Claflin, 23, b. Hopkinton, res. do. 

James Gallot, 18, b. Framingham, res. do. 

Daniel Johnson, — b. res. do. 

In Capt. yohn Taplin's company : 


John Taplin, 







Nathan Barrett, 






Benjamin Barrett, 







Jona. Johnson, 






Dilenton Johnson, 






Hezekiah Johnson, 






Joshua Train, 






Isaac AUerd, 






Capt. John Nixon and his company were stationed at the camp 
near Lake George. Col. Timothy Ruggles, commander of the regi- 
ment, was taken sick, and obtained leave of absence, and Oct. 11, 
Capt. Nixon's company was ordered to escort him on his journey 

Jonas Flagg of this town was impressed, and joined Capt. John 
Jones' company. " He was taken sick before his dismission, not able 

2 28 History of Framiiigham. 

to travel, stopped at Greenbush, where he hired a man and horse to 
wait upon him homeward as far as Spencer; from which place he was 
brought home Dec. 13, and died Feb. 25, 1757." 

Capt. Josiah Stone's troop of forty-nine men was ordered out, and 
was in service in the expedition to Crown Point, Sept. 15 to Oct. 30, 
The following Framingham names appear on the muster roll: Capt. 
Josiah Stone, Ens. John Stone, Sergt. David Haven, Drum Major 
John Nichols, Corp. Ebenezer Haven, Nathan Winch, Elisha Kendall, 
David Haven, Jr., Peter Jennison, Jonas Eaton, Daniel Winch, Joseph 
Stone, Phinehas Graves, Benjamin Angier (died). 

Petition of Ebenezer Boutwell of Framingham : 

Your petitioner was a soldier in the Crown Point expedition in the year 
1756; was taken sick at Fort Edward the latter part of September, where 
he continued about a month, and was conveyed thence in wagons and 
batteaux to Albany ; got to No. i (now Adams, Mass.), but could get na 
further; was obliged to send home for a man and horse, who came to assist 
me. He charges for himself and horse, exclusive of my expenses ^3. 8. o, 
which your petitioner had to pay, and now asks to be remunerated. 
Amount granted. 

James Gallot, a bound apprentice to Sylvanus Hemenway, black- 
smith, was impressed, and joined Capt. \\'illiam Jones' company at 
Lake George; on his way home his gun was stolen, for which loss £,\ 
was deducted from his pay; and his master petitioned the General 
Court, to have the loss made up to him. Granted. 

" Daniel Coller, son of Joseph of Hopkinton deceased, was taken 
captive by the Indians, near Lake George, in the year 1756." So- 
writes his mother, Mrs. Mercy (Coller) Nickson. 

Francis Gallot of Framingham, was taken prisoner at Oswego, 
when that fort was captured, Aug. 14, 1756. He was in Gov. Shirley's 

William Puffer, of Capt. Nixon's company, died before the eleventh 
of October. 

Jacob Townsend, of Capt. Jones' company, died at Fort William 
Henry, before Oct. 11. 

Isaac Allerd, of Capt. Taplin's company, died in the service before 
the close of the campaign. 

Ens. John Stone died at Crown Point. 

1757. This was a year of disasters to the English and Americans,, 
and was remembered and spoken of by our fathers for three genera- 
tions, as the year of " The great Alarm about the taking of Fort 
William Henry." 

The expedition against Crown Point and Ticonderoga was popular, 
and officers and men enlisted readily. The regular companies from 

Last FrencJi and Indian War. 229 

this neighborhood, out last year, were in service this year. But by 
orders of Lord Loudon, then commanding in the provinces, the bulk 
of the forces were drawn off in an expedition against Louisbourg, 
which proved a failure. The following characteristic letter will 
explain itself : — 

"Framingham, July 18, 1757. 

"May it please the Hon*^' his Majesty's Council: 

"In obedience to an order from your Honours of the loth of May 
1757, I have taken effectual care and caused every person, both upon 
the Alarm List and Trained band List, in the Regiment of Militia 
under my command, and also the respective Town stocks in said 
Regiment, to be furnished with Arms and Ammunition according to 
law, and am now ready with my whole Regiment, to meet and 
confront the French in any part of the Province, at a minute's 
warning, even with seven days' provisions. 

" I am, Your Honours most obt. serv'. 


While the main army was at the eastward, only 7,000 men — 4,000 
under Gen. Webb at Fort Edward, and 3,000 under Col. Munroe at 
Fort William Henry — were left for the defence of the northwestern 

At this juncture, Gen. Montcalm gathered a French and Indian 
army of 11,000 men, and concentrated at Ticonderoga. Aug. 3, 
with 9,000 of his best troops, including 1,000 Indians, he invested 
Fort William Henry. For six days Col. Munroe, with an effective 
force of 2,372 men, held the great army at bay, constantly expecting 
aid from Gen. Webb, who was lying only fifteen miles distant with 
4,000 men ; but no help came, and on the ninth the fort was 
surrendered. The defence had been so gallant, that Col. Monroe was 
admitted to an honorable capitulation, viz., that his troops should be 
allowed to march out with the honors of war, retaining their arms, 
baggage, and one field-piece. The articles of the capitulation, however, 
were shamefully broken. The Indians attached to Montcalm's army, 
without hindrance from the French officers, commenced to plunder 
the more valuable baggage, and then to murder both officers and 
men in cold blood. The numbers thus massacred could never be 
known, but it fell little short of 300. 

This disaster spread consternation throughout Massachusetts. All 
the militia rushed to arms, and quickly were on the march " for the 
relief of the army at Fort William Henry." Finding that the French 
general did not pursue his advantage, at the end of from seven to 
fourteen days the companies were ordered home. 

230 History of Framingham. 

Timothy Pierce, son of Thomas of Framingham, was taken captive 
at Fort William Henry, and carried to Canada. 

1758. The plan of the campaign for this year included the invest- 
ment of Louisbourg, and expeditions against Ticonderoga and Fort Du- 
Quesne. The first and last were successful; that against Ticonderoga 
was a disastrous failure, though it was in part compensated by the 
capture of the French Fort Frontenac, on Lake Ontario. 

Massachusetts raised 7,000 men for the army. 

Framingham was fully represented in the campaigns of this year. 
Capt. Nixon had in his company. Ens. Jona. Gleason, Sergt. Simon 
Edgell, Sergt. Isaac Gleason, Sergt. Benj. Berry, Corp. Jona. Belcher, 
Corp. John Edgell, Drummer Simeon Gleason, Jotham Drury, Elijah 
Houghton, Jona. Belcher, Jr., Isaac How, Timothy Stearns. Isaac 
How died June 20. The variety and peculiar hardships of a soldier's 
life are well indicated by the indorsement on Capt. Nixon's return for 
Sept. 27, " Ofi the roads at work at Half Moony 

In Capt. Taplin's company, out from Mar. 13 to Dec. 5, were Ens. 
Thomas Trowbridge, Sergt. Joseph Nichols, Corp. Benj. Barrett, 
Corp. Stephen Harris, Corp. Nathaniel Stevens, Benj. Angier, John 
Ballard, James Gallot, Isaac Hemenway, Silas Hemenway, William 
Jones, Henry Rice, Nathan Stearns, George Walkup. 

Daniel Haven was in Capt. David White's company from Mar. 13 
to Dec. 8. 

Shubael Seaver was in Capt. Brown's company, Col. Williams' 

In Capt. Aaron Fay's (Southboro') company, in service from Mar. 
13 to Nov. 26, were Ens. Joseph Gibbs, Corp. Thomas Drury, 
Phinehas Butler, Cornelius Clafiin, John Darling, Timothy Eames, 
William Graves, John Matthews, Uriah Rice, John Whitney. 

Ralph Hemenway enlisted and marched with his company, but was 
taken sick and lay in the hospital for some time. The General 
Court allowed him for his extra expenses, ^3. 5. o. 

Micajah Gleason was in the expedition against Louisbourg. 

1759. The taking of Louisbourg, in July of last year, gave the 
English control of the eastern gate to Canada. The only strongholds 
held by the French outside of Montreal and Quebec, were Niagara, 
and the two forts at Ticonderoga and Crown Point, which guarded 
Lake Champlain. Niagara was invested by Gen. Prideaux, July 6, 
and was taken on the 24th. Ticonderoga was reached by the 
division under Gen. Amherst, July 22, and after a siege taken ; when 
Crown Point was abandoned by the French, who retired to the Isle 
aux Noix, at the northern extremity of the lake. 

Last French and Indian IVajr 


While these operations were going on, Gen. Wolfe was prosecuting 
a most important enterprise, viz., the reduction of Quebec. This 
brilliant achievement, which resulted in the victory on the heights of 
Abraham, Sept. 13, and the immediate surrender of the city of 
Quebec, closed a series of victories on the side of the English, which 
made the year 1759 a memorable one in American Colonial history. 

Capt. John Nixon, with many of his old officers and men, turned 
out March 31, and was stationed at Worcester, in Col. T. Ruggles' 
regiment, till April 30. At this date his company was reorganized, 
and attached to Col. John Jones' (of Hopkinton) regiment, which 
marched under Gen. Jeffrey Amherst, for the invasion of Canada. 
The company was in service till Dec. 20. The Framingham names 
are as follows: 

Capt. John Nixon 
Lieut. Joseph Gibbs 
Lieut. Thomas Nixon 
Ens. James Mellen 

Jonathan Pierce, aged 

Silas Hemenway, " 

George Lilly, " 

Nathaniel Brown, " 

Oliver Robinson, " 

Caleb Drury Jr. " 

Bezaleel Wright, " 

Ebenezer Cutting, " 

Jona. Hemenway, " 

Elijah Houghton, " 

Thomas Kendall Jr. " 

Isaac Fisk Jr. " 

Isaac Fisk, Jr., served through the campaign. While returning 
home, he was taken sick between Crown Point and No. 4, and with 
great difficulty got as far as Mt. Grace (in Warwick), seventy milej 
from home. His father went with a horse to fetch him to Framing- 
ham. But he was so ill that he could not get on or off a horse 
without help; and the father was absent seven days, and he was not 
able to do anything for about six weeks. Expenses allowed by the 
General Court, £1. i. 4. 

1760. The capture of Montreal was all that remained to be done 
to complete the conquest of Canada. Gen. Amherst, having perfected 
his plans, concentrated the three divisions of the army before Montreal, 
Sept. 6 and 7 ; and on the 8th, the whole province of Canada and its 
dependencies were surrendered to the British crown. 

John Matthews, 



Joseph Stone, 



Daniel Tombs Jr. 

(Hopk.) " 


Gilbert Dench (Hopk.) 



Ebenezer Haven, 



Esau Northgate, 



Allen Flagg, 



Daniel Haven, 



Joseph Bigelow, 



John Gould, 



Phinehas Graves, 



Elijah Drury, 



Isaiah Taylor, 



Micah Gleason, 



Peter Gallot, 



Daniel Haven, 


232 History of Framingham. 

Some Framingham men enlisted for the reduction of Canada, and 
were assigned to Capt. William Jones' HoUiston company, and were 
in service from Feb. 14, to Dec. 26. 

Phinehas Gallot, 17, b. in Framingham, lived in Sherborn. 

Thomas Barnard, 18, b. in Boston, lived in F. with Jona. Brewer. 

John Badger, 26, b. in Natick, lived in Framingham. 

Nathaniel Stow, 20, b. in Grafton, lived with David Haven. 
Shadrach Wetherbee, 20, b. in Southboro', lived with Noah Stacy. 

Jona. Kendall, 17, b. in do. lived with John Nurse. 

Joseph Boyden, — b. in lived in Framingham. 

Daniel Perry, — b. in lived with James Pike. 

James Barrett, 21, b. in Framingham, died. 

William Dunn. — b. in lived in Framingham. 

1761-2. Though the war was substantially ended, yet the Massa- 
chusetts authorities levied an army of 3,000 men. Capt. John Nixon 
(who since 1759 is put down as a resident of Sudbury) raised a large 
company, and was in service from April 18, 1761, to July 28, 1762. 
There are in all 108 names on his muster-roll. Some of the 
following names, credited to this town, will be recognized as found on 
earlier rolls, and a part are new. A few of these became better 
known in the war of the Revolution. Lieut. Jonathan Gibbs, Sergt. 
Benjamin Berry, Sergt. Micajah Gleason, Sergt. Ebenezer Hemenway, 
Corp. Nathaniel Brown, Corp. Ebenezer Buck, Drummer Philip Realy 
(servant to Capt. Nixon), John Adams (son of Joseph), John Angier 
(servant to Ebenezer Goddard), George Walkup, Silas Winch, Ephraim 
Whitney, David Belknap, Thomas Barnard, William Batt (apprentice 
to Josiah Warren), Amasa Darling, William Drury, Jona. Drury, Benj. 
Eaton, James Gallot, William Graves, Aaron Howard (apprentice to 
Jona. Rugg), Samuel How, Jr., Jeffrey Hemenway, Kendall Johnson, 
Thomas Kendall, James Orvine, Daniel Perry (apprentice to Jer. 
Pike), Ebenezer Phillips. 

The small-pox was very prevalent in Canada at this time, and many 
of the American soldiers took it. 

"The Petition of Ralph Hemenway of Framingham. To his Excel- 
lency Era. Bernard 

humbly sheweth 

that his son John Hemenway enlisted 
in 1761 under Capt. Brigham of Southborough, Col. Whitcomb's 
regiment, and continued in service till the army broke up; and in his 
return took the small-pox, and was taken down six days after his 
return home, and continued thirteen days, and died ; by reason of 
which your petitioner was put to great trouble and cost: he had to 

French Neutrals. 


move his family half a mile distant; and could not take them home 
in less than three months; and paid two nurses £^. 4. besides about 
16 shillings for necessaries. Prays the Court to allow him, as others 
are allowed in such cases." 

The General Court allowed him ^^4.. 4. 

A treaty of peace was signed at Paris, Feb. 10, 1763. 

The Ranging Service. — Much reliance was placed, during this 
and the preceding Indian wars, on the services of certain inde- 
pendent companies called Rangers. Their duty was to penetrate into 
the Indian country, to scout from fort to fort, and waylay the Indian 
paths. A company must consist of not less than thirty men; must be 
provided with thirty days' provisions; and must perform a scout of at 
least thirty days upon every march; and the commanding officer was 
required to keep a journal of each of his marches or scouts, and 
exhibit the same in course under oath to the Captain General. Some 
of these journals, which have been preserved, are records of strange 
and thrilling adventure and hardship. The waylaying of an Indian 
trail for days and weeks together; watches for camp smokes of the 
enemy; winter marches on snow-shoes; night bivouacks in the open 
air or under brush huts without fires which might betray them; 
sudden assaults and surprises; advances and retreats; these constitute 
the staple materials of these journals. In stratagem and finesse these 
men were little if at all inferior to the Indians ; in combat on equal 
terms they were greatly superior. Rogers', Burks', and Starks' 
Cbmpanies were the best known of these rangers, and their journals 
are extant. 

A ranging company was raised in this vicinity, under command of 
Jonathan Brewer, and was in the expedition against Quebec in 1759. 
The journal of the march and return has not been discovered. 

The cost of this last French and Indian war to Massachusetts, was 
about $4,000,000. Great Britain refunded to us one and one-half 
millions; the carrying of the balance by this province was a grievous 

From the opening of the war to and including the year 1760, the 
seasons proved remarkably fruitful in New England. The colonies 
were able to supply the wants of the army from their own resources. 
But a drought set in in the spring of 1761, and continued through 
1762, which cut short the crops, and made it necessary to send 
abroad for provisions to supply the ordinary wants of the people. 

Regular military organizations were kept up in this town, without 
regard to the demands of the war. The Framingham militia in 1762 
was officered as follows: 

234 History of Framingham. 

First Compafiy, Jeremiah Belknap, captain ; Samuel Underwood, 
lieutenant; Sylvanus Hemenway, ensign. 

Secofid Company, Josiah Drury, captain ; Samuel Gleason, lieutenant ; 
Bezaleel Rice, ensign. 

The Troop, Caleb Leland, captain; Benj. Pepper, lieutenant; David 
Rice, cornet; Eben'r Twitchell, quartermaster. 

French Neutrals. — In the expeditions against Nova Scotia in 
1755 and 1756, several French forts were destroyed, and the peasantry 
were dispersed or taken prisoners. The prisoners were brought to 
Massachusetts. About 1,000 of these poor Acadians were landed in 
Boston, and in a short time were sent out to be supported by the 
different towns in the commonwealth. Families had been cruelly 
separated; and the larger part of those committed to the towns were 
women and children. 

The first notice of these Acadians, as resident in this town, is 
under date of Feb. 14, 1757, when an article in a warrant for town 
meeting reads: "To see if the town will come into some measures for 
the support of the French family that is now in town, forasmuch as 
they are very burdensome to the overseers of the Poor." " Voted, 
that the overseers of the Poor shall (if they can) provide a house and 
land by hiring the same for the French family in said town, that 
they may provide subsistence for themselves." Mr. Barry gives the 
tradition (without doubt authentic) that the house which Mr. Swift 
built for a study, was hired for the use of this family. He adds, that 
an aged lady then (1847) living, distinctly remembers the French 
women in question, with their wooden shoes and striped silk cloaks. 
From repeated references on the town records, it appears that they 
were well cared for. In 1765, Dr. Ebenezer Hemenway was paid by 
the town, 6s. 4d. "for taking care of the French when sick." 

Mar. 3, 1766, the town Voted, "that the selectmen be impowered 
and directed to pay one hundred pounds old tenor, to those that shall 
take the French family belonging to this town, and give bonds to 
endemnify the town from any further maintaining them for the 
future." Their after history is not known. 

Temperance. — At a town meeting, Sept. 23, 1754, "To hear, 
consider and vote on an Excise Bill, which relates to the private 
consumption of wines and spirits within this Province" — "After a 
large debate on that part of an Excise Bill which relates to the private 
consumption of wines and spirits distilled, a full vote passed that they 
apprehend it to be reasonable and for the interest of the Province, 
that the charges of the government should be defrayed in part by an 

Slaves ill Framingham. 


excise on wine and spirits distilled, and that this excise ought to be 
so extended as that all persons (save those who are exempted in said 
Bill) should be obliged to pay excise for the wine and distilled spirits 
which they consume." 

Polls and Estates, 1760. — From an official return it appears that 
at this date Framingham had 

Number of ratable polls ...... 301 

Number of non-ratable polls ..... 30 

Number of dwelling-houses ...... 198 

Number of work-houses or shops ..... 28 

Number of mills . 

Number of iron foundries ...... i 

Number of servants for life ...... 7 

Trading stock 
Money at interest 

Number of horses 

do of oxen . 

do of cows . 

do of sheep . 

do of swine 3 months old 

do acres of cow pastures 

do bushels of grain raised 

do barrels of cider made 

do tons of English hay 

do tons of meadow hay 

£^0. 13. o 

^936- 17- 4 







Slaves and Colored Inhabitants. — The number of slaves re- 
turned in the preceding table is seven. Perhaps no better place will 
occur for giving a list of the Negro slaves (so far as is known) owned 
at different times by Framingham families. 

In 17 16, John Stone held as a slave, Jone, wife of John Jackson of 
New London, Ct., who commenced a process to recover her freedom. 

Jane, a negro girl owned by Col. Buckminster, was baptized in 

Oct. 9, 1733, Thomas Frost bought of Jonathan Smith of Sudbury, 
for ;^6o current money, a negro man named Gloster, aged about 30 

Plato Lambert, born Dec. i, 1737, w'as taken when an infant by 
Mrs. Martha Nichols of this town. 

Primus, owned by Aaron Pike, was baptized in 1744. 

Mereah, owned by widow Samuel Frost, was baptized in 1746. 

236 History of Fra^ningham. 

Jenny, owned by Lieut. Thomas Winch, and Vilot, owned by Jona- 
than Rugg, were baptized in 1746. 

Flora, owned by Dea. Peter Balch, was baptized in 1747, and is 
named in his will made in 1755. 

Flora, Brill, and Titus, owned by Mrs. Ebenezer Winchester, were 
baptized in 1748. 

Hannover, a negro man owned by Nathaniel Belknap, was baptized 

in 1755- 

Phebe, owned by Capt. Simon Edgell, was baptized in 1767. The 
following bill of sale refers to this Negro girl, who was assigned by 
Mrs. Balch to Capt. Edgell. It will show the mode of conducting 
such transactions: 

Know all Men by these Presents, that I Josiah Richardson Jun. of 
Sudbury in the County of Middlesex, gentleman, for and in consideration of 
the sum of one Pound six shillings and eight pence, lawful money, to me in 
hand well and truly paid at the ensealing hereof by Elizabeth Balch of 
Framingham widow, the Receipt whereof I do hereby acknowledge, and for 
the consideration thereof, Do Sell to the said Elizabeth Balch and to her 
heirs and assigns forever, A N'egro fe?nale Child named Phebe, of about two 
years old, with her wearing apparel she now hath. And I the said Josiah 
covenants to and with the said Elizabeth Balch and her heirs and assigns, 
that the said Negro Child is my Slave for Life, and that I have good right 
to sell and convey her in manner aforesaid for the term of her natural life; 
and that by force and virtue hereof the said Elizabeth Balch shall hold her 
the said Phebe for a slave for the term of her natural life. In Witness 
whereof, I the said Josiah Richardson Jun., have hereunto set my hand and 
seal this 13th day of August 1764. 

In presence of Josiah Richardson Jun \_Seal'\ 

Samuel Jones. 

Dill, a negro woman, in the service of Dea. Daniel Stone, died 
Dec. 13, 1767. 

Rev. Mr. Swift owned five slaves, which were disposed of in his will, 
dated September, 1743, as follows : Francis, negro man, to his son, Rev. 
John Swift of Acton ; Guy, negro man, to his son-in-law, Rev. Phillips 
Payson of Walpole ; Nero, negro man, to his son-in-law, Ebenezer 
Robie of Sudbury. His two negro women, Dido, wife of Nero, and 
Esther, her daughter, he left for the service of his wife until her decease, 
after which they were to be the property of his daughter Martha, 
wife of Maj. John Farrar. Nero, or Nero Benson, was trumpeter in 
Capt. Isaac Clark's troop in 1725. He married in 173 1, Dido Dingo. 
He was a member in full communion of Mr. Swift's church ; and in 
1737 transferred his relation to the church in Hopkinton, showing 
that his spiritual liberty was not restricted. He was admitted to Rev. 
Mr. Loring's church in Sudbury, Nov. g, 1746, and died at Sudbury, 

Slaves in Framingham. 237 

July 3, 1757. He left a wife and three children, one of whom, William, 
was owned for a time by Joseph Collins of Southborough. 

Cato Hanker was owned by Joseph Haven, Esq., and was born in 
his house (the David Nevins place). He was a shoemaker, and 
received his freedom ; and x\pril 10, 1751, bought for ten shillings, ten 
square rods of land of Daniel Haven, where he built a small house. 
The house stood on the north side of the road, a short distance to the 
eastward of the David Haven house, on land now owned by the Sturte- 
vants. In his old age he was accustomed to tell that he had many 
times stood in the road east of his house, and " fished both ways " in 
time of high water. He left a son, William. 

A noted character of the class under consideration was Prince, some- 
times called Prince Young, but whose name is recorded as Prince 
Yongey, and Prince Jonar, by which last name he is noticed in the 
town records in 1767. He was brought from Africa when about 
twenty-five years old, having been a person of consideration in his 
native land, from which circumstance, perhaps, he received his name. 
He was bought by Col. Joseph' Buckminster, Jr., and was afterwards 
owned by his son, Dea. Thomas Buckminster. He married, in 1737, 
Nanny Peterattucks of Framingham, by whom he had several children, 
among them a son who died young, and a daughter Phebe, who never 

Prince was a faithful servant, and by his honesty, temperance and 
prudence, so gained the confidence of his first master, Col. Joseph 
Buckminster, that he was left with the management of a large farm 
during his master's absence at the General Court. He occupied a 
cabin near the turnpike, and cultivated for his own use a piece of 
meadow, which has since been known as Prince's meadow. He gave 
as the reason for choosing this spot, that it resembled the soil of his 
native country. During the latter part of his life he was offered his 
freedom, which he had the sagacity to decline, pithily saying, " Massa 
eat the meat ; he now pick the bone." Prince shunned the society of 
persons of his own color. He always appeared in public armed with 
a tomahawk ; yet he was a favorite with children, and would bear great 
provocations from them. He learned to read, and possessed the 
religious turn of mind characteristic of his race. In his last sickness, 
he remarked with much simplicity, that he was " not afraid to be dead, 
but to die." He passed an extreme old age in the family of Dea. 
Thomas Buckminster, and died Dec. 21, 1797, at the age of about 100 
years. [Barry.'] 

Cato Titus was in Framingham in 1*770. 

Brin, commonly called Blaney Grusha, was at one time owned by 
Col. Micah Stone. He is named in the tax-list of 1757. He was in 

238 History of Frammgham. 

the military service during the Revolutionary War ; was at the battle 
of Bunker Hill. He died February, 1820. 

Another noted character, still well remembered by many of our 
inhabitants, was Jim Riggs. He was a mulatto, born in St. Domingo; 
was owned as a slave at the South ; escaped from slavery, and after 
many adventures, reached this town. According to his own account 
he was hosder to Gen. (then Col.) Washington in the campaign of 
1755, and was then nineteen years old. He was in service in the 
Revolutionary War. He built a shanty near Lawson Buckminster's 
grist-mill, back of Mrs. Newell's house. He did jobbing, and made 
baskets in the families of Buckminster, Belknap, Home, and the 
families of How, Eames and Haven at the south part. He died at 
the house of John Wenzell, Sen., in 1828, and was buried in the South 
Cemetery. He must have been about ninety-two at his death. 

Other colored men of note who have lived in Framingham, were 
Crispus Attucks, Peter Salem and Cato Hart. Their biography 
properly belongs to the next chapter. 

The strong race prejudice existed «i this town as elsewhere. Pews 
in remote corners of the meeting-houses were specially assigned for 
the occupancy of negroes. As late as 1826, when the First Baptist 
Society built its meeting-house at the Centre, pews for the exclusive 
use of colored people were constructed in a kind of attic gallery, 
reached by separate stairs. 

Physicians. — Dr. Bezaleel Rice commenced practice here as early 
as 1720, and continued till 1743. 

Dr. Joseph Nichols lived in Framingham from 1730 to 1752. 

Dr. John Mellen is named in the town records in 1747. 

Dr. Ebenezer Hemenway was in practice in this town from 1750 to 
1784. He lived on the Loring Manson place (now W, B. Ward), 
and had a grist-mill on the stream. 

Jeremiah Pike, a noted bone-setter, was contemporary with Dr. 

Dr. John Sparhawk was in Framingham in 1757. 

Dr. Richard Perkins, H. U. 1748, son of Rev. Daniel Perkins of 
West Bridgewater, was in practice here in 1758. 

The wife of John Trowbridge, Sen., practiced as a midwife. 

Taverns. — Jonathan Rice kept a tavern and store, a little south 
of S. D. Hardy's, 1708, and for many years. Jona. Maynard had a 
house of entertainment before *i723, at the Aaron Bullard place, south 
side of Bare hill. 

Daniel How opened a tavern about forty-five rods southeast of the 

Industries. 239 

old Charles Clark place, in 1726, which he sold in 1736 or 1737, to 
Samuel Gleason, who continued the tavern for many years. 

About 1728, Hezekiah Rice opened a tavern at the Capt. Uriah 
Rice place (now A. S. Furber's). 

Francis Moquet kept tavern at the old Buckminster stand (near 
E. H. Warren's store), from 1729 to 1735. He afterwards bought the 
place next east of O. F. Hastings', where he had a tavern and store 
as late as 1749. 

After Mr. Moquet left the Buckminster stand, Col. Jos. Buckminster 
took it, and spent his days here, as did his son Joseph, and grandson 
Dea. Thomas. 

Nichols kept tavern at the Nathan Goddard place. 

John Trowbridge, Jr., had a public house before 1757, and for 
many years thereafter. Jan. 11, 1759, he sent the following petition 
to the General Court : "The Petition of John Trowbridge Jr. of Fram- 
ingham, skeweth, that he entertained Capt. Endecott's Company, on 
their march from Boston towards Albany in the year 1757 ; that on 
application to him, he cannot obtain payment, although (as he is 
informed) the said Endecott has received the billeting money for his 
whole company ; that he apprehends he is left without remedy against 
the said Endecott, by reason of his not being present with his 
company when they received their entertainment at his house; 
praying for relief." 

"Jan. II, 1759. Josiah Drury of Framingham petitions for license 
by the General Court, as an Innholder in said town, the person who 
lives in his neighborhood who had for sometime kept a Tavern, not 
having renewed his license, and the selectmen judging the place 
convenient for that business." The Court of Sessions were impowered 
and directed to grant the license prayed for. The tavern was at the 
east part of the town. 

Industries. — It is not possible to procure full lists of the mechan- 
ical trades carried on in this town, during the period covered by this 
chapter. The following is a partial list: Dea. Moses Haven, shoe- 
maker, 1710; Jona. Maynard, weaver, 1713; Joseph Haven, Esq., 
shoemaker, 1721J Daniel Gregory, blacksmith, 1726-1758; Ralph 
Hemenway, housewright, 1727 ; Robert Seaver, bricklayer, 1727-1749; 
William Ballord, tailor, 1728; Dea. Jonathan Morse, shoemaker, 
1734; Thomas Temple, cabinet-maker, 1742 ; Samuel Underwood, 
shoemaker, 1743; John Mayhew, shoemaker, 1743; Benj. Eaton, 
cordwainer, 1749; Sylvanus Hemenway, blacksmith, 1749; Isaac 
Fiske, weaver, 1745; Cato Hanker, shoemaker, 1751; Thomas Fes- 
senden, saddler, 1750; Simon Edgell, joiner, 1754; Peter Parker, 
cordwainer, 1759. 

240 History of Framinghani. 

Highways. — The placing of the second meeting-house at a point 
which from its inconvenient surroundings and approaches, had been 
shunned by even bridle-paths, required a readjustment of the high- 
ways leading from the several out-districts; and the necessities of 
general travel required the laying out of a number of new roads. 

Feb. 2, 1735-6. Return of a highway leading from Benj. Ball's to 
the meeting-house, " beginning at said Ball's corner-mark, and so 
running over the land of Jonathan Maynard, to a white oak tree, 
standing near the brook, thence running near the northwest corner of 
Benj. Treadway's barn (the Amasa Kendall place), and so over said 
Treadway's land to a white pine standing on the north part of Bare 
hill, then over the land of Col. Buckminster to a white oak standing 
near the crotch of the paths on the north side of the hill, and so on as 
the path goes to a corner of another piece of Treadway's land, and so 
on to the line between Treadway and William Pike, till it comes to 
the meeting-house land." This road followed nearly the present way 
from J. C. Cloves', via Dr. Z. B. Adams', Otis Childs', and John C. 
Hastings' to the west end of the Town Hall, between the hall and the 
old oak tree. 

Feb. 18, 1735-6. Re-location of the road from Southborough line, 
via Joshua Hemenway's, Jona. Morse's, to the meeting-house : " Begin- 
ning at Southborough highway near the house of Daniel Mixer (now 
Addison Belknap), so down as the way is now occupied till it comes 
to the house of Ichabod Hemenway Jr., then on the north side of a 
pine tree marked standing about eight rods from the old path, thence 
on the south side of Jonathan Morse's house (now E. P. Travis'), so 
straight to a small pine standing on the north side of the old path in 
the low lands about thirty rods from said Morse's, then to another 
pine, and so straight as the land will allow to Col. Buckminster's dam 
(on Baiting brook), thence as the way is used till it comes over the 
other dam (the way is to lye two rods wide from the upper side of 
said dams), then to the corner of the fence between Edward Wright 
and Sergt. Treadway, thence southerly to a great black oak tree 
standing in said Wrights' field, thence to the line between Col. 
Buckminster and said Wright, thence as the line runs till it comes to 
the path leading from the said Wright's to the meeting-house, then as 
the way is occupied to the road (above described) leading from Mr. 
Treadway's to said meeting-house." This road struck the highway 
before described, near Dr. J. W. Brown's, and followed it to the south 
side of the Dr. Howe place, etc. There was no road on the north of 
Dr. Howe's, till the turnpike was built in 1809. The road from 
G. P. Metcalf's to Otis Childs' was built since that date. 

Dec. 6, 1736. The town chose a committee "to take into consider- 

Highways. 241 

ation the state of the town respecting ways to the meeting-house, and 
make and offer (as soon as may be) for the town's consideration a 
draught of such proposals as they shall judge most conducive to the 
welfare of the town, and the ease of the inhabitants in their travel to 
public worship." 

The first effect of this vote was a declaration of Col. Buckminster, 
that " he expected to be paid for the land of his taken into two 
highways (see Feb. 2, and 18) unless the town would discontinue an 
old highway leading from the former meeting-house to Wm. Pike's 
(Col. Edgell's), and that he should make application to the Court of 
Sessions accordingly, if such discontinuance were denied." Mar. 14, 
1737, the town '■^ voted, that the highway leading from the old meeting- 
house place to Wm Pike's be discontinued as far as it goeth on Col. 
Buckminster's land and Mr. Treadway's land." 

Mar. 14, 1737. A highway was laid out "from the house of Francis 
Moquet (the Dea. Buckminster tavern stand) by the north end of the 
hill called Bare hill to the meeting-house." 

July 15, 1737. "Return of a highway from Southborough line, via 
Brackett's corner, to Sudbury: beginning at Southborough line on 
land of Isaac Gleason, and so as the way is now occupied through 
his land, then through Ebenezer Frizzell's land, as the way is now 
occupied, then through Timothy Stearns' land as the way is now 
occupied, to the highway (at School-house No. 7) leading from Lieut. 
Willson's to the meeting-house in said town ; then continuing in said 
highway (which is the old south path to Marlborough) till it comes to 
the foot of the hill (east of Peter B. Davis) near the northwest corner 
of Lieut. Eben"" Winchester's farm, thence through said Winchester's 
land as the way is now occupied, said Winchester's fence to be the 
south bounds of the highway, till it comes to Capt. Clark's northerly 
corner bound-mark, thence running between land of Capt. Clark and 
land of the wid. Frost to the north side of Jona. Clark's frame, then 
running as the way is now occupied to the crotch of the paths, one 
leading to Stone's mill, the other to the New Bridge ; thence running 
along said Stone's path to the corner of Ebenezer Pike's new broken 
up land, then turning northerly and running as straight as the land 
will conveniently allow over to the said New^ Bridge path ; thence 
running as the way is now occupied to said New Bridge. Said road 
to be 2 rods wide." 

August, 1737. " A road was laid out by the Selectmen from the 
Bennett farm, via the Abbott place, and the F. A. Billings and John 
Kendall places to Mrs. Gordon's bridge : beginning at a town road 
near the house of Thomas Stone, so running over a small bridge, then 
turning and running near the south side of said Stone's house and 


242 History of Framingham. 

barn, so running to a bound between Samuel Stone and Thomas Stone, 
and thence through said Samuel Stone's land, and John Pierce's land, 
to Dea. John Adams' land, then turning southerly, and so down to a 
small brook to Matthias Bent's land, into his field near the bank of the 
river, then running near the south side of said Bent's house, to Eliezer 
Kendall's and through his land, then turning southerly and running 
to Ens. Joseph Stone's land to a tree standing on the east side of the 
Knoll called Joseph Stone's house-plot (the old Dr. Kellogg house lot), 
then turning west, and running to the river to a large Swamp Oak, said 
road to be on the south side of said Oak, it being William Pike's corner 
mark, thence over the river, thence as the road is cleared through 
said Pike's land to the meeting-house." This road was thus established 
for travel ; but was not accepted in full for several years. 

July 15, 1737. "A road, two rods wide, was laid out from the high- 
way leading from Amos Gates' (Charles Trowbridge) house to the 
meeting-house ; beginning near said Gates' dwelling-house, and so 
running easterly through said Gates' land, then to Isaac Clark's gate, 
then through said Clark's land, as the path is now trod to the land of 
Corp. Matthias Clark, then as the path is now trod to the road leading 
from Marlborough to Stones' mills." 

Dec. 26, 1737. A road was laid out from Singletary's bridge (south 
of Chas. J. Frost's), through Jona. Maynard's land (via the present 
house of J. F. Macomber) to the bridge over Baiting brook near Benj. 
Treadway's; and the old road from Chas. J. Frost's to Bullard's bridge 
was discontinued, and the land given to Mr. Maynard in exchange for 
what was taken for the new road. 

March 5, 1743-4. A road was laid out "from Park's corner south 
over the hill by the west end of Elkanah Haven's house, then as the 
way is improved to Nathan Haven's stone wall, and by said wall to the 
road formerly laid out by the said Nathan Haven's." 

March 4, 1744-5. "Laid out a way turning out of the old road at 
Lieut. Hezekiah Rice's (A. S. Furber's), and running a little westward 
of the old road, and coming into said old road again near Mr. Moquet's 
fence : said Rice promising to make it a good road for passing with 
teams and horses." 

Oct. 12, 1747. The town had been presented for defectiveness of 
the causeway and bridge (at Saxonville) near the Abner Stone place ; 
and the town voted to make said causeway fifteen feet wide ; and to 
raise it on the northerly side of the bridge to a level with the bridge. 

1747-8. An alteration was made in the road near Ebenezer Hager's, 
" beginning in the road as now occupied by land of John Bullen, and 
then running easterly as far as the path coming from William Upham's, 
and from thence into the road where it was formerlv laid out. Mr. 

Highways. 243 

Hager promising the town that he would clear up the said new road 
at his own cost." 

Nov. 22, 1756. A road at the southwest corner of the town, "begin- 
ning at the River between Hopkinton and Framingham at a small 
saxafax stand marked, thence on Elisha Bemis' land, to a small rock 
close to a small brook, then to an apple tree in said Bemis' fence, 
then as said Bemis' fence now stands till it comes to Thomas Pierce 
his land, and from thence to the west end of said Pierce's stone wall 
on the south side of said way, thence by the wall, then turning more 
northerly to a tree standing near Southborough line.'" 

March 6, 1758. " Return of a highway from Sudbury line, by Cort. 
Eaton's to Framingham meeting-house ; beginning at Sudbury line, the 
fence on the east side of the trod way to be the bounds as far as said 
Eaton's Tan house, thence southeasterly to said Eaton's gate, and 
thence as the road is now trod through George Walkup's land, his 
fence to be the southeasterly and southerly bounds to Thomas Winch 
Jr. his lane, and thence as the said lane goes as far as to the place 
where old Mr. Streeter's house formerly stood, thence turning more 
southwesterly to fhe westerly fence of the lane in said Winch's land 
that leads over the bridge over the brook called Hop brook, the said 
fence to be the west boundary of said road so far; then the road to 
continue as it is now trod to the meeting-house : Provided Cort. Noah 
Eaton will give 16 days' work in making the fence on said Walkup's 
land when the road comes to be opened, which said Eaton con- 
sented to." 

At a town meeting March 5, 1759, the town voted, "that the above 
named highway through George Walkup's and George Walkup Jr's 
land should be discontinued as an open way, but still reserving the 
town's ancient possession of the same as a Bridle way ; and that a 
committee be appointed to make proposals to Mr. George Walkup to 
accommodate the difficultys subsisting relating to the said way." 

March 6, 1758. Return of a road from Saxonville to Lanham : 
"beginning at Stone's mills and running east of Hezekiah Stone's fence, 
then turning north and running towards Sudbury, as the way is now 
trod, having the lands of Hezekiah Stone and Micah Stone for the 
easterly bounds thereof till it comes to Moses Stone's land, said 
Stone's fence being the westerly bounds thereof till it comes to 
Sylvanus Hemenway's land, and thence to Sudbury line as the way is 
now trod to Lanham, said road to be two rods wide except between 
the orchard of the said Moses Stone and that belonging to the 
widow's thirds." 

March i, 1762. A bridle path, wide enough for carts, was early 
marked out and traveled, from near Otis F. Hastings" to the Adams 

244 History of F7'ainingha)n. 

place (now Charles W. Parker's), "for conveniency for traveling to 
mill." An attempt was made this year to have this path laid out as a 
public highway, but failed. And the path "from Capt. John Butler's 
corner at the foot of Rice's hill to the road leading from Daniel 
Adams' to Stone's mills, as it is now occupied," was made a town way. 

March i, 1762. Accepted "an alteration of the highway turning out 
of the County road a little west of Thomas Kendall's barn, and 
running to Stephen Jennings his house, as it is lately turned." 

March 12, 1764. A town way was laid out, beginning at Jonathan 
Hemenway's house, thence running west to a pair of bars, thence 
by Ralph Hemenway's house, thence over a bridge and causeway, 
thence to the county road a little to the east of Ebenezer Boutwell's 

Aug. 9, 1767. "A town way from the Nathan Goddard place, north 
to the Gibbs road : beginning at a large rock at the end of a stone 
wall on Marlborough road, now in possession of Joshua Fairbanks, 
thence southerly to Micah Gibbs' land, thence on said Gibbs' land 
and the widow Fairbanks' land to Mr. Brinley's land, then on wild 
land of said Brinley and John Mixer to land now improved by Joseph 
Nichols and John Fames; from thence to the county road leading by 
said Nichols, one-half on said Nichols', and one-half on said Fames' 
land." April 6, 181 2, the town " Voted, that Solomon Fay have liberty 
to erect a gate on the above named road, during the town's pleasure." 

March 7, 1768. " Road from Abraham Rice's southwest corner over 
the Common. From the corner of Abraham Rice's stone wall, thence 
near where the way is now occupied to or by the east end of William 
Merritt's dwelling-house, thence on the south side of his house, taking 
ofT a part of his garden, till we come to a corner of Jonathan 
Maynard's land, and Ebenezer Singletary's land, thence to near 
Daniel Claflin's house, thence to a large rock, thence to a corner 
bound of Col. Buckminster's and Job Burnam's; thence through un- 
divided land to Capt. Josiah Stone's land, a large rock on the north 
side, thence through Cornelius Claflin's land to land of John Clayes, 
Jr., and Joseph Nurse to a lot belonging either to Col. Buckminster 
of Col. Brinley's heirs, thence as the way is now trod through said lot, 
and no further." A continuation of this road, from Timothy Pike's 
westward, through George Stimpson's land to the river, meeting a 
road laid out by the town of Hopkinton, was laid out in 1774. 

March 14, 178 1. " Road from Simon Pratt's (by the well on the top 
of the hill south of Mrs. Badger's) to William Ballord's. Beginning 
at the highway west of Simon Pratt's house, thence southerly to a 
black oak north of Daniel Tomb's house, thence by marked trees to 
the corner of lot No. 14 River Range, then to the head of the lane near 
the house of Capt. William Ballord." 

Highways. 245 

Dec. 1795. "Road from Capt. Jones' mill to Nathan Dadmun's and 
the Common road. Beginning at the river below said Jones' mill, 
thence northerl}- over the waste-way to a large rock, thence through 
William Ballord's land, thence through wid. Dadmun's land, thence 
to a stake in Nathan Dadmun's land, thence through Lawson Nurse's 
land, thence to the corner of Nathan Dadmun's wall, thence by said 
Dadmun's house as the wall stands to the town road north of said 
house." In 1797 the town accepted an alteration of this road, 
beginning about sixty rods east of said Dadmun's house, at a rock on 
the east side of a road, thence running across his field and Lawson 
Nurse's land to the road leading to Capt. Jones' mill. 

Sept. :i, 1797. The town chose a committee to oppose the laying 
out of a new county road from Jesse Haven's, running along near the 
south end of Farm pond, to Daniel Sanger's, near where the Central 
turnpike was afterwards located. 

The Brinley Farm road. May 25, 1772, by vote of the town, Capt. 
Erinley was freed from paying highway taxes, on " condition that he 
puts the roads that have been privately occupied on his farm under 
as good circumstances, with bridges, gates and bars, as formerly ; and 
allow people to pass the same at all times freely." April 7, 1800, a 
similar vote was passed in relation to Joshua Fairbanks, who then 
occupied said farm. May 11, 181 1, a town road vi^as laid out from 
the house of Jason Brewer westerly, between land of Benj. S. Hemen- 
way and Lawson Buckminster, Jr., to a stake about four rods from the 
house of Joshua Fairbanks, said way to be two rods wide. Feb. 20, 
1813, the selectmen laid out a private way for the use of said town 
only, "beginning at a point in the old road eleven rods and seventeen 
links west of the house of Enoch Belknap, thence running northerly 
(by distances and bearings) to the western boundary of a road leading 
from the house occupied by Joshua Fairbanks to the house lately 
occupied by Jason Brewer deceased." 

Aug. 29, 1800. The town chose a committee to oppose the accept- 
ance of a road laid out by order of the Court of Sessions, through 
John Eaton's land. 

Sept. I, 1800. The town '■'■voted, that Mr. Ebenezer Eaton have 
liberty to hang a gate on the road between his house and Mr. Hemen- 
way's during the town's pleasure ; the town not giving up the right to 
the soil." And Nov. 3, 1800, ^^ voted, that Benj. Stone Hemenway 
have the liberty to hang a gate on the road leading from Ebenezer 
Eaton's to Mr. Cutting's, on the same conditions as Mr. Eaton's was 

March, 1794. ^' Voted to have a row of posts erected from the Great 
bridge the upper side of the causeway, to Mr. Eli BuUard's bark house ; 
and a foot-bridge convenient to pass with a hand pole." 


War of the Revolution, i 763-1 783. 

\ 4;,'iHE signs of the coming storm appeared on our horizon as early 
*M) as the peace of 1763. Indeed the French and Indian wars, 
then brought to a close, were the prophecy and preparation for 
the impending struggle. The government of Great Britain discovered 
the ability of the Colonies to furnish men and means for their own 
defence, and led to the system of taxation which alienated the sympa- 
thies and confidence of the Colonies ; and the Colonists themselves 
discovered their strength and resources. And what was of especial 
moment, the Colonists discovered that the British generals sent over 
to direct military movements were aristocratic in their bearing, and 
incompetent as military leaders. They also discovered that their own 
chosen officers, after a short experience in war, were fully competent 
to plan and conduct important campaigns, and lead them to victory. 
They learned their own importance as factors and arbiters of their 
own destiny. 

"These contests with the French and Indians taught them the art 
of war, developed a martial spirit, and so prepared them for the events 
which were before them. It is hardly saying too much to affirm that 
but for the French and Indian wars, the Revolutionary struggle could 
not have been prosecuted to a successful termination." 

The setting up, at this juncture, of the claim of right to tax the 
Colonies, was peculiarly unfortunate and ill-timed. ' people had 

cheerfully borne the brunt of the exhaustive wars, anu proved their 
devotion to the British crown. And it was natural to expect on the 
part of the British ministry, a spirit of appreciation of these services, 
and a readiness to respect the privileges and immunities of her subject 
citizens in America. 

The disappointment and sense of injury on our part, at such 
arbitrary and unjust measures as were instituted by the Parliament, 
awakened suspicions and resistance, and nourished the spirit of 

Before the peace of 1763, the subject of taxation had been wisely 

War of the Revolution. 247 

let alone. The Colonies had been permitted to tax themselves, with- 
out the interference of the Parliament. But from and after this 
period, the ancient system was set aside, and a new and oppressive 
policy was adopted. The first Act, the avowed purpose of which was 
to raise a revenue from the Colonies, passed the Parliament Sept. 29, 

1764. The preamble recited : ''Whereas it is just and necessary that 
a revenue be raised in America, for defraying the expenses of defend- 
ing, protecting, and securing the same. We the Commons," etc. The 
Act then proceeds to lay a duty on "clayed sugar, indigo, coffee, etc., 
being the produce of a Colony not under the dominion of his Majesty." 
This preliminary measure was offensive to our people, not so much 
from its direct effects, as from its assertion of a principle which had 
been scarcely named in their colonial existence of one hundred and 
fifty years. Nor would this act alone have led to permanent disaffec- 
tion, had it not been followed by others still more oppressive. 

The mother country asserted it "to be essential to the unity, and of 
course to the prosperity of the empire, that the British Parliament 
should have the right of taxation over every part of the royal domin- 
ions." The American Colonies asserted that " taxation and represen- 
tation were inseparable, and that they could not be safe, if their 
property might be taken from them without their consent." This 
claim of the right of taxation on the one side, and the denial of it 
on the other side, was the hinge on which the Revolution turned. 

In accordance with the newly-adopted policy, the Parliament, in 

1765, passed the famous Stamp Act, which ordained that all instruments 
of writing, such as deeds, bonds, notes, receipts, wills, etc., used among 
the Colonists, should be null and void, unless executed on stamped 
paper, for which a duty should be paid to the crown. This tax, while 
it was practically of small consequence to the farmers and mechanics, 
bore severely on men of business and officials. A ream of common 
blank bail bonds had usually been sold for ^15 ; a ream of stamped 
bonds cost ;^ioo. A ream of stamped policies of insurance cost £1^0 ; 
a ream of common ones, without stamps, had cost ;^2o. 

When news of the passage of the Stamp Act reached this country, 
the Massachusetts Legislature earnestly remonstrated against its 
injustice ; and as a measure looking to ultimate resistance, recom- 
mended the meeting of a Colonial Congress at New York to consult 
for the general safety. 

Framingham promptly enlisted in the struggle for the maintenance 
of colonial rights, and put on record her determination to support the 
colonial authorities; and at a town meeting held October 21, 1765, 
adopted the following declaration and instructions to the representative 
in the General Court : 

248 History of Fj'amingham. 

"To Joseph Buckminster Esq. representative: . . . two essential 
Rights guaranteed by the English Constitution, are, i. Being rep- 
resented in the same body which exercises the power of levying Taxes, 
and 2, Trial by Jury ; these we take to be the pillars of that Constitu- 
tion. And by the Royal Charter granted to this Province, the power 
of making laws for our Internal Government, and of levying Taxes is 
vested in the General Assembly; and by the Charter the inhabitants 
of this Province are entitled to all the rights and privileges of natural 
freeborn subjects of Great Britain. It therefore appears to us that if 
this Act [The Stamp Act] takes effect, it deprives us of our essential 
Rights and Privileges. 

" Therefore we instruct you to promote and readily join in such 
dutiful remonstrances & humble Petitions to the King and Parliament 
as have a direct tendency to obtain a repeal of the Stamp Act. 

"We further instruct you, that you do not give your assent to any 
Act of Assembly that shall imply the willingness of your constituents 
to submit to any Taxes that are imposed any other way than by the 
Great and General Court of this Province. 

"We further add, that you take care that money raised in this time 
of Distress and Trouble, in order to supply the Treasury, may not be 
used to any other purpose than what is intended by the Act for 
Supplying the Treasury; and as to other Affairs that shall come 
under consideration, we submit to your wisdom and prudence." 

The Stamp Act went into operation on the first day of November. 
But on that day not a single sheet of all the bales of stamped blanks 
which had been sent from England, could be found in the Colonies of 
New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, 
Virginia and the two Carolinas. They had either been committed to 
the flames, had been reshipped to England, or were safely guarded by 
the opposition into whose hands they had fallen. 

Business transactions, which required written contracts, were sus- 
pended. The Courts of Justice were shut; intended marriages were 
put off; vessels were laid up; and curses loud and deep against the 
odious Act were the order of the day. 

It was at this time, and under the spur of this determined oppostion 
to Parliamentary exactions, that the associations known as " The Sons 
of Liberty," were organized in all the Colonies. This Order, which 
was destined to have a most important agency in the establishment of 
our Independence, had for its specific object the adoption of measures 
to thwart the Stamp Act, and concentrate the thought, and educate 
the people to prepare them for active resistance to arbitrary govern- 
ment, and at the same time to nourish an American sentiment which 
should develop home manufactures and build up a home interest. 

Wai' of the Revohction. 249 

Local societies were everywhere formed, comprising both males and 
females, who pledged themselves to forego all the luxuries of life rather 
than be indebted to the commerce of England. It was agreed that 
sheep should not be killed for food, but kept for their wool. The 
acreage of flax sown was immensely increased ; and carding, spinning, 
weaving and dyeing, heretofore the business of the common classes, 
now became the fashionable employment of women of wealth ; and to 
be dressed in " home-spun," was alike the pride of both sexes, and was 
a passport to popular distinction. English manufacturers and artizans 
were deprived of profitable employment, and the warehouses of the 
merchants were filled with unsaleable goods. 

Under the pressure of home and colonial influences, the Stamp Act 
was repealed. But the principle on which it was based was not yielded 
by Great Britain. And the ministry at once set about devising other 
measures of taxation, in the shape of duties upon imports into the 
Colonies. To meet this new turn, the people of Boston, always first 
to move in this juncture, assembled in town meeting, and resolved, 
that they would not import British manufactures or other merchan- 
dise on which duties were imposed. The Massachusetts Legislature 
took similar ground; and under the lead of Samuel Adams prepared 
and forwarded instructions to their agent in London, to be communi- 
cated to the ministry, in which they renew their former declarations, 
that Parliament had no right to tax the Colonies; and further declare 
that the creation of new crown officers, and the sending of a standing 
army to be quartered upon the people, were in fact introducing an 
absolute government into the Colony, which must lead to most dan- 
gerous consequences; for they add significantly, "the laws of God 
and nature are invariable."' 

In May, 1768, the Romney, ship-of-war, arrived in Boston harbor 
from Halifax, being sent, as it afterwards appeared, at the suggestion 
of Governor Bernard, and at the request of the Commissioners of 
Customs, to awe the Bostonians into subjection. To strengthen his 
crew, and at the same time show his disregard of the popular feelings, 
and the rights of the colonists, the commander forcibly hnpressed New 
England seamen to serve on board his ship. He also seized a 
merchant vessel belonging to John Hancock, and anchored her under 
his guns. These acts created intense feeling among the inhabitants. 
A town meeting was called, and a committee of twenty-one was chosen 
to wait upon the Governor, and at the same time prepare an address 
to the citizens. The practice of impressment was condemned in strong 
terms ; and the demand was made for the removal of the Romney 
from the harbor. The town also declared and put on record their 
irrevocable determination to assert and maintain their rights and 
liberties, at the utmost hazard of " their fortunes and their lives." 

250 History of Framingham. 

In the niidst of this excitement, Governor Bernard laid before the 
Legislature, then in session, a letter from the British ministry, calling 
upon them to rescind their Resolutions denying the power of Parlia- 
ment to tax the Colonies; and also to recall their Circular addressed 
to the other Colonies, asking their co-operation and support in defence 
of their just rights. Here was a more direct and vital issue than had 
before been made. It was no less than an express requisition made 
upon the Legislature for specific action; and the issue could not be 
avoided. Nor was the Legislature disposed to avoid it. Under the 
guidance of Samuel Adams, who never failed in an emergency, an 
answer was returned to the ministry, justifying the former course of 
the Legislature, and refusing to retrace the steps already taken. This 
bold measure was carried in the House by a vote of ninety-two to 
seventeen. As soon as tlie Governor learned of this action of the 
House, he first prorogued, and then dissolved the assembly. 

Massachusetts was now without a Legislature. 

On the first of August, two hundred and eleven merchants of 
Boston signed an agreement, that for one year from the first of the 
next January (1769), they would not order any goods or merchandise 
from England, except coals, salt and some few articles necessary 
for the fisheries; nor import tea, glass, paper or colors, "untill the 
acts imposing a duty on those articles are repealed." 

These proceedings furnished General Gage (then in command of all 
the King's forces in the Colonies) with a sufficient pretext for ordering a 
considerable part of the army to rendezvous at Boston. This added 
fuel to the fire; and Sept. 12, a town meeting was called at Faneuil 
Hall. A committee of seven was appointed to wait on the Governor, 
and "request him to communicate to them the reasons for which 
troops were ordered here." Another committee was appointed to 
request him forthwith to convene the House of Representatives. The 
Governor's answer to the first request was evasive. His answer to 
the last was, that the summoning of the Legislature was then before 
the King, and he could do nothing without his Majesty's commands. 

But the people of Boston were not in a mood to wait for his 
Majesty's commands. They met again the next day, and chose a 
suitable number of persons who should act for them as a Committee 
in Convejition, and then proceeded to call such a Convention, to be 
composed of delegates from the several towns in the Province of 
Massachusetts, who should assemble in Boston, to consult and advise 
such measures as his Majesty's service and the peace and safety of his 
subjects in the Province may 7-equire. 

A circular, calling this Convention to meet Sept. 22, was sent out 
to the towns. And on its reception in this town a town meeting was 
called as soon as might be. The record of this meeting is as follows : 

War of the Revolution. 251 

At a town meeting in the town of Framingham, Sept. 26, 176S, Mr. 
Thomas Temple was chosen moderator for said meeting. 

Mr. Thomas Temple was chosen to join the Committee in Convention 
with others at Faneuil Hall in Boston, to consult such measures as may be 
for the safety of the Province. 

This Convention comprised upwards of one hundred delegates, 
from ninety-eight towns and districts. It met at Faneuil Hall, and 
sat with open doors. The first business was a respectful petition 
to the Governor, to call the General Assembly together ; but his 
Excellency begged to be excused from receiving a message from that 
assembly which is called a " Committee of Convention," for that would 
be to admit it to be a legal assembly, " which I can by no means allow." 
But on the same day, his Excellency sent in a message without atiy 
signature, stating his opinion " that the Convention, to all intents and 
purposes, was an Assembly of the Representatives of the people ; " and 
added, " therefore I do earnestly admonish you, that instantly, and 
before you do any business, you break up this assembly, and separate 
yourselves." This message was by vote ordered to be returned to 
the Secretary of State ; and the next day it was sent back to the 
Convention, with the signature of Era. Bernard attached. 

On Saturday the Convention transmitted a message to the Gov- 
ernor, by way of answer, which he refused to receive. The Convention 
continued its sittings daily till the twenty-ninth. They adopted a 
letter to be sent to the royal agent of the Province in London ; voted 
to publish the result of their conferences and consultations, in which 
they declared their allegiance to the King, their abhorrence of riots, 
and their determination to yield all assistance to the civil magistrates 
towards suppressing them ; they also declared their rights by charter 
and by nature, and their humble dependence on their generous 
sovereign that their wrongs would be speedily redressed. 

The history of the next eighteen months is only a repetition of 
events like those just now recorded. The quartering of troops on 
the town of Boston, and the exasperation of the people at such an 
attempt to overawe and coerce them, prepared the way for the tragic 
scenes of the fifth of March, 1770, known as The Boston Massacre. 
This was the first significant conflict between the British soldiery and 
American citizens. And the details of this bloody encounter are here 
given somewhat in full, in order to indicate the sensitiveness of the 
public mind at this time, the wide and widening separation between 
the colonists and the mother country, and because the principal 
character in the bloody affray was a Framingham man. 

The affray really began on the twenty-second of February, when a 
pole bearing a caricature head on its top, was set up in Hanover 

252 History of Frafniiig/iain. 

street, in front of the store of an obnoxious importer. An informer, 
named Richardson, undertook to upset the pole by guiding a country- 
man's loaded team against it ; but from want of skill in managing the 
forward horse, the wheel just missed the pole. The crowd of boys who 
were watching the operation shouted in derision, and he answered back. 
They pelted him with dirt, and drove him into his house ; high 
words passed ; and then stones were thrown by both parties. At 
length Richardson discharged a musket from his door and another 
from his window, by which a young man was severely wounded, and a 
lad named Christopher Snider, was killed. 

The bells were set to ringing, and an immense multitude collected. 
Richardson, and one Wilmot, were seized and carried to Faneuil Hall, 
and then committed to prison. Notices were posted, inviting all the 
friends of liberty to attend the obsequies of "the little hero and first 
martyr to the noble cause." 

The funeral ceremonies were on Monda\', Feb. 26, from his father's 
house in Boylston street. From four hundred to five hundred school 
boys preceded the corpse, and six of his playmates supported the pall. 
Following the relations were twelve or thirteen hundred citizens on 
foot, and thirty chariots and other carriages. 

The Boston Gazette, which came out March 5, contained a particular 
account of the affair, and details of several quarrels which had taken 
place between the soldiers and citizens. Apprehensive of further 
trouble, the officers took pains to have all the soldiers in their barracks 
before night set in. The Fourteenth regiment was quartered in Brattle 
street, and the Twenty-ninth in Water street. A sentinel was placed 
in an alley fronting the Brattle-street barrack. About eight o'clock in 
the evening three or four young men attempted to pass through the 
alley, where the sentinel was brandishing his sword and striking fire 
with it on the brick walls and stone window-sills. They were chal- 
lenged, but insisted on passing ; and in the melee one of them was 
slightly wounded in the head. The noise drew some fifteen or twenty 
persons to the spot, and thirty or forty others collected in Dock square, 
and attempted to make a rush up Brattle street to the barracks. The 
street was then very narrow, and the attempt failed. A crowd by this 
time had gathered in Dock square. The main guard was stationed at 
the front south door of the Town-house ; the officer of the day was 
Capt. Thomas Preston, with Lieut. Basset as second in command. A 
sentinel was stationed in front of the Custom-house, which stood on 
the spot now occupied by the Merchants' Bank building. Seeing a 
crowd approaching, he retreated up the steps and gave some loud 
knocks on the door to alarm the inmates. Lieut. Basset received word 
that the sentinel was attacked, and he instantly ordered a sergeant and 

War of the Revolution. 253 

six men to go to the assistance of the sentry, and sent a message to his 
captain. Capt. Preston quickly reached the guard-house, and learning 
the state of affairs, said, " I will follow and see that they do no mis- 
chief." He overtook the squad before it reached the Custom-house, 
and formed the men on a half circle around the steps. 

By this time the bells were ringing, and people were flocking in from 
all quarters. A crowd, some of whom were armed with clubs and such 
extemporized weapons (but no fire-arms), pressed close upon the sol- 
diers. Billets of wood, snow-balls, and pieces of ice were thrown at 
them, and they were dared to fire. At this moment the soldiers heard, 
or thought they heard, an order to fire ! One or two of their guns 
flashed in the pan ; the others were all effective. Crispus Attucks, 
Samuel Gray and James Caldwell were killed on the spot ; Samuel 
Maverick died the next morning, and Peter Carr on the following 

All this transpired in the course of twenty minutes from the time 
when Capt. Preston joined the guard. The populace instantly scat- 
tered, leaving the dead and wounded where they fell. 

But the populace did not go home. The town drums beat. The 
cry " To arms ! to arms ! " rang through the town. Some four or five 
thousand people gathered in the next street, organized a citizen's 
guard, and sent a squad of daring spirits to bring off the dead and 

A justice's court was immediately held; at three o'clock in the morn- 
ing Capt. Preston was committed to prison; and early in the forenoon 
the eight soldiers who had fired on the crowd were sent to join him. 
At eleven o'clock a town meeting was held in Faneuil Hall. Rev. Mr. 
Cooper opened the meeting with prayer. After hearing the statements 
of those who witnessed the affair of the previous evening, a committee 
of fifteen was appointed to wait upon the Governor and Col. Dalrymple, 
"to express to them the sentiments of the town, that it was impossible 
for the citizens and soldiers to live in safety together, and the fervent 
prayer for the immediate removal of the troops." .After some hesita- 
tion, the Governor consented to remove the Twenty-ninth regiment, 
which had taken no part in the massacre, to the Castle, but decided to 
retain the rest in the town. Faneuil Hall proving insufficient to con- 
tain the multitude which had assembled, the meeting adjourned to the 
Old South church. The committee that had waited upon Governor 
Hutchinson came in with a report of their interview, and pronounced 
the Governor's answer unsatisfactory. 

A new committee of seven, viz., John Hancock, Samuel Adams, 
William Mollineux, William Phipps, Joseph Warren, Joshua Henshaw 
and Samuel Pemberton, were deputed to carry to the Governor a final 

2 54 History of Framhigha^n. 

answer. Mr. Adams acted as chairman. " It is the unanimous 
opinion of the meeting," said Mr. Adams to the Governor, " that your 
reply to the vote of the inhabitants in the morning is unsatisfactory; 
nothing less will satisfy them than a total and immediate removal of 
all the troops." Col. Dalrymple was at the side of Governor 
Hutchinson, at the head of the Council. Hutchinson hesitated, and 
repeated his former statement that he had not the power to remove 
them. But Mr, Adams showed him that the charter gave him that 
authority ; and then stretching forth his arm, and raising himself to his 
full height, he added: "If the Lieut. Governor or Col. Dalrymple, or both 
together, have authority to remove one regiment, they have authority to 
remo-ue two. It is at your peril, if you do not. The meeting that sent 
us is composed of 3,000 people. They are become impatient. A 
thousand men are already arrived from the neighboring towns, and the 
country is in general motion. Nighf is approaching; an immediate 
answer is expected." 

Hutchinson consulted with the Council, who advised him to remove 
the troops from town ; and Col. Dalrymple pledged his word of honor 
that the request of the town should be complied with as soon as 

On the return of the committee with the report of their last inter- 
view, the meeting dispersed ; but not until they had provided for a 
strong military watch of their own to be on duty till the regiments 
should leave the town, whose peace they had disturbed. 

"Three days after the event of the 5th, the funeral of the martyrs 
took place. The shops were all closed, and the bells in Boston and in 
the neighboring towns were rung. It is said a greater number of 
persons assembled on this occasion than were ever gathered on the 
continent for a similar purpose. 

" The bodies of Attucks and Caldwell, who had no homes in the town, 
were placed in Faneuil Hall. Maverick was buried from his brother's 
house in Union street, and Gray from his brother's in Royal Exchange, 
now Exchange street. The four hearses formed a junction in King 
street, and from thence the procession marched in columns six deep, 
with a long file of coaches belonging to the most distinguished citizens, 
to the Granary burying-ground, where the four coffins were deposited 
in one grave. Patrick Carr, who from his name has been supposed to 
have been an Irishman, or the son of Irish parents, died of his wounds 
on the 14th, and was buried on the 17th in the same grave with his 
murdered associates." 

Crispus Attucks, who is admitted to have been the leader of the 
party, was a mulatto, born near the Framingham town line, a short 
distance to the eastward of the State Arsenal. The old cellar-hole 

War of tJic Revolution. 255 

where the Attucks family lived is still visible. He was' probably a 
descendant of John Auttuck, an Indian, who was taken prisoner and 
executed at the same time with Capt. Tom, in June, 1676. [See ante, 
p. 61.] Probably the family had intermarried with negroes who were 
slaves, and as the offspring of such marriages were held to be slaves, 
he inherited their condition, although it seems likely that the blood of 
three races coursed through his veins. He had been bought by Dea. ' 
William Brown of Framingham, as early as 1747. But he thus early 
acquired some ideas of the value of manhood and liberty, as appears 
from the following advertisement in the Boston Gazette of October 2, 

Ran away from his Master, William Brown of Framingham, on the 30th 
of September last, a mulatto Fellow, about twenty-seven years of age, named 
Crispus, 6 feet 2 inches high, short [curled hair, his knees nearer together 
than common, and had on a light coloured Beaver-skin coat, plain brown 
fustian jacket, or brown all-wool one, new buck-skin Breeches, blue yarn 
stockings, and a checked woolen shirt. Whoever will take up said Runaway 
and convey him to his aforesaid Master, shall have ten pounds old tenor 
Reward, and all necessary charges paid. And all Masters of vessels and 
others are hereby cautioned against concealing or carrving cff said Servant, 
on penalty of the law. 

A descendant of Dea. Brown says of him : " Crispus was well 
informed, and, except in the instance referred to in the advertisement, 
was faithful to his master. He was a good judge of cattle, and was 
allowed to buy and sell upon his own judgment of 'their value." He 
was fond of a seafaring life, and probably with consent of his master, 
was accustomed to take coasting voyages. The account of the time 
says, " he lately belonged to New Providence, and was here in order 
to go to North Carolina." 

He was of huge bodily proportions, and brave almost to reckless- 
ness. John Adams, who defended Capt. Preston at his trial, says : 
" Attucks was seen about eight minutes before the firing at the head 
of twenty or thirty sailors in Cornhill, and had in his hand a large 

cord-wood stick He was a stout fellow, whose very looks were 

enough to terrify anjf person When he came down upon the 

soldiers by the sentry-box, they pushed him off ; but he cried out, 
'Don't be afraid of them! They dare not fire! Kill them! kill 
them ! Knock them over !'" At the firing he was killed instantly, two 
balls entering his breast. He was about forty-seven years old. 

Capt. Preston was tried in October, and the eight soldiers Dec. 8. 
The defence was conducted by John Adams" and Josiah Quincy, Jr. 
The captain and six of the soldiers were acquitted, and two, viz., 

256 History of Framing/tarn. 

Matthew Kilroy and Hugh Montgomery, were brought in guilty of 
manslaughter, branded, and sent to Castle Island. 

To enable the reader to get an idea of the men who were prominent 
in town affairs at this date, the following list of town officers for 1770, 
and the officers in command of the local militia for 1771, are here given : 
" At a meeting of the inhabitants of Framingham on the 5th of March 
1770, the following officers were chosen : Joseph Buckminster, Josiah 
Stone, Thomas Temple, Ebenezer Hemenway, and Matthias Bent, 
selectmen ; Josiah Stone, town clerk and treasurer, and clerk of the 
market; Peter Parker, Gideon Haven, and Thomas Stone, constables 
and collectors; Elijah Kendall, Nathan Carter, Joseph Nichols, and 
David Patterson, wardens; Nathaniel Bigelow, John Parker, Isaac 
Fiske, James Clayes, Jonathan Edmunds, Ebenezer Marshall, Capt. 
Josiah Drury, Lieut. Samuel Gleason, and Maj. John Farrar, overseers 
of the work-house and of the poor; Jonathan Hill, Abner Stone, 
Simon Edgell, Hananiah Temple, Ezekiel Rice Jr., Squire Haven, 
Benoni Pratt, and Dea. Jonathan Morse, surveyors of highways ; John 
Clayes Jr., Abner Bixbee, Simon Tozer, and William Mellen, tything 
men; Dea. Daniel Stone, and Azariah Walker, fence-viewers ; Dea. 
Jonathan Morse, and Benjamin Eaton, sealers of leather; Aaron 
Brown, Lawson Buckminster, Thomas Trowbridge, Peter Dudley, 
Samuel Gleason Jr., and David Patterson, hog-reeves ; Joseph Winch, 
and Elijah Clayes, deer-reeves. Maj. John Farrar and Thomas Temple 
were chosen a committee to procure a Grammar school master, and 
William Mellen to procure a Writing master ; and Capt. Amos Gates; 
Dr. Ebenezer Hemenway, Simon Edgell, Thomas Drury and Jesse 
Haven to provide school dames. Jesse Fames, Jesse Haven, Daniel 
Stone Jr., Jonathan Rugg and John Trowbridge were chosen a commit- 
tee to take care of the school-houses. Voted, that the meeting-house 
shall be new seated, and that Col. Buckminster, Josiah Stone and Dr. 
Ebenezer Hemenway be a committee for that purpose; and that in 
doing the same they shall degrade no man ; that they shall consider 
what estate each man paid for in the years 1768 and 1769, and also 
allow four pence per year for age after forty years old. 

"Granted for the support of Grammar and writing schools £2,0 
Granted for repair of school houses . . . . 20 

Granted for the support of the poor .... 20 

Granted for repairs of highways . . . . . 25 

Granted to pay town's creditors . . . . .114 

Total ;^209" 

Officers of the troop in Framingham, 1771 : Benjamin Pepper, 
captain ; John Trowbridge, lieutenant ; John Bent, cornet ; William 
Boden, quartermaster. 

War of the Revolution. 257 

First company of militia: Captain Daniel Stone, Lieut. Micah 
Stone, Ens. Jeremiah Belknap. 

Second company of militia : Capt. Joseph Eames, Lieut. Daniel 
Haven, Ens. Thomas Drury. 

Officers in command of the Third regiment of Middlesex County 
militia: Col. John Noyes, Lieut. Col. John Jones, Jr., Maj. John 
Farrar, Adjt. Thomas Damon. 

1772. The inhabitants of the town of Boston chose twenty-one of 
their respectable citizens, as a committee to correspond with their 
brethren in all parts of the Province. This Committee of Correspond- 
ence proved the basis of the subsequent union of the Colonies. The 
committee was appointed on the motion of Samuel Adams, at a town 
meeting held November second, "to state the rights of the colonists 
and of this Province in particular, as Men, as Christians, and as 
Subjects ; to communicate and publish the same to the several towns 
in this Province and to the World, as the sense of this town, with the 
infringements and violations thereof that have been, or from time to 
time may be made ; also requesting of each town a free communica- 
tion of their sentiments on this subject." The Letter of Correspond- 
ence, sent by the committee to the towns, closes thus: "Let us 
consider, brethren, we are struggling for our best birth-rights and 
inheritance, which being infringed renders all our blessings precarious 
in their enjoyment, and consequently trifling in their value. Let us 
disappoint the men, who are raising themselves on the ruin of their 
country. Let us convince every invader of our freedom, that we will 
be as free, as the Constitution which our Fathers recognized, will 

1773. The Letter above referred to was sent out in December, 
1772. And on its receipt by the selectmen of Framingham, a town 
meeting was called, " To see if the town will take into consideration 
the request of the Boston Committee, and a petition sent to the 
selectmen, signed by Joseph Nichols and others, concerning charter 
rights and privileges, and to act thereon as the town shall see meet." 
The article was referred to Dea. William Brown, Maj. John Farrar, 
Joseph Buckminster, Dr. Ebenezer Hemenway, Joseph Nichols, Josiah 
Stone and Ebenezer Marshall, a committee to take the matter into 
consideration, and report at an adjournment of the meeting. 

The report is as follows : 

" That, whereas late Parliamentary measures have been exercised 
towards this Province, in a manner so irreconcilable with what we 
have till within these few years past felt, it seems really necessary that 
not only the Legislative but Constituent part of the Province stand 
forth in defence of their Liberties. 


258 History of_ Framiugham. 

" That our forefathers left their native country, and came over into 
this then vast howUng wilderness, wading through such troubles and 
difficulties as could onl}'^ be felt, never properly exprest, — with just 
expectation that not only themselves but their posterity should enjoy 
their privileges both religious and civil, we think none will deny. 

" That a Charter has been given to this Province, whereby we are 
entitled to all the Privileges of natural free born sons of England, none 
will dispute. 

"That life, liberty and property, with the whole right of disposal, is 
in our said Charter, we think equally plain. 

"Then if we are 'children,' both Sacred History and our Constitu- 
tion make us 'free.' For the only barrier between freemen and slaves 
is a whole right of disposal of property. From whence it appears, that 
so far as any people are deprived of this privilege, just so far they are 
entered into a state of Slavery. 

" That we have the Honor and Faith of a British Protestant crowned 
head to defend these privileges, is equally true. That whoever cuts 
the cords that cement the Colonies to the British crown, is inimical to 
both, is a fact, that does not admit of dispute. That, as a Province, 
we have forfeited our privileges, none even pretend ; that they are 
invaded, none with justice can deny; since the Parliament assume 
the power of legislation for the Colonies without their consent, and 
exert that power in raising a revenue and applying it to purposes 
repugnant to our privileges as a free people, by making our principal 
officers at the head of our Legislative and executive affairs so depend- 
ent on the Crown that the usual balance of government is in danger of 
being entirely destroyed. 

" And further, to demonstrate that we are invaded, we need only to 
look into a late Act of Parliament entitled, An Act for the better 
preserving his Majesty's Dock-yards, etc. And that the Colonies are 
included in this Act, witness the orders to the late Honourable Com- 
mittee sent to Rhode Island. Now if our inhabitants may be seized, 
and not only denied their privilege of being judged by their own peers, 
in the vicinity where they belong ; but on a suspicion of their being 
guilty of a breach of said Act, may be carried to England, & there be 
tried for life, guilty or not ; we had need be possessed of Estates much 
greater than generally are found in America, not to be reduced to 
perfect Beggary & Ruin. And why, but to prosecute these Ministerial 
Measures, are fleets and armies sent and kept among us in time of 
IDrofound Peace ? 

"And whether these INIeasures are not oppressive, let the English 
Annals determine ; if they be, he that runs may read the natural 

War of the Rezwhition. 259 

" From all which, it appears our absolute Duty to defend, in every 
Constitutional way, our dear Privileges, purchased with so much blood 
& treasure. Let us prudently endeavour to preserve our character as 
Freemen, and not lose that of Good & Loyal Subjects : Let us jointly 
labour after (and Heaven grant we may obtain) that magnanimity of 
soul, by which we maybe enabled to resent Injuries, and let the world 
know that we are not governed by Feud & Faction. 

" Per order of the committee, 

"Wm. Brown." 

" The foregoing Report, being several times distinctly read, the 
question was put, whether the same shall be accepted, and it passed 
in the affirmative, fiemine contradicente. 

" Voted, That the said Report be recorded in the Town Book, and 
an attested copy thereof be transmitted to the Committee of Corres- 
pondence at Boston." 

December 16 of this year is memorable for the destruction of Tea 
in Boston harbor. Col. Joseph P. Palmer, afterwards a resident of 
this town, was one of this famous "Tea party." 

1774. Framingham was prompt to espouse the cause of Boston at 
this juncture. 

At a meeting of the selectmen, January 10, 1774, a warrant was 
issued as follows: "To Isaac Gibbs, Constable — You are required 
forthwith, to notify and warn the freeholders and other inhabitants of 
Framingham, qualified by law to vote in town affairs, by posting up 
notifications at Col. Buckminster's, John Trowbridge's, -and Ebenezer 
Marshall's Tavern Houses, and at Stone's Mills, That they meet 
at the Public meeting-house in said town, on Tuesday the 25th day 
of this instant, at eleven o'clock in the morning, then and there to 
vote and determine on the following article, viz. Whereas of late 
years, great disputes have been between the Mother Country and the 
Colonies, with regard to the dutys laid on Teas, payable in America, 
by force of an Act of Parliament, for the purpose of raising a Revenue 
in the Colonies ; and said controversy seems now to be come to a 
crisis ; Therefore, To see if the town will come into any Determina- 
tions relating to these matters, whereby to contribute their mite, with 
other towns in the Province ; That if possible an End may be put to 
the Disputes aforesaid; And vote and act on these important Matters, 
as the town shall judge proper. 

"JosiAH Stone, ] 

Matthias Bent, i Selectmen 
Wm. Brown, J- of 

James Claves, I Framingham." 

John Trowbridge, 

2 6o History of Framiiigha7it. 

" At the meeting Jan. 25, Josiah Stone was chosen moderator. 

"The town took into their deliberate consideration, the subject matter 
contained in the warrant. A Letter from the Town Clerk of Boston, was 
read, with the papers accompanying it. The principles and guaran- 
tees of Magna Charta, of the Charter of this Province, and the sev- 
eral Acts of Parliament, were considered ; and after several hours' 
debate had on the Premises, The Town unanimously came into the 
following Determinations, viz. — 

"Life and Property are so nearly connected, that the former with- 
out the latter is but an empty sound. It is for the preservation of 
these, that we choose to be in a political state, under such rules and 
regulations, which, if justly attended to, will preserve the State in 
peace and Good Order. For this very reason are men placed in and 
vested with Authority. So happy is our constitution, that the ruler 
and the ruled, when acting in their appropriate spheres, are under 
this glorious directory, viz. the advantage of the whole. 

"Nor is it in the rightful Power of any in Authority, in what 
capacity soever, to take from the people their estates of whatever 
nature, without their voluntary consent. Witness the Statute of 
Edward the First : ''No tallage or aid shall be taken or levied by us or our 
Heirs in our Realm, without the good will and assent of archbishops 

Burgesses, and other Freemen of the land. ^ Our Charter grants 

and confirms the same Privilege. Therefore whoever presumes to 
violate this Privilege, exposes himself to the penalties specified in the 
Statute above named. 

" It is upon the Honour of our Sovereign ; the Permanency of Magna 
Charta, and the Charter of this Province, that we build our political 
Faith; and we trust it will not prove a sandy foundation. Whoever 
endeavours to undermine this Faith, or will not earnestly defend it, 
gives up the name of free born Englishmen, for that of slaves. And 
however others may think of these things ; from the considerations 
now brought forward, we find ourselves driven to the necessity of 
defending our Privileges as we would our Lives. 

" And since by a late Act of Parliament, the East India Company 
are encouraged to send their Teas into America, subject to a Duty, 
and consigned to designated parties, not only is the right to levy 
tallage asserted, but the sinews of our mercantile Interest are cut. No 
advantage accrues, but what redounds to Particular Individuals, and 
not to the Body Politick. 

" We therefore Resolve, That we ourselves, and any for or under us, 
will not buy any Teas subject to a Duty : Nor knowingly trade with 
any merchant or Country Trader that deals in that detestable 

War of the Rcvohition. 261 

" And since such means and methods are used to Destroy our 
Privileges, which were purchased by the best blood of our Ancestors — 
Those that stand foremost in a proper defence of our Privileges, shall 
have our greatest Regards : And if any shall be so regardless of our 
Political Preservation and that of Posterity, as to endeavour to coun- 
teract our Determinations, We will treat them in that manner their 
conduct Deserves." 

The destruction of the Tea, Dec. 16, filled up the measure of colonial 
iniquity, in the estimation of the Ministry ; and the mighty power of a 
mighty nation was to be concentrated upon the town of Boston. 

Lord North, in introducing the " Boston Port Bill '" into Parliament, 
gives Massachusetts the pre-eminence in disloyalty, by saying, " Boston 
had ever been the ringleader in all riots, and had at all times shown a 
desire of seeing the laws of Great Britain attempted in vain in the 
Colony of Massachusetts Bay. That the act of the mob in destroying 
the Tea, and the other proceedings, belonged to the acts of the public 
meeting ; and that though the other colonies were peaceable and well 
inclined towards the trade of this country, and the Tea would have been 
landed at New York without opposition ; yet when the news came 
from Boston that the Tea was destroyed. Governor Tryon thought it 
would be prudent to send the Tea back to England. Boston alone was 
to blame for having set the example ; therefore, Boston ought to be 
the principal object of our attention for punishment." 

The Boston Port Bill received the royal assent March 31. fjy its 
provisions, the port of Boston (which included Charlestown) was pre- 
cluded from the privilege of landing or discharging, or of loading and 
shipping goods, wares and merchandise. 

A second bill, which was passed at this time, essentially altered the 
Charter of the Province, making the appointment of the Council, 
justices, judges, sheriffs, etc., dependent upon the Crown, or its agent, 
and removable at his pleasure. It also provided that no town meet- 
ings, except the annual meetings for the choice of town officers in 
March or May, should be holden without the consent of the Governor. 

A third bill immediately followed, authorizing and directing the 
Governor to send any person indicted for murder, or any other capital 
offence, to another colony, or to Great Britain for trial. 

These acts not only destroyed the trade of Boston, bringing bank- 
ruptcy upon men of business, and great suffering upon the laboring 
poor, but they virtually destroyed* the impartial administration of 
justice, and practically annulled that great prerogative of the citizen, 
t7-ial by jury. 

On the 13th of May the people of Boston met in Faneuil Hall, chose 
Samuel Adams moderator, and adopted a vote, inviting all the other 

262 History of Frmningham. 

Colonies "to come into a joint resolution to stop all importations from 
Great Britain and the West Indies, till the Act for blocking up the 
harbor of Boston be repealed." 

One of the remarkable features of that time of the marshaling of the 
forces of oppression on the one hand, and the forces of resistance on 
the other, was the almost simultaneous beating of the heart of the 
people of the whole Commonwealth, which led to the adoption of 
measures in the smaller towns, in a sense anticipatory of the British 
acts of coercion. How else can we explain the action of Framingham 
at a town meeting, held as early as March 14 of this year, at which it 
was " voted, that it shall be at the discretion of the Selectmen, on sud- 
den emergencies, where necessity requireth, to warn meetings without 
fourteen days' posting, and the same shall be due warning notwith- 

And it was at this juncture that the far-sightedness of the policy of 
Samuel Adams, adopted in 1772, for the appointment of a central 
Committee of Correspondence, to be in ready communication with like 
committees in all the Colonies, and in all the towns of this Province, 
was made apparent. These local committees were composed of trusted 
men ; and by themselves, or in co-operation, constituted a sort of head 
of authority to which the public looked for advice and protection. This 
town had not formally appointed such a committee, though virtually 
the committees chosen when occasion required a special expression of 
opinion, had that character. But May 30, in town meeting, " On a 
motion made and seconded by several persons, voted to choose a 
Committee of Correspotidence, whose business it shall be to correspond 
with our sister towns on any matters of importance, at this Day 
of Publick Distress : and chose Joseph Haven Esq. Capt. Josiah 
Stone, Dea. Wm Brown, Ebenezer Marshall, Lieut. David Haven, 
Joseph Buckminster Esq. and Maj. John Farrar. 

" Then the meeting was adjourned to such day as the selectmen 
shall hereafter judge expedient that the town shall come together, when 
they shall give notice of said meeting by posting the same in writing 
at the meeting-house." 

"June 13, 1774. To the inhabitants of the town of Framingham — 
Gentlemen : Whereas your meeting stands adjourned to meet when 
the Selectmen shall give notice thereof ; and as we have received a 
Letter from the Committee of Correspondence at Boston, containing 
(as we apprehend) Matter of great importance to the Public; These 
are to notify and desire all the inhabitants that are of the age of 21 
years, to meet at the publick meeting-house, on Monday the 27th 
instant, at 2 o'clock afternoon, To hear, consider, and act on any 
Matters or Measures that they judge proper, relating to the present 
Distrest and alarming Circumstances of our publick affairs." 

War of the RevolMtion. 263 

"June 27, 1774. The town met, on the notice aforesaid; the 
fullest and most general ever known in this town on any civil occasion ; 
when the meeting was opened by solemn prayer for Divine direction. 
And after reading some Letters and other Papers, the Committee of 
Correspondence presented the following Covenant^ and the same was 
read distinctly several times, and considered, and very largely debated 
several hours ; After which the question was put, whether the town 
do accept said Covenant as it now stands, and it passed in the 
affirmative almost Unanimously.'' 

Unfortunately this covenant is not preserved on our records; but 
as it was adopted at the suggestion of the Boston committee, it was 
probably in substance the " Solemn League and Covenant," drawn up 
by said committee, and forwarded to the towns for general signature. 
All who signed the Covenant bound themselves from henceforth not to 
buy or use any goods of British manufacture, until their charter rights 
should be restored. And to insure the carrying out of the plan, they 
provided for a Committee of Inspection, who should have power to 
inquire into the transactions of traders, so far as to find out who was 
exposing for sale teas, or other newly imported goods, contrary to 
said Covenant, and post their names in public. 

That this was one term of the Covenant adopted, and that it was 
interpreted by some to give authority to any individual to make 
domiciliary visits at his option, is evident from the following vote 
passed at a town meeting, Sept. 9: '''■Voted that no person or persons 
shall attempt to pay any visit to any particular person, for any sup- 
posed misconduct of a public nature, but by the advice and direction 
of the Committee of Correspondence, or the major part of them."' 

This Agreement was generally signed by the people in all our 
towns, and became an important factor in the union of /'Jfort, which 
gave promise of ultimate success. 

To Middlesex county belongs the honor of holding the first 
delegate convention, which adopted measures looking to organized 
opposition to the schemes of the British ministry. This Convention 
met at Concord, Aug. 30. Framingham was represented by two 
delegates, viz., Capt. Josiah Stone and Dea. VVm. Brown. Every town 
in the county sent delegates, one hundred and fifty in all. A 
committee of nine was appointed (of which both the delegates from 
this town were members), to consider the late Acts of Parliament, and 
report thereon to the convention. This committee drew up and 
brought before the body a preamble and nineteen resolutions, which, 
for comprehensive grasp of principle, and boldness of statement, and 
calm determination to uphold their threatened liberties, had not been 
then, and were not afterwards, excelled. The preamble recites : 

264 Histojy of Frainiugham, 

It is evident to every attentive mind, that this Province is in a very 
dangerous and alarming situation. We are obliged to say, however painful 
it may lie to us, that the question now is, virhether, by a submission to some 
late Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain, we are contented to be the 
most abject slaves, and entail that slavery on posterity after us, or by a 
manly, joint, and virtuous opposition, assert and support our freedom. 
There is a mode of conduct, which in our very critical circumstances we 
would wisli to adopt ; a conduct, on the one hand, never tamely submissive 
to tyranny and oppression, on the other, never degenerating into rage, 
passion and confusion. This is a spirit which we revere, as we find it 
exhibited in former ages, and will command applause to the latest posterity. 

The late Acts of Parliament pervade the whole system of jurisprudence, 
by which means, we think, the fountains of justice are fatally corrupted. 
Our defence must therefore, be immediate in proportion to the suddenness 
of the attack, and vigorous in proportion to the danger. 

We must now exert ourselves, or all those efforts whicli, for ten years 
past, have brightened the annals of this country, will be totally frustrated. 
Life and death, or, what is more, freedom and slavery, are in a peculiar 
sense now before us ; and the choice and success, under God, depend 
greatly upon ourselves. 

The resolves are in the same spirit. And the report was adopted 
by a vote of one hundred and forty-six yeas, to four nays. 

Before adjourning, the Convention recommended the assembling of 
a Provincial Congress at Concord, on the second Tuesday in October. 

On the return home of our delegates with a report of the action of 
the Convention, a town meeting was called, which met Sept. 9, notice 
by the Selectmen being previously given. " i. The Resolves, passed 
by the Concord Convention, were several times distinctly read, and 
maturely debated ; when the question was put, whether the town 
accepts said Resolves, and it passed in the affirmative iiem con." 

At this meeting the town also "Voted 2, that the Committee of Cor- 
respondence attend the Court at Concord, on Tuesday next, and in 
behalf of the town, desire said Court not to sit or act on any cause 
whatever at this term. 

"^/^rt' 3, that Capt. Josiah Stone, Joseph Haven Esq., and Dea. 
Wm Brown be, and they are hereby appointed delegates from this 
town, to appear and act on our behalf, at a Provincial Congress to 
meet in Concord, on the second Tuesday of October next, To consider 
and determine on such measures as the said Congress shall judge 
conducive to the public peace and tranquility. 

" Voted 4, that the selectmen are hereby directed to procure and 
purchase at the town's expense, five barrels of powder, and four or 
five hundred weight of bullets or lead, for an addition to the town's 

War of the Revohition. 265 

Nine days before this, /. <?., on the first of September, Governor Gage 
had issued writs, convening the General Court at Salem on the fifth of 

In pursuance of this order, a town meeting was held in Framingham, 
Sept. 30, at which Capt. Josiah Stone was elected representative. A 
committee was appointed to draft instructions to the representative 
elect. This committee drew up the following instructions, which 
were adopted by vote of the town : 

" To Capt. Josiah Stone. 

" Sir : As we have chosen you to represent us in a Great and 
General Court to be holden at Salem on Wednesday the 5th day of 
October next ensuing, we do hereby instruct you, that in all your 
doings as a member of the House of Representatives, you adhere 
firmly to the Charter of this Province granted by their majestys King 
William and Queen Mary; and that you do not act nor consent to any 
act that can possibly be construed into an acknowledgement of the 
validity of the Act of the British Parliament for altering the govern- 
ment of the Massachusetts Bay : More especially that you acknowledge 
the honourable Board of Councillors elected last May by the General 
Court as the only rightful and constitutional Council of this Province. 

" Joseph Haven \ 
Benj. Edwards >- Committee. 
Joseph Nichols ) 

"Framingham Sept. 30, 1774." 

"At the same meeting it was ''^ Voted, That there be a chest of 25 
Fire Arms purchased at the expense of the town for the town's use ; 
and Joseph Winch and Daniel Sanger were chosen a committee for 
that purpose." " /^/^^f' also, to purchase two Field Pieces of such size 
as the selectmen and the committee shall judge proper; and James 
Glover and Capt. Benj. Edwards were chosen a committee to purchase 
the cannon. Granted for the purchases aforesaid the sum of ;^56. 

" On a motion made, relative to the Militia officers, and a large 
debate had thereon, voted, that this meeting be adjourned to Monday 
next, 12 o'clk M ; and that every person above the age of 16 years be 
desired to attend, and consider and determine with regard to the 
Militia, as the whole body shall judge proper." 

"On Monday, October 3, the town met according to adjournment: 
A very full meeting. Voted, that there be two militia companies, 
besides the Troop, in this town ; and that each company choose such 
officers as they judge best to have command at this day of distress in 
our public affairs. 

" Voted, that the laws of this Province, relative to the Militia, be the 
rule of duty both for such officers and for the soldiers when the 
companies are thus settled." 

,266 History of Framingham. 

On learning that the towns were giving instructions to their repre- 
sentatives elect, like those given in Framingham ; and especially on 
receiving information of the action of the several county conventions, 
some of which denounce all persons who attempt to carry out the late 
Acts of Parliament as "unnatural and malignant enemies," and one of 
which recommended that " the representatives elect refuse to be sworn, 
except by an ofificer appointed according to the charter of the 
Province," Gov. Gage issued his proclamation, Sept. 28, adjourning 
without day the General Court, which he had summoned to meet at 
Salem October the fifth. The reasons he assigned for this arbitrary 
and suspicious course were, that many tumults and disorders had 
taken place since he called the meeting; and that "the extraordinary 
Resolves which had been passed in many counties, and the instruc- 
tions given by the town of Boston, and some of the other towns, to 
their representatives; " these and other things rendered it "highly 
inexpedient that a Great and General Court should be convened," at 
the time specified. 

But the proclamation came too late to prevent the meeting. Many 
of the representatives from the distant towns were already on their 
way to Salem. And there was time, between Sept. 28, and Oct. 5, 
for the earnest patriots of Boston and the eastern counties to mature 
a plan of action. The Committee of Correspondence privately issued 
their call; and as a result, on the day appointed, nearly one hundred 
members elect met at Salem. After waiting one day, to see if any 
public officer would appear to administer the oath of office, or other- 
wise direct them, these representatives resolved themselves into a 
Provincial Congress, and made a temporary organization by choosing 
John Hancock chairman, and Benj. Lincoln clerk. The same day, 
Oct. 6, the body adjourned to meet at the court house in Concord, 
Oct. II. This was the day already designated for the meeting of a 
Provincial Congress at the same place, and to which delegates had 
been chosen. On this day, 288 delegates appeared, seventy-nine 
of whom were from Middlesex county. The names of the three 
delegates from this town have been given. The Congress organized 
by choosing John Hancock president, and Benj. Lincoln secretary. 
The court house proving too small for their accommodation, the 
meetings were held in the meeting-house, and the pastor, Rev. Wm. 
Emerson, acted as chaplain. 

After a session of three days at Concord, the Congress adjourned 
to Cambridge, where their sittings were continued from Oct. 17, 
eleven days. 

This Congress, which was composed of delegates duly elected by 
the people of the towns, virtually took upon itself the power to frame 
a government for the people. It proceeded to mature plans for 

War of the Rcvohition. 267 

putting the Province of Massachusetts in a state of preparation and 

Measures were taken for organizing, arming, and calling out the 
militia, in case of emergency. The plan provided that all able-bodied 
men should be enrolled, and that these should assemble immediately, 
and elect their proper officers ; that these company officers should 
assemble as soon as may be, and elect field officers. 

A Committee of Safety, consisting of nine persons, was appointed, 
with power to call into active service the whole militia of the Province, 
whenever they should deem it necessary. 

A Committee of Supplies, consisting of five persons, was appointed, 
with authority to purchase cannon, mortars, muskets, and ordnance 
stores, and to provide for the subsistence of such troops as the 
Committee of Safety might call into the field. Three general officers 
were appointed, viz., Jedediah Preble of Falmouth, Me., Artemas 
Ward, a delegate from Shrewsbury, and Seth Pomeroy, a delegate 
from Northampton, Subsequently two others were added, viz., John 
Thomas, a delegate from Marshfield, and William Heath, a delegate 
from Roxbury. 

And to meet such an emergency as the creation of the Committee 
of Safety contemplated, the field officers of regiments were authorized 
to enlist from their commands, companies of fifty men each, to be 
fully armed and equipped, which should be held in readiness to march 
at " the shortest notice" from the Committee. 

The Congress then proceeded to elect Henry Gardner, Esq. of 
Stow, as Ti-easurer and Receiver General, in place of Harrison Gray of 
Boston, and directed that all taxes which had been granted, and all 
moneys in the hands of collectors, should be paid over to the new 
Treasurer, instead of being paid into the royal treasury. 

The delegates from this town were active and influential members 
of the Congress; and the town promptly indorsed the proposed 

" At a meeting of the town of Framingham on the 8th of November 
1774, duly warned. It was voted, To accept the Resolve of the Pro- 
vincial Congress, passed the 26th of October last, relative to the 

''Then the Resolve relative' to the Public Moneys was several times 
read, and fully considered ; and it was voted, That the several col- 
lectors in this town that have, or may have any Public Moneys either 
in their hands or to collect, belonging to the Province, in consequence 
of any grant or tax heretofore ordered by the Great and General 
Court ; all and every such collector is hereby ordered and directed, 
as soon as possible, to pay the same in unto Henry Gardner Esq. of 
Stow. And this town do hereby engage to the collectors aforesaid 

268 History of Franiingham. 

and each of them severally, That on their producing a receipt under 
the hand of the said Henry Gardner, such receipt shall save him or 
them harmless from the Province, for the sum named therein. And 
further, this town do hereby engage to aid and assist said collectors in 
gathering, and also to defend them in paying said Moneys, according 
to the intent and meaning of the Provincial Congress Resolve above 

About this date, a considerable number of our leading men pro- 
ceeded to organize an artillery company in town, which should take 
charge of the two field-pieces, ordered to be purchased. The requisite 
number enlisted, and the proper ofBcers were elected, and the 
company went into practice. There is no record to show that the 
field-pieces were actually bought and delivered to the selectmen. 

Minute Men. — As already stated, the Provincial Congress, at its 
session, Oct. 26, provided for the enlistment and equipment of 
companies, which should hold themselves in readiness to march at a 
minute's warning. 

Under the authority thus conferred, Framingham proceeded to 
enlist two companies of Minute Men. 

Fortunately the papers showing the method of organizing these 
companies are preserved, and are herewith copied : 

We the subscribers, from a sense of our duty, to preserve our Liberties 
and Privileges; And in compliance with the Resolves of the Provincial 
Congress, together with the desire of our superior officers, voluntarily enlist 
ourselves Minute-men, and promise to hold ourselves in readiness to march 
at the shortest notice, if requested by the officers we shall hereafter elect. 

This paper was signed by Simon Edgell, Thomas Drury, Samuel 
Abbot, James Clayes, Jr., John Fisk, Moses Learned, Matthias Bent, 
Jr., John Eaton, Lawson Buckminster, Frederick Manson, and others, 
to the number of sixty-eight. 

This company organized Dec. 2, as appears from the following 
certificate : 

These may certify that in Framingham, on the second of December, 1774, 
a number of men enlisted as Minute Men, and was formed into a companye; 
then made choice of Mr. Simon Edgell captain, Thomas Drury first lieu- 
tenant, Lawson Buckminster second lieutenant, officers for said companye 
according to the directions of the late Provincial Congress in their Resolve 
in October 26, 1774. 

Signed Samuel Bullard 1 tt- u ca 

=" I Field officers 

MicAH Stone r ^1 • 

V of this 
Abner Perry d • 

I Regiment. 
John Trowbridge j 

N. B. Said companye consists of 70 men including officers. 

War of the Revolution. 269 

At the same time a second company, comprising sixty men, was 
enlisted, and organized in the same way. The officers elected were, 
Thomas Nixon, captain; Micajah Gleason, first lieutenant; John 
Eames, second lieutenant; Samuel Gleason, ensign; Ebenezer Hern- 
enway, clerk. Some of the other leading names were, Peter Clayes, 
Abel Childs, Moses and Nathaniel Eames, John Farrar, Jr., Jona. 
Hemenway, Jona. Hill, Needham Maynard, Asa and John Nurse, 
Jona. Temple, Joseph Winch. 

Full lists of these companies, with the changes incident, will be 
given in connection with the Lexington Alarm. 

It should be stated here, that Capt. John Nixon, who now lived just 
over the town line on the north side of Nobscot, enlisted a large 
company of Minute Men in Sudbury, which he led into action at 
Concord and Lexington, April 19. 

These companies at once put themselves in active drill in the 
manual, and field manoeuvre. Each man was required to provide 
himself with a musket, bayonet, cartridge-box, and thirty-six rounds 
of ammunition. The companies met as often as once a week; and 
squads of the men, by arrangement, would meet at the houses of 
the officers, and spend evenings going through the manual exercise. 
Says one of them : " I have spent many an evening, with a number of 
my near neighbors, going through the exercise in the barn floor, with 
my mittens on." 

These Minute companies were in part composed of the young and 
adventurous spirits among us ; but many of our most substantial 
citizens enlisted, and were faithful in drilling, and ready to "fall in" 
when the emergency came. 

1775. "Jan. 2, 1775. At a town meeting duly warned, it wdiSToted, 
that there shall be a contribution for the town of Boston under their 
present Distress. And Maj. John Trowbridge, Gideon Haven, Daniel 
Sanger, Benj. Mixer, Ebenezer Marshall, David Patterson, Dea. Wm. 
Brown, and Dr. Ebenezer Hemenway were chosen a committee for 
that purpose ; and next Wednesday and Friday at i o'clock were 
appointed as the times when the people should assemble at such 
several places as the committee shall designate, to bring in their 

Capt. Josiah Stone and Dea. Wm. Brown were chosen delegates to 
the second Provincial Congress, to meet at Cambridge the first of 

Capt. Benj. Edwards, Joseph Nichols, Daniel Sanger, Capt. Amos 
Gates, and Col. Micah Stone were chosen a Committee of Inspection, 
" whose duty it shall be to see that the Association of the Continental 
Congress be duly carried into full execution." 

270 History of Framingham. 

After a free consultation with the members of the new Artillery 
company, the officers and men agreed to enlist as privates, by sub- 
scribing a similar paper to that which the Minute Men had already 
signed, and become Minute Men. 

As the towns were now in active military preparation, and depots of 
military stores had been established at Worcester and Concord, under 
the sanction of the late Provincial Congress, it became necessary that 
the British General commanding at Boston, should obtain full and 
accurate information about the roads and strategic points to the 
westward of head-quarters. Gov, Gage therefore issued the following 
order : 

"Boston, February, 22, 1775. 

" Gentlemen, You will go through the counties of Suffolk and Wor- 
cester, taking a sketch of the country as you pass ; it is not expected 
you should make out regular plans and surveys, but mark out the 
roads and distances from town to town, as also the situation and 
nature of the country; all passes must be particularly laid down, 
noticing the length and breadth of them, the entrance in and going 
out of them, and whether to be avoided by taking other routes. 

" The rivers also to be sketched out, remarking their breadth and 
depth and the nature of their banks on both sides, the fords, if any, 
and the nature of their bottoms, many of which particulars may be 
learned of the country people. 

" You will remark the heights you meet with, whether the ascents are 
difficult or easy; as also the woods and mountains, with the height and 
nature of the latter, whether to be got round or easily past over. 

" The nature of the country to be particularly noticed, whether 
inclosed or open; if the former, what kind of inclosures, and whether 
the country admits of making roads for troops on the right or left of 
the main road, or on the sides. 

"You will notice the situation of the towns and villages, their 
churches and church-yards, whether they are advantageous spots to 
take post in, and capable of being made defencible. 

" If any places strike you as proper for encampments, or appear 
strong by nature, you will remark them particularly, and give reasons 
for your opinions. 

" It would be useful if you could inform yourselves of the necessa- 
ries the different counties could supply, such as provisions, forage, 
straw, &c. the number of cattle, horses, &c. in the several townships. 

"I am, Gentlemen, your most obedient humble servant, 

" Thomas Gage. 

"To Capt. Brown, 52d regiment, and Ensign D'Bernicre loth 

War of the Revolution. 271 

Narrative, etc. — " The latter end of February, 1775, Capt. Brown 
and m3'self received orders to go through the counties of Suffolk and 
Worcester, and sketch the roads as we went, for the information of 
Gen. Gage, as he expected to have occasion to march troops through 
that country the ensuing Spring. 

"We sat out from Boston on Thursday, disguised like countrymen, 
in brown cloaths and reddish handkerchiefs round our necks ; at the 
ferry of Charlestown, we met a sentry of the 5 2d regiment, but Capt. 
Brown's servant, whom we took along wdth us, bid him not take any 
notice of us, so that we passed unknown to Charlestown. From that 
we w^ent to Cambridge, a pretty town, with a college built of brick, 
the ground is entirely level on which the town stands. We next went 
to Watertown, and were not suspected. It is a pretty large town for 
America, but would be looked upon as a village in England ; a little 
out of this town we went into a tavern, a Mr. Brewer's, a whig;^ we 
called for dinner, which was brought in by a black woman ; at first 
she was very civil, but afterwards began to eye us very attentively; 
she then went out and a little after returned, when we observed to 
her that it was a very fine country, upon which she answered, 'so it is, 
and we have got brave fellows to defend it; and if you go up any 
higher you will find it so.' This disconcerted us a good deal, and we 
imagined she knew us from our papers which we took out before her, 
as the General had told us to pass for surveyors; however, we re- 
solved not to sleep there that night, as we had intended; accordingly 
we paid our bill which amounted to two pounds odd shillings, but it 
was old tenor. After we had left the house we enquired of John, our 
servant, what she had said; he told us that she knew Capt. Brown 
very well ; that she had seen him five years before at Boston, and 
knew him to be an officer, and that she was sure I was one also,-and 
told John that he was a regular; he denied it; but she said she 
knew our errant was to take a plan of the countr}' ; that she had seen 
the river and road through Charlestown on the paper; she also 
advised him to tell us not to go any higher, for if we did we should 
meet with very bad usage. Upon this we called a council, and agreed 
that if we went back we should appear very foolish, as we had a great 
number of enemies in town, because the General had chose to employ 
us in preference to them ; it was absolutely necessary to push on to 
Worcester, and run all risk, rather than go back until we are forced. 

" Accordingly we continued our rout, and went about six miles fur- 
ther ; we met a country fellow driving a team, and a fellow with him 
whom we suspected to be a deserter ; they both seemed very desirous 
to join company with us, and told us, upon our saying we were going 

'Col. Jonathan Brewer, our former townsman. 

272 ^ Histoiy of Framingham. 

towards Worcester, that they were going our way. As we began to 
suspect something, we stopped at a tavern at the sign of the golden- 
ball, with an intention to get a drink, and so proceed; but upon our 
going in the landlord pleased us so much, as he was not inquisitive, 
that we resolved to lye there that night ; so we ordered some fire to 
be made in the room we were in, and a little after to get us some 
coffee ; he told us we might have what we pleased, either tea or 
coffee. \\'e immediately found out with whom we were, and were not 
a little pleased to find, on some conversation, that he was a friend to 
government; he told us that he had been very ill used by them some 
time before; but that since he had shewed them that he was not to 
be bullied, they had left him pretty quiet. 

"We then asked him for the inns that were on the road between his 
house and Worcester; he recommended us to two, one at about nine 
miles from his house, a Mr. Buckminster's, and another at ^^'orcester, 
a namesake of his own, a Mr. Jones. 

"The second day was very rainy and a kind of frost with it ; however 
we resolved to set off, and accordingly we proceeded to Mr. Buckmin- 
ster's ; we met nothing extraordinary on the road; we passed some 
time in sketching a pass that lay on the road, and of consequence 
were very dirty and wet on our arrival. On our entering the house we 
did not much like the appearance of things ; we asked for dinner and 
they gave us some sausages ; we praised every thing exceedingly, 
which pleased the old woman of the house much; when we told them 
we intended staying the night, they gave us a room to ourselves, which 
was what we wanted ; after being there sometime we found we were 
pretty safe, as by that time we perceived that the cote de pays was 
not a dangerous one; of consequence we felt very happy, and Brown, 
I, a#d our man John, made a very happy supper; for we always 
treated him as our companion, since our adventure with the black 
woman. We slept there that night, and the next morning, being a 
very fine one, we resolved to push on for Worcester, which was about 
thirty miles from us; we proceeded about nine miles without anything 
extraordinary happening, except meeting two men whom we suspected 
to be deserters. We then dined in the woods on a tongue and some 
cherry brandy we brought with us, and changed our stockings, which 
refreshed us much, our feet being very wet. We then travelled 
through a very fine country, missed our way and went to Westborough ; 
we were obliged to turn back a mile to get the right road. We then 
passed through Shrewsbury; all a fine open cultivated country. We 
came into a pass about four miles from Worcester, where we were 
obliged to stop to sketch. W' e arrived at Worcester at five o'clock in 
the evening, very much fatigued; the people in the town did not 

War of ihe^ Revohttioii. 273 

take notice of us as we came in, so we got safe to Mr. Jones' tavern; 
on our entrance he seemed a little sour, but it wore off by degrees 
and we found him to be our friend, which made us very .happy; we 
dined and supped without any thing happening out of the common 

" The next day being Sunday, we could not think of travelling, as 
it was contrary to the custom of the country; nor dare we stir out 
until the evening because of meeting, and no body is allowed to 
walk the streets during divine service, without being taken up and 
examined; so that thinking we could not stand the examination so 
well, we thought it prudent to stay at home, where we wrote and 
corrected our sketches. The landlord was very attentive to us, and 
on our asking what he could give us for breakfast, he told us tea or 
anything else we chose — that was an open confession what he was ; 
but for fear he might be imprudent, we did not tell him who we were, 
tho' we were certain he knew it. In the evening we went round the 
town and on all the hills that command it, sketched every thing we 
desired, and returned to the town without being seen. That evening 
about eight o'clock the landlord came in and told us that there were 
two gentlemen who wanted to speak with us ; we asked him who 
they were; on which he said we wou'd be safe in their company; we 
said we did not doubt that, as we hoped that two gentlemen who 
traveled merely to see the country and stretch our limbs, as we had 
lately come from sea, could not meet with any thing else but civility, 
when we behaved ourselves properly ; he told us he would come in 
again in a little time and perhaps we would change our minds, and 
then left us ; an hour after he returned, and told us the gentlemen 
were gone, but had begged him to let us know, as they knew us to be 
officers of the army, that all their friends of government at Petersham 
were disarmed' by the rebels, and that they threatened to do the 
same at Worcester in a very little time ; he sat and talked politicks, 
and drank a bottle of wine with us, and also told us that none but 
a few friends to government knew we were in town ; we said it was 
very indifferent to us whether they did or not, tho' we thought very 
differently ; however, as we imagined we had staid long enough in 
that town, we resolved to set off at day-break the next morning and 
get to Framingham ; accordingly off we set, after getting some roast 
beef and brandy from our landlord, which was very necessary on a 
long march, and prevented us going into houses where perhaps they 
might be too inquisitive ; we took a road we had not come, and that 
led us to the pass four miles from Worcester ; we went on unobserved 
by any one until we passed Shrewsbury, where we were overtaken 
by a horseman who examined us very attentively, and especially 


2 74 History of Frainingham. 

me, whom he looked at from head to foot as if he wanted to know 
me again ; after he had taken his observations he rode off pretty 
hard and took the Marlborough road, but by good luck we took the 
Framingham road again to be more perfect in it, as we thought it 
would be the one made use of. 

" We arrived at Buckminster's tavern about six o'clock that evening. 
The company of militia were exercising near the house, and an hour 
after they came and performed their feats before the windows of the 
room we were in ; we did not feel very easy at seeing such a number 
so very near us ; however, they did not know who we were, and took 
little or no notice of us. After they had done their exercise, one 
of their commanders spoke a very eloquent speech, recommending 
patience, coolness and bravery (which indeed they much wanted); 
particularly told them they would always conquer if they did not 
break; and recommended them to charge us cooly, and wait for our 
fire, and everything would succeed with them — quotes Caesar and 
Pompey, brigadiers Putnam and Ward, and all such great men ; put 
them in mind of Cape Breton, and all the battles they had gained for 
his majesty in the last war, and observed that the regulars must have 
been ruined but for them. After so learned and spirited harangue, 
he dismissed the parade, and the whole company came into the house 
and drank until nine o'clock, and then returned to their respective 
homes full of pot-valor. We slept there that night and nobody in 
the house suspected us. Next morning we set off for Weston, had a 
very agreeable day, having fine weather and a beautiful country to 
travel through; we met nothing extraordinary on the road; nobody 
knew us, and we were asked very few questions. On our arrival at 
Mr. Jones' we met with a very welcome reception, he being our 
friend; we received several hints from the family not to attempt to go 
on any more into the country; but as we had succeeded so well 
heretofore, we were resolved to go the Sudbury road (which was the 
main road that led to Worcester), and go as far as the thirty-seven 
mile-stone, where we had left the main road and taken the Framing- 
ham road. We slept at Jones' that night, and got all our sketches 
together and sent them to Boston with our man, so that if they did 
stop and search us, they would not get our papers " 

At the annual town meeting, March 6, 1775, '^ Voted, that the town 
will defend the assessors for not returning a certificate to Harrison 
Gray, Esq. last year." 

At the same meeting, the town treasurer was authorized to borrow 
;^i5o, to be applied for the discharge of taxes due from the town to 
the Province, and that the same be paid unto Henry Gardner, Esq. 

War of t/ie Revolution. 275 

The Battle of Lexington and Concord. — April 19, 1775. The 
news that the British troops were on the march for Lexington and 
Concord, appears to have reached Framingham before eight o'clock 
in the morning. The bell was rung, and the alarm guns fired; and in 
about an hour, a considerable part of the two companies of Minute 
Men and one company of the militia were on the way to Concord, 
which place they reached about noon. Capt. Edgell went on foot the 
entire distance, carrying his gun. Those living at the extreme south 
and west sides of the town were a little behind the party from the 
centre and north side. 

Soon after the men were gone, a strange panic seized upon the 
women and children living in the Edgell and Belknap district. Some 
one started the story that " the Negroes were coming to massacre 
them all ! " Nobody stopped to ask where the hostile Negroes were 
coming from; for all our own colored people were patriots. It 
was probably a lingering memory of the earlier Indian alarms, which 
took this indefinite shape, aided by the feeling of terror awakened 
by their defenceless condition, and the uncertainty of the issue of the 
pending fight. The wife of Capt. Edgell, and the other matrons 
brought the axes and pitchforks and clubs into the house, and 
securely bolted the doors, and passed the day and night in anxious 

Our companies reached Concord, not in season to join in the 
fray at the North bridge, but in season to join in the pursuit of the 
flying British column. From the evidence preserved, it appears that 
a part of our men participated in the daring assault at Merriam's 
corner, and that all had arrived and were active in the more successful 
attacks in the Lincoln woods. Capt. Edgell and Capt. Gleason had 
seen service in the Indian wars ; they were cool and daring, and 
kept their men well in hand, which accounts for the few casualties of 
the day among them. Capt. Nixon and our two captains, who acted 
in concert, well knew the need of discipline in harassing a retreating 
enemy, and that most casualties happen on such occasions from 
rashness and needless exposure. A single deliberate shot, from a 
man behind a safe cover, is effective, when a dozen hurried shots are 
harmless. " 

Our captains kept up the pursuit till the British reached and passed 
Cambridge; and then the men disposed of themselves as best they 
could for the night. 

It does not come within the plan of this book, to give in detail the 
history of that eventful march and countermarch of the British force, 
and the bloody encounters at Lexington and Concord, and the fierce 
onslaught of the Middlesex yeomanry on the retreating and discom- 

2/6 History of Framingham. 

fited regulars — all this may be found in the published accounts of 
the war; — but a few incidents of the day, which possess a local 
interest, have been preserved, and are here recorded. 

As before stated, Capt. John Nixon was in command of the West 
Sudbury Minute Men. He and his company reached Dugan's corner 
as early as nine o'clock. Here he received orders from Col. Barrett 
to halt, and in no case to commence an attack. While waiting here, 
the report came that a file of British soldiers had come to the South 
bridge. Capt. Nixon had difficulty in restraining the militia-men from 
starting to dislodge them. Dea. Haynes, a member of the company 
of Exempts, an aged man with all the fire of youth, grew impatient, 
and said with much warmth, "If you don't go and drive them British 
from that bridge, I shall call you a coward ! " Capt. Nixon firmly but 
good-naturedly answered, " I should rather be called a coward by 
you, than called to account by my superior officer, for disobedience 
of orders." Soon after he received orders to march directly to 
Col. Barrett's house. On the way he met a squad of British who had 
been sent to destroy some cannon stored near there. Nixon could 
easily have cut them off, but for his orders " not to commence an 

Col. Ezekiel How, then in command of a Middlesex regiment, went 
to Concord with the Sudbury companies, and halted with them at 
Dugan's corner. Desiring to observe the movements of the British, 
he took off his sword and the lacing of his hat, and rode on towards 
the South bridge, as if he was going further. The soldiers stopped 
him and demanded where he was going. " Down along," he answered, 
"and I shouldn't like to be hindered." He was allowed to proceed. 
Very quickly the firing commenced at the North bridge, and he 
wheeled about, saying as he repassed the British, " I find there's 
trouble ahead ; and I believe, on the whole, I had better get back to 
my family." 

The following incident shows the value of presence of mind in 
emergency. In the pursuit, when on the borders of Lexington, Noah 
Eaton, 2d, of this town, fired upon the British, and squatted behind a 
knoll to reload, just as a regular came up on the other side of the 
knoll, and as it proved, for the same purpose. Eaton instantly 
brought his gun to his shoulder, and demanded a surrender. The 
soldier laid down his musket, when Eaton proceeded to reload. See- 
ing the state of the case, the soldier remarked, " My gun is empty, but 
I could have loaded in half the time you take, as I have cartridges." 
The soldier returned to Framingham with his captor, the next day, 
and continued in his service. 

Josiah Temple, then living at Lechmere Point, Cambridge, started 

War of the Revolution. 


with a detachment of militia-men to intercept the British, on their 
return, and in the severe skirmish which took place just on the line 
between Lexington and Cambridge, received a musket-ball in the 
shoulder, which he carried to his grave. 

Daniel Hemenway, a member of Capt. Edgell's company, was the 
only one of our Minute Men who was wounded that day ; but he kept 
on with his comrades to Cambridge, and remained in the service 
fourteen days. 

Ebenezer Hemenway, of Capt. Gleason's company, shot a British 
soldier named Thomas Sowers, near Merriam's corner, and took his 
gun, which he brought home with him. 

As will appear from the following muster-rolls, all our Framingham 
men followed the British as far as Cambridge, and passed the night 
there. And only eight of the total of one hundred and fifty-three, 
returned home the next day. The rest remained in the service for 
longer or shorter periods, as indicated below. 

A Muster-Roll of a Minute Company belongifig to Framingham, under the 
command of Capt. Simon Edgell, who marched 07i the Alarm on the 
igth of Ap?'il, 177s, to Concord and Cambridge. 



Capt. Simon Edgell 

. 22 

Charles Gates 


Lieut. Thomas Drury 


Isaac Goodenough Jr. 


" Lawson Buckminster 

• 14 

Phinehas Graves 


Sergt. William Maynard 


James Greenwood 


" Asaph Bigelow 

. 8 

Isaac Haven 


" Noah Eaton Jr. . 

• 14 

William Haven . 


Clerk Matthias Bent Jr. 


Jesse Hayden 


Corp. Frederick Manson 


Daniel Hemenway 


" Samuel Frost Jr. . 


Jacob Hemenway 


" Joseph Temple 


Jeffrey Hemenway 


" David Morse 


Shadrack Hill . 


Drum'^Josiah Atkinson . 


Benjamin Holden Jr. . 


Fifer Moses Edgell 


Joseph Jennings Jr. . 


Samuel Abbott 

. 8 

Moses Learned . 


.Andrew Allard 


Joseph Mixer 


Sylvanus Ballord 


John Mixer Jr. . 


Timothy Ballord . 


Asa Morse 


Abraham Belknap 


James Morse 


Joseph Bennett 


Jonathan Morse 


Josiah Bent 


Cyrus Munger 


Benjamin Clark . 


Joseph Nichols Jr. . . 


James Clayes Jr. . 


Samuel Ordway . 


Increase Claflin . 


David Patterson 



History of Frainnighani. 

^^'illiam Gushing . 


Asa Pike 


Elijah Dadmun 


Silas Pike . 


Nathan Dadmun . 


Simon Pike Jr. 


Nathan Drury 


Simon Rogers 


Benjamin Eaton Jr. 


David Sanger 


Ebenezer Eaton . 


Peter Salem 


John Eaton . 


Abel Stone 


Maltiah Eaton 


Abner Stone 


Noah Eaton 2d 


John Stone 



Silas Eaton . 


Luther Stone 


Samuel Everdon . 


John Trowbridge 


Joshua Fairbanks 


Joshua Trowbridge . • 


John Fiske . 


Jonas Underwood 


Amos Gates 


Samuel Underwood 


George Gates 


Nehemiah Wright 


^ ^(7// of Minute Men from Framinghatn under command of Capt. 
Micajah Gleasofi, at Concord and Cafnbridgc, April jg, IJJS. 





Micajah Gleason 
John Eames 
Samuel Gleason 
John Gleason 
Tho. Buckminster 
Shubael Seaver 
Jonathan Hill 
Eben'' Hemenway 
Gideon Rider 
Alpheus Nichols 
Ebenezer Winch 
Roger Brown 
Isaac Hemenway 
Thomas Nixon Jr. 
Jonathan Adams 
Daniel Bridges 
Andrew Brown 
Joseph Brown 
Abel Childs 
Charles Dougherty 
Micah Dougherty 
Elisha Drury 
Joseph Eames 
Nathaniel Eames 
Zaccheus Fairbanks 




Moses Fiske 



John Hemenway 



Jona. Hemenway 



Nathan Hemenway 



Silas Hemenway 



Francis How 



Joseph How 



Parley How 



Simon How 



Cheever Kendall 



John Mayhew 



John Maynard 



Needham Maynard 



David Rice Jr. . 



Ezekiel Rice 



Moses Rice 



Samuel Stone 



Jonathan Temple 



Joseph Tower 




David Waight 



Josiah Waight 



Azariah Walker . 



Joseph \\'ebb 



Joseph Winch 




Wai' of the Revolution. 


Muster-RoU of a Militia Compatiy belonging to Framingham, that marched 
to Concord and Cambridge, April ig, lyy^. 


Capt. Jesse Eames 
Lieut. John Shattuck 
Sergt. John Eames 

•' Samuel Hemenway 

" John Clayes 

" James Glover 
Corp. Richard Rice 

" Thomas Bent 

" Thaddeus Hagar 

" John Jones . 

Ebenezer Boutwell Jr. 
Gershom Eames . 

10 Henry Eames 

9 Jotham Eames . 

10 Nathaniel Eames Jr. 

10 Isaac Gibbs 

10 Seth Harding 

10 Wm. Hemenway 

10 Daniel Jones 

9 James Mellen 

7 Asa Nurse . 

10 John Nurse 

22 Abner Pratt 

10 Silas \Mnch 











a total of 

1, out of a 

From the foregoing rolls, it appears that Framingham had 
153 men in service ok this memorable nineteenth of Apr 
population of 1,500. 

The pay of the captains was 4s. lod. per day; lieutenants, 2S. lod.; 
sergeants, is. lod.; corporals, is. yd.; musicians, is. 6d.; privates, 
IS. 5d. 

It was at the earnest entreaty of the Committee of Safety and the 
general ofificers, that Capt. Edgell, Capt. Gleason and Capt. Eames, 
and so large a part of our Minute Men and militia remained at 
Cambridge. The Executive Committee had summoned the Provincial 
Congress to meet April 22 ; and they begged these Minute companies 
to hold the ground till more permanent companies could be enlisted. 

On the 23d, the Congress resolved to call on Massachusetts to 
furnish 13,500 men for eight months' service. 

On that day, Capt. Gleason resigned command of his Minute 
company, and immediately raised from his own men, and other 
companies on the ground, a company of fifty men, and reported for 
duty. His commission is dated April 23, and his company was that 
day mustered into service. 

The next day, Lieut. Thomas Drury, of Capt. Edgell's company, 
resigned his commission, and commenced recruiting a company for 
the eight months' service. On that and the few following days, he 
enlisted sixty-three men. His commission is dated April 24, and his 
company drew pay from that date. 

The names of our own men, who thus volunteered on the instant 
for an eight months' campaign, and most of whom were in the battle 
of Bunker Hill, the 17th of June, are worthy of being recorded. 

2 8o 

History of F^'aininghavi. 

In Capt. Micajah Gleason's company were Ens. John Eames, 
Sergt. Jonathan Temple, Sergt. Peter Clayes, Sergt. Joseph Nichols, 
Sergt. Morris Handley (then of Londonderr}^ N. H.), Sergt. Shubael 
Seaver, Michael Caravan, Elisha Drury, Samuel Eames, Samuel Ever- 
don, John Jones, Moses Learned, Frederick Manson, Samuel Stone, 
Ebenezer Temple. 

In Capt. Thomas Drury's company were 




Wm. Maynard 

Apr. 24 

Blaney Grusha . 

May 4 


Joseph Mixer 


Cato Hart . 



Samuel Frost 


Jeffrey Hemenwa 

y . Apr. 24 


Ebenezer Eaton 


Shadrack Hill 



Jona. Maynard 


Benjamin Holder 



Joseph Nichols 


Joseph How 

. Apr. 28 


Noah Eaton 


Francis How 



Cornelius Claflin 


Simon How 

May 4 


Joseph Temple 

May 4 

Joseph Jennings 



John Trowbridge 


Nathaniel Merritl 

Ma}- I 


Josiah Waite 


Joseph Nurse 

Apr. 24 


■■Isaac Hemenway 


Samuel Ordway 



Luther Eaton 

May I 

John Parker 


Abijah Abbott 

Apr. 28 

Jacob Pepper 

May 4 

Abraham Abbott 


James Pike 

. Apr. 30 

Joseph Bennett 

Apr. 24 

Jonathan Pike 


Daniel Bigelow 

May 4 

Joseph Pogonit 

. Apr. 24 

Josiah Bent . 


Simon Pratt 


Joseph Brown 

May I 

Ezekiel Rice 

May 4 

John Claflin 

Apr. 24 

Simon Rogers 

. Apr. 24 

Benjamin Clark 


Peter Salem 


Elijah Dadmun 

. Apr. 28 

David Sanger 

May 4 

Samuel Drury 

Apr. 24 

Joseph Seaver 

. Apr. 30 

Benjamin Eaton 


John Stacey 

May 4 

Brigham Eaton 


John Stone 

. Apr. 24 


Windsor Stone 


Ebenezer Eames 

May 4 

John Tozer 

. . May 4 

Amos Gates 

. Apr. 24 

David Waite 


George Gates 


Azariah Walker 


Henry Gates 

May 4 

Nehemiah Wrigh 

t . Apr. 24 

John Gleason 


At the same time the : 

'ollowing Framingham men ei 

ilisted in other 


anies. In Capt. D 

avid Moore 

's Sudbury compa 

ny, Lieut. Jona- 


Hill, Drummer Ebe 

nezer Bout 

veil, Jr., Fifer Tho 

mas Nixon, Jr., 

War of the Revohition. 281 

Isaac Goodnow, Jr-, Silas Hemenway, Alpheus Nichols, Joseph 
Nichols, 3d. 

In Capt. Aaron Haynes' Sudbury company, Sergt. Joshua Fair- 
banks, Sergt. Samuel Fairbanks, Ens. John Maynard, Corning 
Fairbanks, Needham Maynard. 

William Dougherty of this town enlisted in Capt. Benjamin 
Ballard's Sherborn company. 

James Greenwood of Framingham enlisted April 24, in Capt. 
Joseph Morse's Natick company. 

The same dav, April 24, Capt. John Nixon was tendered a com- 
mission as colonel of a regiment; and on the 27th, the Committee of 
Safet)' ordered that he receive nine sets of " beating papers," which he 
was to send to such men of his acquaintance as were considered 
suitable to be commissioned as captains. The following is a copy of 
one of these beating papers : 

In Committee of Safety, Cambridge, April 24, 1775. 

To Capt. Sir : You are hereby empowered immediately to 

enlist a company, to consist of 56 able-bodied and effective men, including 
sergeants, as soldiers in the Massachusetts service, for the promotion of 
Ajnerican Liberty, and cause them to pass muster as soon as possible. 

Joseph Warren chairman. 
From Col. John Nixon. 

Capt. Gleason and Capt. Drury immediately reported for dut}^ with 
their companies, to Col. Nixon. The other captains to whom papers 
were sent were Capt. Joseph Butler of Concord, Capt. Abishai Brown 
of Concord, Capt. William Smith of Lincoln, Capt. David Moore of 
Sudbury, Capt. Moses McFarland of Haverhill, Capt. Jeremiah Gil- 
man of Plaistow, N. H., Capt. Samuel McCobb of Georgetown. The 
field officers of the regiment when organized were. Col. John Nixon 
of Sudbury, Lieut. Col. Thomas Nixon of Framingham, Maj. John 
Byttrick of Concord, Adj. Abel Holden of Sudbury, Quartermaster, 
John White of Haverhill, Surgeon, Isaac Spofford of Haverill. Sur- 
geon's mate, Josiah Langdon of Sudbury. The officers of the regi- 
ment drew pay from April 24, and it was recognized by Gen. Ward, 
and sent by his orders on several important expeditions ; though it 
appears not to have mustered into service, as a regiffieiit, till June 5.^ 

April 24, the Committee of Safety sent ten sets of beating papers 
to Col. Jonathan Brewer, a native of Framingham, but who, since 1770, 
had resided in Waltham on the border of Watertown. Col. Brewer 
was a man of adventure, and undoubted courage, who had seen 

' May 27, 1775, Gen. Ward orders Col. Nixon and his regiment to proceed to Clielsea to protect a 
party that went from Maiden, Medford and Chelsea " to bring off the stock (cattle) upon Noddles and 
H02: Islands." 

282 History of Framhtghani. 

considerable service in the French and Indian wars; and in 1759, 
was in command of a company of Rangers in the expedition against 
Quebec. He promptly raised a regiment, composed of eight com- 
panies and 400 men. About the middle of May, he addressed the 
following paper : 

" To the Provincial Congress now sitting at Watertown : The 
petition of Jonathan Brewer of Waltham, Humbly sheweth 

"That your petitioner, having a desire of contributing all in his power 
for his country's good, begs leave to projDOse to this Hon^' House, to 
march with a body of 500 volunteers to Quebeck, by way of the rivers 
Kennebeck and Chaudiere, as he humbly begs leave to apprehend 
that such a diversion of the Provincial troops into that part of Canada 
would be the means of drawing the Governor of Canada with his 
troops into that quarter, and which would effectually secure the 
Northern and Western frontiers from any inroads of the regular or 
Canadian troops. This he humbly conceives he could execute with 
all the facility imaginable : He therefore begs that this Honorable 
Assembly would take this his proposal into consideration, and act 
thereon as in their wisdom shall seem meet. 

" Signed Jonathan Brewer." 

It appears that Col. Brewer had in some way already incurred the 
displeasure of the Committee of Safety; and now by addressing his 
petition directly to the Congress, instead of addressing it to said 
Committee, he gave the said Committee great offence. And May 26, 
they sent a paper to the Congress, containing charges against Mr. 
Brewer, with a view to defeat his proposed expedition, and to secure 
his rejection as colonel of the regiment. The only charge which 
could affect his military character and standing, that Mr. Brewer did 
not deny and repel, was that, in some of the beating papers sent to 
his friends, he inserted this clause in brackets: "You are to enlist a 
company of Rangers whereof Jonathan Brewer is colonel." He frankly 
acknowledged the charge, and admitted his intention to raise such a 
regiment and obtain permission of the Congress to conduct a ranging 
expedition, as indicated in his petition. 

A heated contest took place between the friends and the enemies of 
Col. Brewer. Col. Buckminster, Capt. Edwards, and others of this 
town, appeared before the Congress in the interest of their former 
townsman and neighbor. His proposition was rejected. But his 
failure to secure the indorsement of his pet project did not dampen 
the zeal of Mr. Brewer. His chosen captains and their men were 
faithful to him, and June 7, sent in their returns to the Congress. 
June 13, he was ordered to make an official return of the companies 
then comprising his regiment. June 15, he received the necessary 

War of the Revolution. 283 

recommendation; and June 17, his regiment was commissioned. 
That he had the confidence of Gen. Ward and Gen. Warren, and 
that he proved himself a patriotic man and brave commander, will 
shortly appear. The officers of the regiment, all of whom enlisted 
April 24, were, 

Col. Jona. Brewer of Waltham, born in PVamingham. 

Lt. Col. Wm. Buckminster of Barre, born in Framingham. 

Maj. Nathaniel Cudworth of East Sudbury. 

Adj. John Butler of Peterborough. 

Quartermaster, Charles Dougherty of Framingham. 

Surgeon, D. Townsend of Boston. 

April 24, nine sets of beating papers were issued to Col. David 
Brewer, a brother of Col. Jonathan, then a resident of Palmer. June 
15, the Committee of Safety reported that "Col. David Brewer had 
raised nine companies, amounting, including officers, to 465 men, who 
are now posted at Roxbury, Dorchester and \\'atertown." This 
regiment was commissioned June 17. The Lieut. Colonel was Rufus 
Putnam of Brookfield ; the Major was Nathaniel Danielson of Brim- 
field; the Adjutant was Thomas Weeks of Greenwich ; with Ebenezer 
Washburn of Hardwick, Quartermaster, and Estes Howe of Belcher- 
town, surgeon. Micah Dougherty of this town enlisted for the eight 
months service in Capt. Jona. Danforth's company, in Col. David 
Brewer's regiment. 

Other Framingham men who were out in this campaign were, Isaac 
Haven, Silas Haven, Jona. Hemenway. 

Samuel Brewer, a native of this town (brother of Jonathan and 
David) but then living in Rutland, enlisted in the eight months 
service; was appointed adjutant-general of the troops in Roxbury, 
under Gen, Thomas. He was wounded at Bunker Hill, June 17. In 
1776, he raised and commanded a regiment which served at Ticon- 
deroga. He with his regiment was in the campaign of 1777, which 
ended with the defeat of Burgoyne. 

At a town meeting held May 29, 1775, it was voted, "To choose 
two members to represent the town in the Provincial Congress which 
meets at Watertown May 31; and accordingly chose Joseph Haven 
Esq. and Capt. Josiah Stone ; and ordered that one only of them 
should be constant in attendance, except while the debates in 
Congress lasted relating to assuming government, they have liberty 
both to attend." 

The committee of correspondence this year were, Joseph Haven, 
Esq., Dea. Wm. Brown, Capt. Josiah Stone, Ebenezer Marshall, 
David Haven, Maj. John Trowbridge, Capt. Daniel Stone, Lieut. 
Lawson Buckminster, Gideon Haven, John Shattuck. 

284 History of Fra7ningha7n. 

Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775. — The part taken by 
Framingham men in this eventful battle has never been told in the 
published histories of the war. Like the Minute Men at Concord and 
Lexington, these early volunteers went into the struggle for Liberty to 
fight, and not to boast of it .' 

Our town records are silent on the subject. The recruits furnished 
the army at this juncture were all — officers and men — volunteers. 
The muster-rolls, already given, show who enlisted in the eight- 
months service, but fail to indicate the names of those who were on 
duty on the 17th. They also fail to indicate the casualties of the 
battle. From the best data obtainable, it is believed that sixty-eight 
of our men took part in the action on that day. 

A brief resnmc of the state of things at the American head-quarters 
and outposts on the day preceding the battle, is necessary in order 
that the account of the action itself may be clearly understood. 

Artemas Ward, the general in command, had his head-quarters at 
Cambridge. He had under him an army of recruits, most of whom 
had seen militar\' service, numbering in all about 9,500 men, a consid- 
erable part of whom were not fully armed. Very few of the soldiers 
had bayonets. 

"The army was posted nearly in the following manner: The right 
wing, under Gen. Thomas was at Roxbury, and consisted of about 
4,000 Massachusetts troops. The Rhode Island forces, under Greene, 
and the greater part of Spencer's Connecticut regiment, were at 
Jamaica Plains. The centre division of the army was at Cambridge, 
and consisted of fifteen Massachusetts regiments, the newly organized 
battalion of artillery under Col. Gridley ; and Gen. Putnam's regiment, 
with some other Conn, troops. They were quartered in the colleges, 
in the meeting-house, and in tents. Most of the Conn, troops were at 
Inman's Farm ; part of Little's regiment was at the tavern in West 
Cambridge ; Patterson's regiment was at the breast-work near Prospect 
Hill ; and a large guard was at Lechmere's Point. Of the left wing 
of the army, three companies of Gerrish's regiment were at Chelsea ; 
Stark's regiment was at Medford ; and Reed's regiment was at 
Charlestown Neck."' 

Of powder and ball, the men averaged, in their horns and pouches, 
less than fifteen rounds each. Col. Brewer's men had five rounds 
each ; Col. Nixon's had thirteen rounds ; Col. Gerrish's had twenty- 
four rounds. Of powder in camp, exclusive of thirty-six half-barrels 
received from the Governor of Connecticut, there were in the magazine 
only thirteen and one-half barrels. Of stores, there were only sufficient 
to keep along from day to day. 

1 Frotliinghani. 

JVar of the Revolution: 285 

In anticipation of a movement by Gen. Gage on tlie American lines, 
Gen. Putnam, Col. Prescott, and the majority of the Committee of 
Safety, urged the necessity of fortifying Charlestovvn heights and one 
of the hills on Dorchester Neck. Gen. Ward, Gen. Warren, and the 
Council of War were opposed to such a step till the army was in a 
better condition to hold the exposed positions. 

June 15, the Committee of Safety passed a resolve, which really 
amounted to instructions to the Commander-in-chief, " to take posses- 
sion of, hold, and defend Bunker Hill in Charlestown." Under this 
pressure, on the evening of the i6th. Gen. Ward issued orders 

Prescott's, Frye's and Bridges' regiments, a party of about 120 
Connecticut troops under Capt. Thomas Knowlton, and Capt. Grid- 
ley's company of artillery of forty-nine men, and two field-pieces, 
were detailed to execute the order. The detachment, amounting in 
all to about 1,000 men, was placed under the command of Col. 
William Prescott, who had orders in w riting from Gen. \\'ard, to 
proceed that evening to Bunker Hill, build fortifications to be planned 
by Col. Richard Gridley, the chief engineer, and defend them till he 
should be relieved. 

All accounts agree that the duty of constructing the intrenchments 
on Charlestown heights was intrusted to Col. William Prescott. The 
" Prescott Manuscript " is explicit on this point. "The detachment 
was drawn up on the Common in Cambridge, on the evening of the 
1 6th, attended prayers by the Rev. Dr. Langdon, then President of 
Harvard College, and when daylight was gone, Col. Prescott led them 
silently down Charlestown road over the Neck, and then halted, called 
around him the field officers, with Col. Gridley, and then first commu- 
nicated to them his orders. 

"The whole height at that time was popularly called Bunker Hill, 
although the southern part was known as Breed's Hill by the neigh- 

After discussion, it was determined to so far disobey orders, as to 
construct the fortifications on the southern eminence, which was about 
130 rods from the other. The detachment proceeded to Breed's Hill, 
and Col. Gridley laid out the works, a redoubt and intrenchment, 
which the troops immediately commenced building. This was about 
eleven o'clock. 

Breed's Hill was then open pasture-ground, divided up by stone and 
rail fences, and rows of apple trees. The slope towards Mystic river 
was mow-land, then partly in standing grass, and partly in new-mown 
hay, lying in windrows. 

During the night, Col. Prescott's men threw up a redoubt on the 

2 86 History of Frainingham. 

top of the hill 132 feet square. He also constructed, early the next 
morning, an earth breastwork, extending from the northeasterly corner 
of the redoubt, on a line with its eastern face, 400 feet down the hill 
towards the Mystic. 

Such was the condition of things when the morning of the seven- 
teenth broke. 

Not so much from a spirit of insubordination, as from a spirit of 
independence, Prescott had constructed his redoubt where he thought 
it would be of most service; and he strengthened it, and defended it, 
when the need came, with a courage that is worthy of the highest 
admiration. He defended his works, partly because of his orders to 
do it, partly because he knew no fear, and partly because he felt 
himself responsible for assuming that advanced position. When 
Putnam came upon the ground, he saw Prescott's mistake, and 
withdrew Capt. Knowlton's men and the intrenching tools to the 
northerly height, and stopped some advancing regiments there, to 
provide against the impending defeat which he foresaw. For his 
tactics were those of the independent Ranger — a7iy expedient to meet 
an emergency. 

The regiments that were sent earliest upon the field chose their 
own position. They naturally took post near the end of the earth- 
work cover, and so extended towards the left. They took for granted 
that Col. Prescott would take care of his redoubt. Colonels Brewer 
and Nixon were the first, or among the first, to reach the ground. 
When Warren came, soon after, the three saw the need of some cover 
for the men, and made the rail-fence breastwork, and took position at 
the head of it, and defended it; and by their obstinate resistance at 
the gap, held the key of the situation, till the raking fire from Howe's 
artillery and the bayonet charge forced them to retreat. This hay 
breastwork was not begun till after the British had landed on the 
peninsula, and was put up while they were lunching and forming. 
It was built about 600 feet in the rear of Prescott's earthwork cover. 
The width of the open space between the lower end of the earthwork 
and the upper end of the hay-work, was about 700 feet — though if 
the hay-work had been brought forward to the line of the earthwork, 
the width of the open space would have been only 100 feet. 

When Col. Stark arrived upon the ground, his quick eye saw the 
weakness of the extreme left at the Mystic side, and he at once went 
there and built the stone-wall cover, and held it — thus holding in 
check the British right, and saving the retreat of Prescott and the 
American right. 

Neither Colonels Stark, nor Reed, nor Brewer, nor Nixon, nor 
Little ; nor Majors Moore and Durkee ; nor Captains Chester and 

War of the Revolution. 287 

Benjamin Hastings, got credit for the part they took in the action — 
because they did nothing but defend the positions which they volunta- 
rily selected ; and Gen. Warren received poor praise for his foresight 
and counsel — because he opposed the plan which brought on the 
battle ; and because — he was killed. 

The controversy as to who was commander-in-chief on Bunker Hill, 
was an afterthought. No one had received such an appointment, 
and no one then claimed the honor. Prescott and Gridley were held 
responsible for the mistake in locating the redoubt, by the Committee 
of Safety \ and no regiment of the reinforcements sent upon the field 
was ordered to report for duty to either Col. Prescott or Gen. Putnam, 
as commander. Putnam acknowledged the mistake of the night 
before, and (if he counselled it) tried to throw off the blame by 
building a new redoubt where it was first ordered to be built. \A'arren, 
anxious about the issue of a movement which he had not approved, 
went upon the ground before it became certain that the British would 
attack our position, and held himself ready for emergencies, and did 
what a brave man and true patriot would do. He was the accepted 
commander of the centre of the line of defence, as Prescott was the 
hero of the redoubt. All did the best they could in the battle ; all 
admitted a defeat ; all thought it might have been prevented ; and 
each (who outlived the day) was willing that the other should bear the 

It was not till the personalities of the fight and its adjuncts had 
been buried — either in the grave or in forgetfulness, — and the real 
and glorious significance of the action was seen in its ultimate results, 
that the friends of the deceased heroes put forth their rival claims to 
the honor of directing the general movements of the day. 

Needham Maynard, one of our Framingham boys, who had excep- 
tionally favorable opportunities for knowing the facts, has given a 
detailed account of what took place at the centre of the American 
position, immediately preceding and during the action. It supplies 
particulars relating to men and movements not elsewhere recorded. 
He does not profess to give details of the battle as a whole, but only 
of those things which he saw and took part in. He gives the exact 
location of several regiments, not otherwise known, whose gallant 
fighting had a material influence on the fortunes of the day. He was 
not cognizant of the movements of Putnam and Stark ; nor does he 
comment on the orders he received and executed. He shows no 
partizan interest in the question as to who had the chief command on 
the Hill that day — though he makes it certain that Warren took the 
direction of affairs at the centre of the line, and that orders from him 

2 88 History of Framhigham. 

were carried to the redoubt on the one hand, and to Col. Nixon's 
position towards Mystic on the other. 

Judge Maynard was then in his twentieth year. He was a Minute 
Man in Capt. Micajah Gleason's company, and participated in the 
affair of April 19. May 7, he enlisted for eight months in Capt. 
Aaron Haynes' Sudbury company, and after the 17th was with Col. 
Jona. Brewer's regiment at Prospect hill. At the close of the war, 
he married a Framingham girl, and settled at Whitestown, N. Y. He 
was regarded as a man of great intelligence and probity, and was 
appointed judge of the county court. In June, 1843, he revisited 
Framingham, where in the presence of several gentlemen, he narrated 
the facts now to be given. The statement so interested his friends 
that it was written down by one of them at the time, and was after- 
wards read, corrected and subscribed by Mr. Maynard. This will 
account for the peculiar style of the document. 

The substance of the narrative, but containing important errors, was 
printed in the newspapers of the day. 

Maynard's Account of the Battle of Bunker Hill. — "On 
the night of the i6th June, 1775, Col. Prescott was sent off from camp 
with a detachment of men to break ground on Bunker's Hill. He 
was ordered to Bunker's Hill ; but when they got there they found 
Breed's was better, and so they laid out the fort and went to work 
there — as they afterwards told me (for I knew nothing of this myself 
till the next morning; and as they told me Prescott commanded the 

" There are only a few of us left who were there that day, and we 
can only tell what we saw. 

"Our regiment was ordered out early in the morning of the 17th, 
and we soon found out what the business was we were going upon ; 
I was in Capt. Aaron Haynes' company in Col. Jonathan Brewer's 
regiment. We reached the Hill between 10 and 11 o'clock, and 
found Prescott's men at work. Col. Brewer was acquainted with Col. 
Prescott, and went up to speak to him. The balls were then flying 
about us very thick. 

"At about II o'clock Gen. Warren came on;i and when Col. 
Brewer met him (they were old acquaintances) he said, ' General, if 
you have come to take the command, I am glad to see you.' 'No,' 
he answered, ' I have come only as a volunteer, I did not come to 
take the command, but to act as a volunteer in any station : Our 
perils are commencing, and I have come to take my part.' 'Well,' 
they said to him, ' do you mean to stay with us. General.?' 'Yes,' 
hS said, ' I mean to stay.' And then the other officers present 

'The liour named is evidently too early. 

War of the RevohUion. 289 

insisted upon his taking the command. They said, 'We have no 
officer to lead — we ought to have some particular one for the orders 
to come from ;' and they asked, 'Why cant you take the command?' 
He said he didn't think it would be proper for him to do so. Then 
Col. Brewer said in his blunt way, ' We must have a head, and he 
ought to be a General. We are all Colonels here, and one Colonel 
is as good as another.' When he found that Prescott was there he 
(Warren) said, ' If you will continue to act as a Council, I will give 
you my views as commander, and if you approve of them, they can go 
as commands.' And they said that amounted to the same thing as if 
he was commander: And so he went on — when anything was to be 
done, giving the orders." (In answer to a question, Mr, Maynard 
said, " The Council of officers consisted of all the Field officers who 
happened to be about Warren — sometimes one, and sometimes 

" Col. Brewer then asked Warren, ' Have you got an aid ? ' No, he 
said, he did not think there would have been a battle. Then the 
Colonel recommended me, saying that I was one of his Minute Men 
of Lexington ; and Warren asked me if I would be his aid, and I said I 
was willing to serve. And this brought me to know what few others 
do about these things. 

" The time was short, and it was difficult to decide what to do. 
The enemy was coming, and we had not above 1200 men. Said he 
(Warren), ' I have just come along here by the back of Bunker Hill, 
and there are a great many men lying there; and they said that they 
should be of no use here now, but that as soon as they could be of 
use they would come on. Col. Gerrish says there are 1500 men; and 
I believe they will come on when they are needed ; if I did not think 
so, I should advise you now to retreat !' 

" Then Gen. Warren, with some of the officers, walked over towards 
the Mystic, There was nothing but the open field to stand upon ; 
and he said that he doubted whether the troops would stand there, not 
being accustomed to stand fire, — and he proposed that they should 
bring up the fences and make a straight line, and run it up towards 
the other breastwork, and stuff in hay between the two rows of fence. 
He said this would answer the purpose, for if it did not stop the balls, 
the men would think that it would, and that would give them 

" The officers all agreed to this, and we began in earnest to set up 
the fences, four rails on each side, I set posts ; some of the men 
brought rails, and some brought hay. We had but little time, and 
worked as hard as we could, and they (the enemy) had begun to 
march before we had got as far up as the dirt breastwork. We had 


290 History of Franiingham. 

got I should say within about 20 or 30 rods of it, when the enemy had 
got so nigh that we let it go as it was, and got ready to fight. ^ 

" Then the General said, ' Our difficulty is that the men take no 
thought about their fire, but fire too quick. Let the enemy take their 
own distance, and give the first fire if they will. Send to Col. Nixon 
and give the word to the officers all along the line, not to let the men 
fire too quick.' So I went and met Thomas Nixon (John Nixon was 
Colonel, and his brother Thomas was Lieut. Col. of the regiment) and 
told him that the orders were that they should not fire a single shot 
until they fired from the centre. He said it was the same as if I had 
told John : So I went back, and was told to go to Prescott, and give 
the same order: and I did. 

" The British came on, and fired first by the right and then by the 
left; and when they were about ^10 rods off (I don't know the exact 
distance, but we generally thought it was about 10 rods) the word was 
given for us to fire ! I tell you there was a thundering noise. The 
whole line was one blaze. I fired among the first. No man can 
think what a time it was. They fell in heaps — actually in heaps. 
They kept falling; the officers falling until they began to retreat — 
but they did not retreat in great confusion. The bodies lay there 
very thick. We kept on firing till they got off to about 20 rods ; then 
we gave it up. 

" The British went back to near where they started from ; and then 
we saw a reinforcement coming to them. They delayed long enough 
for us to clean our guns, I cannot say how long it was — And then 
they came up in the same way that they did before. They came up 
to where the dead were, and when they were just past the heap of 
bodies, we began to fire. We were a little cooler than before, and 
they were in greater confusion. There was hardly one of us hit — 
they were in great confusion and shot over. Their officers were shot 
down ; there seemed to be nobody to command 'em ; And they 
retreated to the same spot as before. 

" The next time there came over to 'em a General officer (I got it 
from a British soldier afterwards that it was a General officer — he 
said it was Gen. Burgoyne-'), and he gave 'em better orders. This 
time they started in column, at a slow march, and displayed half way 

> In most accounts of the battle it is asserted that Capt. Knowlton was sent by Col. Prescott to the 
exposed line towards the Mystic, and that the rail-fence breastwork was set up by the Connecticut 
company. But Mr. Maynard Jielped -make it; and he recites particulars which leave no doubt that 
his account is the true one. 

' General Clinton. " It is related, that at this critical conjuncture, upon which depended the issue of 
the day, General Clinton, who from Copp's Hill, examined all the movements, on seeing the destruc- 
tion of his troops, immediately resolved to fly to their succor. This experienced commander, by an 
able movement, re-established order ; and seconded by the officers, who felt all the importance of 
success to English honor and the course of events, he led the troops to a third attack." [Boiia.] 

War of the Revolution. 291 

up the hill. It was strange that the British should have marched up 
in such close order — it was a thing unaccountable; it flung them 
completely into our hands. They came on in column ; and the second 
time did not display at all. The first time they displayed into two 
platoons, advanced right and left and fired ;^ and then the fire was 
returned. The next time they did not display at all. The third time 
they came up with the General of whom I have spoken, and he gave 
'em better orders — they came more open — and when they were part 
way up they displayed and fired. — This time we reserved our fire as 
before, but it didn't do so much execution. We fired till our ammuni- 
tion began to fail: then our firing began to slacken — and at last it 
went out like an old candle. 

" As our firing slackened, the British assaulted the breastwork. 
Just as they began to force it, I went with a message from Col. Brewer 
and their Council to Prescott in the redoubt, to know whether 
he wanted any more men. He said it was no use to send for 
more men. — The British were then putting their guns over the 
rampart, and Prescott shouted, ' Take their guns away — twitch 
'em away ! and you that can handle stones, seize 'em and knock 
about!' As soon as they got in, our men ceased firing, and began 
to knock the guns aside — to spring on 'em with stones — to give 'em 
heavy punches, feeling that they must sell their lives there. They 
didn't know how to take this kind of fighting, and they fell back. 
For a moment we had a pretty good time: We hit 'em as they went 
out — with their own guns. We took about 30 of their guns, I should 
think. But immediately vengeance added to their determination, and 
they fell on again. We used such weapons as we could find — stones, 
the breaches of our guns, and such things, and gave 'em a good warm 
reception : it was getting full there, and the red coats couldn't do 
anything, and many of them began to fall, and they quivered as if 
they were frightened at such play, and they soon fell back again. 

"During this assault I saw a British officer — I think he was a 
captain — come up with some pomp, and he cried out, ' Surrender^ 

you rebels!' But Prescott called out in return, 'We are no 

rebels ! ' and he made a little motion of his hand, and that was the 
last word the British officer spoke. He fell at once ; and their men 
retreated at once, leaving as many as 60 guns, I should think, in the 
hands of our men, and ten British dead to one American. — But they 
were no sooner out than they rallied, and began to press back again ; 
and as our powder was all gone, we fell back. 

"We formed column, and went out of the redoubt between their 

1 " The Welsh Fusiliers advanced on the rail fence ; and when within So or loo yards they deployed 
'uto line, and opened a regular fire by platoons." \_Dearhor7i.'\ 

292 History of Framingham. 

advance and Charlestown (which had then been burnt down). Prescott 
gave the order and said, ' Go and save yourselves, my boys ! ' The 
British were advancing in two columns, and we passed out between 
them. He said, ' Don't go too thick, and then their fire wont do so 
mucli damage; Go quick, but go thin.'^ 

" I was not with Gen. Warren when he fell, having gone into the 
redoubt with a message — as I have just stated, and was there 
detained by Prescott, who said to me, ' Stop, I may want to send you, 
in a minute ; ' and just then the new contest of their breaking into 
the redoubt began. I was sent up with about 60 men, and was told 
by the officers to tell Prescott if he wanted more he could have 
them. But he said, ' No, there are as many men here as can stand to 
advantage.' But he told me to wait a minute, for they were about 
charging us, and he might want to send some word. And so I was 
detained till the British had got possession of the gap." 

T? -TT ^ ^ -)r 

Mr. Maynard here gave an account of finding his brother John, 
wounded, and unable to walk, lying just back of the redoubt; whom 
he succeeded in getting safely ofif to Cambridge. 


In answer to specific questions, Mr. Maynard said : " I saw General 
Pomeroy there; I knew him; He was in the Council of officers of which 
I have spoken. He was from Northampton. He had his gun there. 

" I did not see Stark there. He might have been there, and I not 
have seen him.^ 

" Reed of New Hampshire was there. We had some smart men 
in the Council of officers. Warren had a dark eye ; was a little under 
6 feet in height, well proportioned, with a pleasant face, and his 
countenance was remarkable. There was Prescott, and Brew-er, and 
Nixon, who were all officers in the French war. Both the Nixons and 
Prescott were then Captains. Pomeroy was there ; Reed was there 
some of the time. Prescott was wide awake. He was a bold man, 
and gave his orders like a bold man. 

" Col. John Nixon's regiment was sent on soon after we were. He 
was not there the night before. Nixon was stationed at the hay 
breastwork below the gap. 

" Col. Reed was with Nixon down towards the Mystic. Little was 
somewhere there. I dont know exactly where Gardner was, after I 

1 " The retiring troops passed between two divisions of the British, one of which had turned the 
northeastern end of the breastwork, and the other had come round the angle of the redoubt." \Frotk- 

^ Stark's position was at the extreme left of the American line, at the Mystic. "He reached the 
rail fence just as the fire commenced between the left wing of the British army, and Col. Prescott in 
the redoubt." \^Dearborn.\ 

War of the Revolution. 293 

left Little Cambridge — I saw him there, and saw my brother speak 
to him ; he got his mortal wound on the northerly Hill. 

"Col. Brewer had about 150 men with him — perhaps a little more. 
Many of the men had 'listed only a little while before, and had gone 
home for clothes and things, or there would have been more of us. 
This regiment was stationed in the open field, pretty much the whole 
of it — I mean the gap between the dirt breastwork and the hay 
breastwork. This gap was about 25 rods wide — it might be 30. 
I was in Capt. Haynes' company, which was in this open space. My 
brother John was quarter master's sergeant, but he acted as ensign 
that day. He was two years and three months older than I. 

" Our Lieut. Col., Buckminster, a good friend of Gen. Warren, and 
a true hearted man, had a ball shot through his shoulder. Almost all 
our officers were hurt. Col. Brewer was wounded through the lower 
part of his arm ; Adjutant Butler had a flesh wound in the arm ; Maj. 
Cudworth was unhurt. ^ 

" Gen. Warren brought on a gun ; I dont know whether he used it 
— I did not see him fire. 

"Gen. Pomeroy had his gun with him. 

" Col. Brewer, I know, had a gun and fired it. He had a double- 
barrelled one." 

Mr. Maynard said, "people might dift'er about the length of time 
occupied by the attacks and the pauses between them. He should 
not think the first attack lasted more than fifteen minutes j^ between 
that and the second attack might be an hour — he should think an 
hour and a quarter. There was time enough to get the guns all fixed 
and cooled. There was about the same time between the second and 
third attacks. They couldn't get the troops over from Boston, and 
parade and march, much quicker. And they could not get up so fast 
as they did before, because they displayed on the march. He should 
think the action commenced not far from two o'clock in the afternoon. 
When they got across the Neck, it was a little after sundown, and he 
should think the sun was an hour high when they left the breastwork." 

On being asked why the British did not march into the open gap, 
between the rail-fence and the breastwork before, Mr. M. replied, 
with deep feeling, "You must ask them, not me! They were terribly 

1 In most accounts of the battle, it is implied that these officers were wounded during the second 
attack ; but such is not the fact. Nearly all our officers and men were unhurt till after the British 
had advanced the third time, and got possession of the gap to the eastward of the redoubt. The men 
in the redoubt suffered most from sword and bayonet wounds. And a large part of the fatalities of 
the retreat were caused by the fire from the shipping and from some cannon which were brouglit up to 
Breed's Hill. 

2 " In the course of ten or fifteen minutes the enemy gave way." 'iDearborn.'X 

294 History of Framingham. 

repulsed from that place ! The gap was filled chock full of men There 
was a heavy column there, and men on each side ready to remforce it. 
\See Note A ] Warren was below the gap, against the hay breastwork. 
This brought him about the centre of the line. Many of us thought 
we had rather stand in the open space. We could see better how to 
aim and they might as well take our shins as our heads -though in 
fact' they fired over us. I tell you a man dont know how he will 
feel in his first action." 

"After Gen. Washington arrived at Cambridge, at an interview 
between him and several of the officers who were in the battle of June 
i7th Washington, alluding to Warren, said, 'You lost your com- 
mander-in chief.' And Col. Brewer went on to tell Washington, how 
he lost sight of Warren as he was going towards the redoubt; 
and supposing he had gone on ahead, he followed on with as much 
speed as possible, but found nothing of him. He then supposed he 
must have been shot down by a dead shot, not many rods from the 
spot whence they started ; for they started together from the place 
they had occupied all during the battle." 
" And where was that ? " 

-Just on the other side of the gap, against the hay breastwork - 
only about a rod from the gap." [See Note ^.] ^ , , ^ f 

\Note ^ — It is not easy to determine who composed the bulk ot 
this " heavy column " at the gap. Brewer's regiment was here during 
the three attacks. Some of Nixon's men, and some of Reed s New 
Hampshire men were here a part of the time. Capt. Perkins of Little s 
regiment was here; and Capt. Wade's and part of Capt. Warner s 
companies appear to have been here. Adj. Febiger of Col. Gernsh s 
regiment was probably here, as was one of Col. Gardner's companies. 
C^pt. Benj. Hastings, an associate of Col. Asa Whitcomb m the 
Indian War, though not commissioned, went on with thirty-four men, 
and fought at this point. He was from Bolton, and had been in camp 
since April 20. Callender's company of artillery was stationed here 
for a while, and did excellent service. 

Many of the officers and men stationed here were veterans m war, 
and the defence of this point was of vital importance to the fortunes 
of the day. Swett says : " The open gap was the key to the American 
position" Frothingham says: "The British commander ordered his 
men [on the third attack] to move forward in column, to reserve their 
fire to rely on the bayonet, to direct their main attack on the redoubt, 
and to push the artillery forward to a position that would enable it to 
rake the breastwork. The gallant execution of these orders reversed 
the fortunes of the day."] 

War of the Revolution. 295 

[Note B. — Mr. Maynard's statements in regard to the position 
occupied by Gen. Warren during the battle — though differing from 
most writers on the subject — are so distinct, and so circumstantial, 
that his testimony cannot be gainsaid. There is no room for mistake 
on the ground of misinformation ; and no motive existed for misstate- 
ment. And he is confirmed by the testimony of Sergt. Ebenezer Eaton 
of this town, who was a clear-headed, matter-of-fact man, and took no 
sides in the question of commander-in-chief. He states that he was 
with Gen. Warren when he started from the lines, and saw him fall, 
and with some comrades, made an effort to carry him off the field ; 
but when they found that he was dead, the hot fire from the British 
artillery induced them to leave the body, and try to save their own 

Col. Jonathan Brewer went upon the Hill with about 165 men. 
He received a painful wound in the arm. Lt. Col. Buckminster (who 
was born on the Bowditch farm) received a dangerous wound from a 
musket ball entering the right shoulder and coming out in the middle 
of his back, which made him a cripple for life. Adj. Butler was 
wounded in the arm. Seven of this regiment were reported killed, 
and eleven wounded. One of the killed was Corning Fairbanks, aged 
sixteen, of this town. He is the only Framingham man known to 
have been killed in this battle. Ens. John Maynard was wounded 
and disabled, but got off alive. 

Adj. Samuel Brewer, a brother of Col. Jonathan, was in the battle, 
and was severely wounded. 

Col. John Nixon took with him to Bunker Hill about 300 men ; 
Capt. Thomas Drury of this town was there, and had with him fifty 
of his company, all Framingham men. Part of this company fought 
in the redoubt with Fresco tt, and part were at the hay breastwork 
with the regiment. Peter Salem, who shot Maj. Pitcairn, was a 
member of this company. Capt. Micajah Gleason had six Framing- 
ham men in his company, all of whom were in the battle. Col. Nixon 
was severely wounded during the third attack of the British, and had 
to be carried off the Hill. Lieut. William Maynard, of Capt. Drury's 
company, received a bullet in his hip, which he carried to his grave. 
Three of this regiment were reported killed, and ten wounded. Most 
of these casualties happened after the men left the breastwork. The 
reason why the shots of the British did so little execution during the 
action, is found in a statement made by Sergt. Ebenezer Eaton : " The 
British fired over our heads ; the tops of the young apple trees where 
we stood were cut all to pieces by their bullets." 

After the 17th, the several regiments went into camp at different 
points. Col. Jona. Brewer's regiment was stationed through the 

296 History of Framingham. 

summer at Prospect Hill. This regiment was then known as the 
Sixth. He remained here till Nov. 16, when by some new arrange- 
ment of companies, he was requested to transfer the command to 
Col. Asa Whitcomb. For this graceful act, he was thanked by the 
Provincial Congress ; and Gen. Washington issued an order the 
same day, "that Col. Jonathan Brewer be appointed Barrack Master 
untill something better worth his acceptance could be provided." He 
held this appointment till the army moved to New York the next 

Col. David Brewer, with his regiment, was stationed at Roxbury, 
through the season. 

Col. John Nixon was at Winter Hill, where he remained till March, 

1776, and probably held the post till the army went to New York. 
His regiment was called the Fourth. 

The nominal date of discharge of the eight months men was Dec. 
31, though some companies completed their term Dec. 24, and others 
not till the early spring. Many of the companies were persuaded to 
remain in the service after their time had expired. 

No bounties were offered to our men at the time; but March 10, 

1777, the town '■'■voted the sum of £6^ to each of those non-commis- 
sioned officers and soldiers that engaged eight months in the service 
soon after the battle of Lexington, whose terms expired in the January 

The method of providing the army with guns and camp tools, is 
indicated by the following bill : 

" The Colony of the Massachusetts Bay, to Josiah Stone, — Dr. 

"For collecting 42 fire arms; also for purchasing collecting and 
transporting 31 wood axes to Head Quarters by order of Congress, 
for the use of said Colony Army, viz. 

To 4 days collecting said Arms @ 6s. per day ^i. 4. o 

To 2 days collecting said Axes " 12.0 

To cash paid for transporting said Axes 2. o 

The prices given for said Axes are as followeth 

of Asaph Bigelow, 4 Axes @ 6s. i. 4. o 

"Jona. Rugg, i @ V, Seth BuUard, i ©s^ u. 4 

"Josiah Temple, i " 5 ^J, Wm Maynard, i " y 11. 4 

"Jesse Fames, 2 ""/, John Fames, i " 6 jg q 

"Jonas Clark, i " H Dan' Stone, i " '\ 12.8 

"JohnFisk, 3 " '7 , Joseph Haven, i " S4 i. 2. 4 

"Jos. Bixby, i " "^4, Henry Fames Jr. i " '^ 4 13-0 

"Jesse Haven, i " ^ , Dan' Sanger, 11 " '3. 4 3. 19. 4 

^11. 10. o 
" Framingham Aug. 10, 1775. 

War of the Revolution. 297 

" Sept. 20, 1775. Ordered to be paid out of the Public Treasury of 
this Colony." 

"In Council of War, Dec. i, 1775, voted that a temporary re-in- 
forcement of 5000 men be called for, to defend the fortifications at 
Cambridge and Roxbury." The quota of Framingham was twenty- 

In response to this call, Capt. Simon Edgell raised a company of 
thirty-three men, and reported for duty. 

A true Roll of Capt. Simoji EdgeWs Militia company, from Framiiigham, 
now in Roxlniry, in Col. IVyllys' regiment, six weeks service, from 
Dec. 7, ij-/^ to Jan. zy, 1776. 

Capt. Simon Edgell David Rice 

Lieut. Jesse Eames William Haven 

Lieut. John Gleason Joseph Winch 

Nathan Drury Gideon Rider 

John Bent Abel Childs 

Roger Brown John Kendall 

Matthias Bent Timothy Pike 

Silas Pike John Holbrook 

William Cushing John Snelling 

Moses Edgell Timothy Ballard 

Joseph Pullen Nathan Barrett 

Cheever Kendall Elias Hemenway 

J. Grant Haven Henry Eames 

Daniel Jones Jotham Eames 

Jonathan Rice James Mellen 

Uriah Rice Joseph Levering 

Isaac How 
The town paid the men a bounty of sixteen shillings each. 
1776. — Jan. 20, a call was issued for 4,368 men for the army at 
Cambridge, to serve till April i. 

Under this call, Capt. Simon Edgell enlisted a company of eighty- 
five men : twenty-five from Framingham, four from Natick, two from 
Sherborn, twenty-five from Marlborough, fifteen from Hopkinton, 
and fourteen from HoUiston, The company marched Jan. 29. The 
names of the Framingham men were, Capt. Simon Edgell, Andrew 
AUard, Ebenezer Boutwell, James Boutwell, Abel Childs, Joseph 
Cutting, Moses Cutting, Nathan Dadmun, Timothy Dadmun, Timothy 
Darling, Jotham Eames, Jonathan Edmunds, Allen Flagg, Aaron 
Haven, Joshua Grant Haven, Jotham Haven, Elias Hemenway, 
Joshua Hemenway, Isaac How, John Kendall, Jacob Pepper, Joseph 
Pullen, Peter Salem, Joshua Trowbridge, Joseph Winch. The term 

298 History of Framingham. 

of service of this company expired April i. The town paid our own 
men a bounty of £\ each. 

March 4. A call was issued for men to fortify Dorchester Heights. 
In addition to the men already in the service, under Capt. Edgell, this 
town sent five recruits, who were assigned to Capt. John Hartwell's 
company, in Col. Eleazer Brooks' regiment. 

Simultaneously with this call, Gen. Washington formed the deter- 
mination to force the British to evacuate Boston. As a first step, on 
the night of March 4, he quietly took possession of, and fortified 
Dorchester Heights, which commanded the harbor and shipping. 
The result was that on the 17th, Lord Wm. Howe and the British 
troops set sail for Halifax, and Gen. Washington and the American 
army entered the city, after it had been for sixteen months in posses- 
sion of the enemy. 

The Committee of Correspondence elected in this town this year, 
were, Ebenezer Marshall, Elijah Kendall, Capt. Joseph Eames, Ens. 
Jesse Haven, Lieut. David Haven, Peter Parker, Capt. Amos Gates, 
Dr. Ebenezer Hemenway, and Benjamin Eaton. Voted, that the 
Committee have no power of Inspection, but of correspondence only. 

The olBcers of the South Middlesex regiment of Militia, this year, 

Col. Samuel Bullard of Sherborn, 

Lieut. Col. Micah Stone of Framingham, 

First Maj. Abner Perry of Holliston, 

Second Maj. John Trowbridge of Framingham, 

Adj. John Gleason of Framingham. 

The regular officers of our North militia company were, Capt. 
Joseph Winch, Lieut. Lawson Buckminster, Ens. Gideon Haven. Of 
the South company, Capt. Jesse Eames, Lieut. Richard Fiske, Ens. 
Asaph Bigelow. 

Up to this date, all town meetings had been called " In his 
Majesty's name." But the warrant issued May 6, this year, was 
headed, " In the name of the Government and People of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay." 

Early in April, Gen. Washington removed his headquarters from 
Cambridge to New York. Col. John Nixon's regiment went thither 
probably with Sullivan's brigade. Capt. Micajah Gleason and a 
number of Framingham men, followed the fortunes of their colonel. 
Among these were Lieut. Peter Clayes, Lieut. Jonathan Maynard, 
Samuel Frost, and Charles and Micah Dougherty. The last three 
received commissions as lieutenants in different companies, and con- 
tinued in the service (as did Clayes and Maynard) through the war. 

Jacob Cromwell of this town was in camp at Hull, in Capt. A. 
Haskell's company, from May Jo August, 

War of the Revolution. 299 

In June, a requisition was made for troops " for the defence of 
Boston." Sergt. Frederick Manson and a squad of ten men marched 
June 19, and were stationed at Noddle's Island, till Dec. 2'. They 
were attached to Capt. Henry Prentiss' company in Col. Thomas 
Marshall's regiment. The men received £2. 8 advance pay, and a 
like sum per month as wages. Sergt. Frederick Manson, Corp. 
Micah Drury, Nathan Barrett, Caesar Boston, Caleb Drury, John 
Holbrook, Perley Howe, Hezekiah Rice, Jona. Rice, Sen., Jona. 
Rice, Jr. 

June 25, another call for troops was made. At a town meeting 
July I, it was ^^ Voted to pay £^^1 per man to all that will voluntarily 
enlist into the continental service;" and Capt. Josiah Stone was 
appointed a committee to secure enlistments, form companies, collect 
arms, etc. The whole sum which he expended in securing men to go 
to New York in the three months service was £^Z9- ^7- ^- This 
did not include the ^63 paid to Capt Edgell's men. 

July 8, the town " voted that Wm. Maynard be a committee to 
purchase ten good fire arms, and John Pratt to purchase twenty 
blankets for the use of the soldiers that shall enlist." 

Under this call Capt. Simon Edgell raised a company of seventy- 
eight men, and marched for Ticonderoga, Aug. 15. The company 
was attached to Col, Samuel Brewer's regiment, and was in service 
till Dec. I. The men from this town were 

Capt. Simon Edgell, Jotham Fames, 

Ens. John Drury, Eleazar Kendall, 

Corp. Nathan Dadmun, Israel Leadbetter, 

Nathaniel Bigelow, Jacob Pike, 

William Cushing, Barechias Wait. 

Elijah Dadmun, 

This company marched via Bennington and Pawlet, Vt., and was 
stationed at Ticonderoga Mills, Mt. Hope, Mt. Independence, etc. 

July 4, the Congress passed a Declaration that the thirteen colonies 
are, and henceforth shall be Free and Independent States. This Decla- 
ration was signed Aug. 2, and soon after sent to all the Colonies. On 
its reception in this town, it was carefully entered in the town 

Aug. 9, Col. John Nixon was promoted to the rank of brigadiergeneral, 
and his brother Thomas was commissioned colonel of his regiment. 
Gen. Nixon, with his old regiment and another, and a corps of artillery, 
was placed in command of Governor's Island in New York harbor. 
This island is situated at the mouth of the East river, and was 
strongly fortified. After the defeat of Washington and his army at 
Brooklyn, Aug. 27, Gen. Nixon drew off his brigade and crossed over 

300 History of Framingham. 

to New York, without accident. He moved up the North river with 
the army, and with his brigade served on this line of defence through 
the remainder of the war. 

Aug. 22, twelve Framingham men enlisted " for the defence of 
Boston," and were assigned to Capt. Caleb Brooks' company, in Col. 
N. Dike's regiment. They were in service till Dec. i. Their names 
are as follows: Ebenezer Ballard, Daniel Bigelow, Jona. Dadmun, 
Perley Fairbanks, Thomas Fessenden, Ebenezer Hemenway, Elias 
Hemenway, Timothy Pike, Daniel Rice, James Rice, John Stone, 
Samuel Walker. Seven of the above, and John Fairbanks, Silas 
Smith, and Isaac Cutler, re-enlisted in the same company and regi- 
ment for three months, from Dec. i, to Feb. 28, 1777. 

At the same time, Dec. i, the following Framingham men enlisted 
in Capt. INIoses Harrington's company, same regiment, for three 
months service, viz. 

Corp. Joseph Belcher, William Richards, 

Jacob Belcher, Daniel Rugg, 

John Maynard, Azariah Walker, 

Benjamin Morse, Samuel Walker. 

Lieut. Jonathan Temple of this town, enlisted in Capt. John 
Walton's company (of Cambridge), Col. E. Brooks' regiment, and was 
in service on the North river through the year. 

Under the call of Sept. 10, Capt. Aaron Gardner of Sherborn, raised 
a company of seventy men, who were assigned to Col. E. Brooks' 
regiment, and were in service on the North river, till Nov. 19, sixty- 
two days. Micah Stone of this ^town was Lieut. Colonel in this 
regiment, and Moses Adams was chaplain. 

Mttster-Roll of Capt. Aaron Gardner's company iii Col. E. 
Brooks'' regiment. 

Capt. Aaron Gardner, Sherborn 
Lt. Lawson Buckminster, Framingham 
Ens. John Parmenter, Hopkinton 
Sergt. Abijah Stratton, Natick 

" Abel Fisk, Hopkinton 

" Eben*^ Winch, Framingham 

" Asa Drury, Natick 
Corp. David Whitney, Holliston 

" James Mellen, Framingham 

" Elisha Johnson, Holliston 

" Josiah Bent, Framingham 
Drum'' Joshua Hemenway, Holliston 
Fif"" Silas Stone, Sherborn 

War of the Revohction. 

30 ] 

Abijah Abbott, 
Samuel Angier, 
Elisha Bern is, Jr., 
Nathan Bixby, 
William Clark, 
Joseph Darling, 
Zaccheus Fairbanks, 
George Gates, 
Isaac Gibbs, 
Thaddeus Hemenway, 
Samuel Jones, 
Cheever Kendall, 
Nathan Kendall, 
Thomas Kendall, 
Benjamin Morse, 
James Morse, 
Jonathan Morse, 
James Newton, 
Samuel Odell, 
Abner Pratt, 
Elisha Robinson, 
Isaac Smith, 
Jonas Underwood, 
Joshua Burnam, 
Ebenezer Claflin, 
Lemuel Clark, 
Joseph Frail, 
Amariah Haven, Jr., 
Richard Hiscock, 
Thomas Hiscock, 
Benj. Mastick, 
John Morse, 
Jacob Parker, 
William Pierce, 
Zedekiah Hill, 
Jona. Holbrook, 
Ebenezer Stratton, 
Joseph Ware, 
Jona. Fairbanks, 
Jonathan Gay, 
Abner Johnson, 
Zedekiah Johnson, 





302 History of Framiiighain. 

Daniel Leland, HolHston 

Eben'- Littlefield, 

John Merrifield, " 

Simon Slocum, " 

Asa Underwood, " ' 

Nathaniel Battle, Natick 

Andrew Dewing, " 

William Dyer, 

John Felch, 

Caesar Jahah, " 

Eleazar Perry, " 

Marcus Scammon, '' 

Moses Stanford, " 

Ephraim Whitney, " 

This company was in the battle at White Plains, Oct. 28. Lemuel 
Clark was killed, and Silas Stone, Samuel Angier, Benj. Mastick, 
Jona. Holbrook, Joseph Ware, Ebenezer Stratton, wounded. This 
town paid her own men on this expedition, ;^4. 10. bounty each. 

Capt. Micajah Gleason, and his company, of Col. T. Nixon's regi- 
ment, were in this battle at White Plains, and Capt. Gleason was 

Nov. 3. A number of our men enlisted for three months, under 
Capt. Trowbridge, for service " in the Jersies." The roll has not 
been found ; but it is known that Uriah Rice was one of the men. 

Nov. 21. Joseph How of this town, enlisted into the army, for the 

1777. — The ofBcers of the Franiingham militia companies this 
year, were John Gleason, captain; John Eames, lieutenant; Nathan 
Drur}', ensign of the South company; Richard Fiske, captain; 
Cornelius Claflin, lieutenant; Josiah Temple, ensign of the West 
company. Capt. Joseph Winch commanded the North company. 

Capt. Benjamin Edwards, Benjamin Eaton, Lieut. Lawson Buckmin- 
ster, Daniel Hemenway, Noah Eaton, Jr., Adj. John Gleason, and 
Capt. Thomas Drury, were chosen Committee of Correspondence, 
Inspection and Safety. 

Gen. Washington early perceived the impossibility of organizing an 
efficient army, out of recruits enlisted for short terms of three to eight 
months. And when his forces marched up the North river, after the 
defeat at Brooklyn, the army came near being broken up by the 
discharges of these short-term companies. At his earnest solicitation, 
seconded by all his general officers, the Continental Congress, in the 
autumn of 1776, provided for the formation of a regular army by the 
enlistment of men to serve during the war. As an inducement to enlist, 

War of the Revolution. 303 

a bounty of ;^2o was offered, to be paid at the time of muster; and 
the following quotas of land promised : To a colonel, 500 acres; to a 
major, 400 acres; to a captain, 300 acres; to a lieutenant, 200 acres; 
to an ensign, 150 acres; and 100 acres to non-commissioned officers 
and privates. These terms were afterwards modified, so as to admit 
of enlistments for three years, or during the war; but the three years 
men were not entitled to any grant of land. 

Of the eighty-eight battalions ordered to be raised, Massachusetts 
was required to furnish fifteen. 

Jan. 26, 1777. In accordance with this order of the Congress, the 
Massachusetts Assembly passed a resolve, requiring each town in her 
jurisdiction to furnish " every seventh man of sixteen years old and 
upwards, without any exceptions, save the people called Quakers." 

The quota of Framingham under this call was fifty-five. 

One of our men, Joseph How (son of Joseph, born April 8, 1754), 
had enlisted for the war in November preceding. And without 
waiting for any action of the town, in January and February sixteen 
of our men enlisted. At the town meeting, March 10, Adj. John 
Gleason, Capt. Thomas Drury, Lieut. William Maynard, David Patter- 
son, Lieut. John Fames and Jonas Eaton were appointed a committee 
to find men who were willing " to engage in the service on any terms," 
the committee to be at liberty " to act discretionary in making 
proposals of enlistment." At an adjournment, the town " z;<7/<?^, to 
give every non-commissioned officer and soldier £2)'^ that would 
engage in the army during the war or for three years, to be paid on 
their passing muster, if they engage by next Thursday." Later, the 
bounty offered was increased to ;^4o, as the surrounding towns paid 
this sum. The' town hired the sum of ;!^i,ooo, to pay these bounties. 
And Lieut. Wm. Maynard was desired to go to Boston to hire men. 

While this enlistment was in progress, under a call of April 12, 
Capt. John Gleason was sent with twelve Framingham men to North 
Kingston, R. L, where he was in service in Col. Josiah Whitney's 
regiment, two months and eight days. The men were, Corp. Elias 
Hemenway, Corp. Joshua Hemenway, Fifer Luther Eaton, Increase 
Claflin, Jonathan Dadmun, Micah Drury, Silas Gates, Ebenezer 
Hemenway, Benjamin Holden, Solomon Newton, Jacob Pepper, David 

Henderson Walkup was in Capt. Isaac Martin's compan)', Rhode 
Island service, from April 17, twenty-three days. 

In obedience to a resolve passed April 30, requiring the Massa- 
chusetts quotas of soldiers for the Continental army to be immediately 
completed, the selectmen. Committee of Correspondence and militia 
officers united in warning the inhabitants of Framingham to meet at 


History of Framingham. 

the meeting-house in said town on May 15, at twelve o'clock M., "to 
determine the best method for raising the number that is wanting of 
our complement in this town." "Likewise the Militia and Alarm 
Companies are required to meet at i o'clock the same day, to enlist 
or draft the number from said Companies as best shall serve the good 
of the town." At the meeting thus called, it was ^^ voted, not to draft 
any men for the service, as we now want but two men of our quota, 
and have nine commissioned officers going out of this town." The 
commissioned officers (not including Col. Thomas Nixon) referred to, 
were Capt. John Gleason, Lieutenants Peter Clayes, Chas. Dougherty, 
Micah Dougherty, Cornelius Claflin, Samuel Frost, Nathan Drury, 
Jonathan Maynard, Luther Trowbridge. 

The names of the men known as The First Three Years Men, who 
had enlisted at this time, with date and term of enlistment, are here 
given. Such as re-enlisted in 1780, under the second call, are 

John Byrns, 
John Boyden, 
Csesar Boston, 
Joseph Barrett, 
Nathan Barrett, 
Edmund Britt, 
Michael Caravan, 
Benjamin Clark, 
David Drury, 
Samuel Everdon, 
Samuel Evens, 
Cato Freeman, 
Isaac How, 
Simon How, 
Daniel Heley, 
Morris Handley, 
John Hood, 
John Hofard, 
Wm. Hemenway, 
Aaron Hill, 
Joseph How, Jr., 
Silas Haven, 
Jona. Hemenway, 
Cato Hart, 
Elijah How, 
Isaac Hemenway, 





Date. Term, etc. 

Jan. I, 1777, re-enlisted, 1780. 
Jan. I, 1777. 

Jan., 1777. 
Jan., 1777. 

Jan., 1777. 
April 5, 1777, 

Jan., 1777. 



for the war. 

for the war. 
Feb. 8, 1777, re-enlisted, 1780. 
Mar. 2, 1777. 

for the war, 

for the war. 

Jan., 1777. 

Mar. 22, 1777, 
Jan., 1777. 
Nov., 1776, 
Jan. I, 1777, 
Mar. 2, 1777. 
Feb., 1777, 
Feb. I, 1777. 
Feb. I, 1777. 

for the war. 
for the war. 

for the war. 

War of the Revolution. 


Name. Residence. Date. Term, etc. 

Sergt.JamesHemenway, Framingham, Jan. i, 1777, re-enlisted, 1780. 

Adam Isar, 
Reuben Jager, 
John Larkin, 
Moses Learned, 
Daniel Maxwell, 
Benjamin Morse, 
Job Mehorton, 
Michael Manley,. 
Daniel North, 
David Norris, 
Jonathan Norris, 
Thomas Nixon, Jr., 
Obed Nute, 
William Powell, 
Richard Pool, 
Joseph Pognet, 
Joseph Pullen, 
James Riley, 
Richard Smith, 
Peter Salem, 
Isaac Silver, 
John Taylor, 
Peter Tower, 
Joseph Vale, 
Thomas Winch, 
William Welch, 








Mar. I, 1777, re-enlisted. 

for the war : K. 

Feb. 28, 1777, for the war. 

Jan. 1777. 

Framingham, Mar. 14, 1777, re-enlisted. 








Feb. 12, 1777. 
Feb. 8, 1777. 



for the war. 

for the war. 


March 20, 1777. 


14, 1777. 


A considerable number of these men were assigned to Capt. A. 
Holden's company, in Col. T. Nixon's regiment. 

June. Capt. Josiah Stone was elected a member of the Massachu- 
setts Council. His letter of acceptance is as follows : 

To the HonW the President of the Council of the State of Massachusetts 

Framingham June 23, 1777 

Honoured Sir: — When I received from the Secretary an account of my 
Election to the Board, was confined in the hospital with the small-pox — 
where I remained till the 19th instant, in which time I buried a dear 
daughter, eleven years old — have had the disorder myself very violently, 
whereby I am reduced to a very low state of health ; but through Divine 
goodness am now in a fine way. 

When I consider the importance of the duty to which I am called, I 
almost stagger at the thought of accepting the trust : but considering the 
Righteous Cause in which we are engaged that must be defended, rather 


3o6 History of Framinghain. 

than be thought a deserter or a coward, I have determined to wait on the 
Honbl Board as soon as my health will permit. 

Your Honours most obdt 

and humble Servt 

JosiAH Stone. 

June 14. A squad of men was called for to guard the stores in 
the garrison house at Sherborn. The number and names of the men 
have not been found. 

June 23. The town chose IMaj. John Trowbridge as their agent, 
" to inspect any person who should be thought enemical to the 
United States of America, as provided by a law of the Great and 
General Court." 

July 5, Ticonderoga was surrendered by Gen. St. Clair, to the 
British forces under Gen. Burgoyne. This severe loss to the Ameri- 
can cause was followed by what was known as The Bennington Alarm. 

Under the call of August 9, Capt. Joseph Winch raised a company 
of ninety men and marched Aug. 14, via Bennington, for service in the 
Northern Department, and was out till Dec. 10. Noah Eaton, Jr., 
carted the soldiers' baggage as far as Bennington. The men belonged 
to Framingham, Sherborn, Holliston, etc. As this company w-as 
engaged in the battles, under Gen. Gates, which led to the surrender 
of Burgoyne, and was present at the surrender, their names are here 

Miister-Roll of Capt. jfoseph WincJi's compafiy in Col. Samuel 
Billiard'' s regiment of Massachusetts State Militia, from August 16, 
to Dec. 10, 1777. 

Service in the N'orthern Department. 


Joseph Winch 

Joshua Kendall 


Abel Fiske 

Oliver Leland 


Joshua Fisk 

Benjamin Lamb 


Barechias Wait 

Thomas Low- 

Shubael Seaver 

Timothy Leland 

James Nutt 

Nathaniel Moulton 

Zechariah Johnson 

Jesse Miller 


Amos Morse 

Aaron Pierce 

Timothy Ballord 

Hezekiah Rice 

Samuel Stone 

Richard Stanford 

Barak Leland 

Amos Underwood 


■■ Abel Greenwood 

Thaddeus Wait 


Isaac Smith 

Joseph Wood 

Ebenezer Allen 

John Wesson 

Jonas Breck 

Reuben Asten 

War of the Revolution. 


Ephraim Bigelow 
John Barney 
Joseph Breed 
Asa Bullard 
Benjamin Butcher 
Silas Bacon 
Joel Coolidge 
Cuff Cuzzens 
Isaac Cuzzens 
Phineas Chamberlain 
Perley Death 
Ebenezer Death 
Ebenezer Dowse 
Noah Eaton 
Simeon Evans 
Jesse Foristall 
Hopestill Fairbanks 
Elisha Frost 
Silas Fairbanks 
John Foristall 
Joseph Foristall 
James Gibson 
Joshua Hemenway 
Ebenezer Hemenway 
Elias Hemenway 
Thaddeus Hemenway 
Abijah Hemenway 
John Holbrook 
Samuel Kendall 
Daniel Knowlton 
Nathan Knowlton 

John Cody 
Thomas Drury 
Allen Flagg 
Stephen Kilburn 
Alexander Kelley 
James Morse 
Joseph Norcross 
Levi Smith 
John Wilson 
Paul Bigelow 
Jotham Brick 
Timothy Bacon 
John Badger 
Thomas Dority (negro) 
Jotham Eames 
Edmund Entwishill 
James McFarland 
Oldham Gates 
George Gates 
Nathaniel Graves 
Caesar Jahah 
James Johnson 
Eleazar Kendall 
Marcus Lyman 
David Morse 
Joseph Nichols 
Joseph Nurse 
David Rice 
John Stone 
Caleb Seager 

Sergt. James Nutt of this company was killed in battle at Stillwater, 
Sept. 18. 

Sergt. Maj. Frederick Manson and Drum Maj. Joshua Eaton were 
in Capt. Joseph Fuller's company, Col. Samuel Bullard's regiment, 
from Aug. 16, three months and twenty-five days. They were in the 
battle of Stillwater. 

Job Houghton (died 1779) and John Harvey, both credited to 
Framingham, were in Capt. Aaron Haynes' Sudbury company, three 
months, from Aug. 15. 

Jonathan Gleason enlisted in Capt. Noah Allen's company, Col. 
Edw. Wigglesworth's regiment, Aug. 15. 

3o8 History of Framingham. 

Jacob and Samuel Hemenway were in Capt. John Maynard's 
Shrewsbury company " that marched on the Bennington Alarm," and 
were out three days. 

Aug. 1 6, Lieut. Cornelius Claflin, with a squad of men, went to 
Cambridge to guard public stores. 

Sept. 29, Lieut. Nathan Drury and other Framingham men, were in 
Capt. Daniel Eames' Holliston company, in the Rhode Island service, 
thirty-three days. Their names were, Sergt. John Bent, Sergt. Aza- 
riah Walker, Corp. Elias Grout, Corp. John Maynard, Elijah Dadmun, 
Hanover Dickerson, Nahum Pratt, Micah Drury, Jacob Belcher, 
Increase Claflin, Timothy Haven. 

Timothy Eames was in Capt. Asahel Wheeler's company in service 
in the Northern Department one month, from Sept. 28. 

Rufus Hemenway was out in Capt. Nathan Watkins' company. 
Col. Samuel Brewer's regiment, till Dec. 26. 

Lieutenants Peter Clayes, Jona. Maynard, Samuel Frost, and the 
two Doughertys, and all our three years men were in Gen. Gates' 
army, and in the battles at Stillwater and Saratoga. David Haven 
was "slain by the enemy near Saratoga, Oct. 8, aged 17." 

Gen. John Nixon's brigade, in which was Col. Thomas Nixon's 
regiment, performed gallant service in the decisive battles of Sept. 19, 
and Oct. 7. 

The following entries in Col. T. Nixon's Orderly Book, have 
interest as showing the movements of his own regiment and his 
brother's brigade; and incidentally referring to other persons and 
events : 

" Headquarters at Peekskill July 3, when was ordered to move up 
the River, above the chain at Fort Montgomery. 

"July 8, at Albany. 

"July 12, at Fort Edward. This day Gen. Schuyler orders Gen, 
Nixon to immediately march his brigade to Fort Ann; to detach two 
scouts, one to the west and the other to the east side of Wood Creek, 
to discover if. the enemy are approaching either by land or water. . . . 
Having dispatched the scouts you are to burn the saw-mills which are 
near Fort Ann, and then fall the trees growing on the banks of Wood 

Creek into the same If a superior body of the enemy shall 

appear, you are to retire, and break up all bridges in your rear. 

" You will find Brig. Gen. Fellows with a body of men, on your 
march. You are to take him and the troops along with you. 

"July 14. Gen. Nixon's camp was at Kingsborough. Gen, Nixon 
received orders to march : the army to move in the following order, 
viz. the regiment of Col. T. Nixon in the front, followed by Colonels 
Alden, Putnam and Greaton : The York militia to follow Greaton : 

War of the Revohdion. 309 

Col. Brown's regiment to bring up the rear; Capt. Goodrich and Capt. 
Maxwell to command the Advance guard. The utmost vigilance to 
be observed : nothing must be done in a hurry : great order and 
silence must be observed on the march. He that behaves well, from a 
private upwards will be rewarded. 

" July 19. Headquarters at Fort Edward. The advance brigades 
ordered to keep scouts continually out: Gen-. Learned to send his up 
Hudson's river and Lake George : Gen. Nixon to send his to South 
Bay, Skeensborough and Fort Ann. 

"July 26. Col. Samuel Brewer is detailed as president of a general 
court martial. 

"July 27. Gen. Nixon's headquarters at Moses Creek. 

"Aug. I. Headquarters at Saratoga. 

" Aug. 9. Headquarters at Stillwater. 

" Aug. 13. Col. Samuel Brewer is ordered to cross the River, march 
through Scaticook to collect cattle and drive them down to New City. 

"Aug. 15. Nixon's camp was five miles north of Half Moon. 

"Aug. 20, when General Gates took command of the army, 
Nixon's headquarters was at Van Schaik's Island. 

"Sept, 9. Headquarters at Stillwater. 

"Sept. 16. Gen. Burgoyne's army is marching this way. Every 
man on this ground is to have two days' provisions cooked this 

" Sept. 18. The commissary is to deliver half agill of rum to every 
man in camp to-morrow morning. 

" Sept. 19. This day a battle was fought from 3 o'clock till a quarter 
after six in the evening. [In this battle Nixon's brigade formed a 
part of the right wing, under the immediate command of Gen. Gates. 
Ebenezer Drury a native of this town was taken prisoner.] 

" Oct. 7. This day a battle was fought on Bemis Heights and the 
enemy retreated; it began about 4 o'clock." 

Oct. II. When it was proposed to assault Burgoyne's camp, north 
of Fish Creek (Saratoga), Gen. Gates ordered Morgan's corps of 
sharpshooters, Nixon's and Glover's brigades, to lead the attack. 
At daylight, under cover of a thick fog, which at that season of the 
year lies upon the valley until after sunrise, Nixon with his brigade 
crossed the Creek, advanced upon the plain and reached Fort Hardy, 
where he captured a picket of sixty men. At this juncture, through a 
deserter, it was ascertained that Burgoyne's whole army was lying in 
ambush, having received information of the proposed advance of 
Gates. Nixon and Morgan received orders to fall back; and the 
former had scarcely re-crossed the Creek when the fog lifted, and the 
British opened fire upon him. A cannon-ball passed so near his 
head as to impair the hearing and sight on one side. 

3IO History of Frainingham. 

After the capitulation of Burgoyne, Oct. 17, Gen. Nixon's brigade 
Iiad head-quarters at Albany. The General himself, with five men of 
his brother's regiment, was detailed to accompany Gen. Brickett and 
Gen. Glover, in escorting the prisoners from Saratoga to Cambridge. 
Gen. Nixon's furlough was extended till the next June; and he 
improved the time in marrying, as his second wife, the widow of his 
old friend, Capt. M. Gleason, who was killed at White Plains in 1776. 

The total number of men in the service from this town (including 
the Three Years' men), in this memorable year, was one hundred and 

1778. — The extraordinary calls for soldiers, the last year, had 
drawn heavily on our militia ; and many of our men who were induced 
to enlist, were unable to make suitable provision for their families at 
home. The town promptly undertook to take care of such families ; 
and also to see that her soldiers did not lack for suitable clothing. 

Jan. 26. The town chose Ebenezer Marshall, Benj. Mixer, Peter 
Parker, Abraham Nurse, Lieut. Nathan Winch a committee "to 
provide for the families of such soldiers from this town as have 
enlisted into the Continental Army," and granted ;^ioo for this 
purpose. The next year the sum of ;^ioo was granted for the same 
purpose ; and the committee, with full powers, was continued from 
year to year. 

Mar. 2. A committee, consisting of Capt. John Gleason, Lieut. 
Wm. Maynard, Lieut. John Shattuck, John Fiske, Lieut. Nathan 
Drury, Lieut. Joseph Mixer, Capt. Simon Edgell, was chosen, "to 
provide a quantity of clothing for the soldiers from this town in the 
Continental Army, who are to send on such clothing by a fit person ; 
and granted ^500 for this purpose." 

At the same meeting, the town granted the sum of eighteen hundred 
pounds to pay the soldiers' bounty money. 

The committee of correspondence chosen this year, were Lieut. 
John Shattuck, Benj. Eaton, Thomas Stone sen., Capt. Thomas Drury, 
Lieut. Samuel Gleason Jr., Peter Parker, Joseph Bixby. 

" Voted to pay Eben"^ Marshall for 29 spades and pickaxes for the 
use of the army, (a i8s. each." 

It cost more time and more money to secure enlistments to fill the 
levies this year than last ; but our town maintained its good reputation 
in this respect. 

Jan. I, Lieut. John Eames 2d went with a squad of men to R. I., 
and was out three months. 

Under the resolve of Feb. 8, calling for detachments of the militia, 
to guard the Convention Prisoners at Cambridge, twelve Framingham 

War of the Revohition, 3 1 1 

men joined Capt. John Holmes' company, in Col. Jona. Reed's 
regiment. They were in service from April 2 to July 4. Their names 
are as follows : ' Joseph Fairbanks, Perley Fairbanks, Amos Gates, 
Henry Gates, Samuel Gleason, Daniel Knowlton, Jason Parmenter, 
Joel Parmenter, Joseph Parmenter, Phinehas Rice, Peter Tower, 
Joseph Winch Jr. 

Jeffrey Hemenway was in Capt. Ebenezer Belknap's company, Col. 
Nathaniel Wade's regiment, from April i to Jan. i, '79. 

April 20. A Resolve passed the General Court, for raising fifteen 
battalions, to re-inforce the Northern army for eight and nine months. 
Framingham was required to furnish 10 men for the 9 months' service, 
to be reckoned "after their arrival at Fishkill." The town '''■voted 
May II, To hire the 10 men now called for in the Continental Army." 
Eight men enlisted, viz. Lieut. Cornelius Claflin, Sergt. J. Grant 
Haven, Sergt. Increase Claflin, Corp. Eleazar Kendall, Daniel 
Gleason, Micah Drury, Ephraim Newton, Hezekiah Rice. They were 
attached to Capt. Caleb Moulton's East Sudbury company, in Col. 
Thos. Poor's regiment. 

At the same time 8 men were called for " to fortify the North 
River," and to be put 8 months after their arrival at Peekskill. The 
town voted to hire the 8 men now called for ; and granted the sum of 
^1670 to pay for the above quotas. 

Under the two calls, above named, the town hired six Frenchmen, 
who engaged to serve during the war ; and " to complete the defi- 
cienc}'," drafted Aaron Hill aged 25, Caleb Stacey aged 18, Timothy 
Pike aged 18, who afterwards enlisted for the war. (The last three 
men were in Capt. Buckminster's company, Col. Samuel Bullard's 

The full quota of Framingham, under the call for the 15 battalions, 
appears to have been 30 men. Including the 6 Frenchmen and 
Timothy Pike who enlisted_/fr the war, she raised 24. The selectmen 
claimed that this fully equalled the 30 eight and nine months' men 
called for, and the town refused to draft or hire any more men. The 
Massachusetts authorities decided otherwise ; and Framingham was 
fined ^780 for the deficiency. A careful inquiry was subsequently 
instituted; and the final decision was in our favor; and the ne.xt year 
the fine was remitted. 

June 12. Capt. Simon Edgell raised a company of 28 men from 
this town, Hopkinton and Sherborn, for six months' service in R. I. 
in Col. Nath'l Wade's regiment. The Framingham men were Sergt. 
Barechias Wait, Corp. David Brewer, Drummer Moses Edgell, 
Hanover Dickerson, Thad. Hemenway, Jacob Parmenter, Amos 
Underwood, Silas Winch. 

312 History of Frainingham. 

Henderson Walkup enlisted from Upton in Capt. Bachelder's 
Northbridge company. 

June 15. At a town meeting called to consider the proposed 
Constitution or Form of Government, after debate the vote stood yfz'^ 
in favor and seventy-seven against it. 

In July a number of our militia went to Cambridge to guard the 
Convention Prisoners, and were out 5^^ months. 

July 28. Col. Hawes' regiment was ordered out for service in 
R. .1. for six weeks. John Trowbridge was major in the regiment ; 
and the following Framingham men were in Capt. Amos Perry's 
Holliston company, viz. Sergt. James Mellen, Jacob Belcher, Timothy 
Ballord, Frederick Brown, Joel Coolidge, Daniel Dadmun, Thomas 
Drury, Perley Fairbanks, Jacob Gibbs, John Hemenway, Nathan 
Kendall, Benj. Morse, Josiah Nurse (who died at Seaconk on his 
return, aged 17), Ezekiel Rice, Daniel Stone, Josiah Stone. 

In Oct., Sergt. Abel Stone and some men from this town went to 
Providence, and were in service 3 months. 

Oct. I. A court martial met at Pawling, Dutchess Co. N. Y. for 
the trial of Gen. Schuyler, on his own demand, for " Neglect of Duty 
in the campaign of '77, by which Ticonderoga was surrendered to the 
British." The court was composed of the following officers, viz. 
Maj. General Benjamin Lincoln, Preside7it 
Brig. General John Nixon 
" " George Clinton 

" " Anthony Wayne 

" " J. P. G. Muhlenberg 

Colonels John Greaton, Francis Johnson, Rufus Putnam, Mordecai 
Gist, Wm. Russell, Wm. Grayson, Walter Stewart, R. J. Meigs. John 
Laurens, jfudge Advocate. 

As is well known, after a patient hearing, the Court unanimously 
decided that he was not guilty, and " we do therefore acquit him with 
the highest honor." 

Dec. 7. " The town voted that Mr. Samuel Hemenway have one of 
the guns in the Town Store, in lieu of the one that Lieut. Micah 
Dougherty had of him in the year 1775, by an order from the select- 
men, being apprized by them at six dollars — Provided that those 
men who apprized his gun shall apprise the Town's gun, and if it is 
better than his, he is to pay the odds to the town, if not so good, the 
town is to make it up. 

Captivity of Lieut. Jonathan Maynard. — Jonathan Maynard of 
this town, then a student in Harvard College, enlisted in the eight 
months' service April 24, 1775, in Capt. Thomas Drury's company. 
June 17, he was with his company at the battle of Bunker Hill. The 

War of the Revolution. 


next year he went with the army to New York, and was in the 
campaigns of '76 and '77 on the North River, and in the battles of 
Stillwater and Saratoga. In 1778, he was lieutenant in one of the 
companies in Col. Ichabod Alden's 7th Mass. regiment, Gen. J. Nixon's 
brigade. While Alden's regiment was stationed at or near West 
Point, viz. May 30, 1778, Lieut. Maynard with a small party went out 
on a foraging excursion to a considerable distance from the camp, 
when they were set upon by a scouting band of Indians, and after a 
sharp skirmish taken prisoners. They were conducted for a distance 
of several miles away from the American lines, when a halt was made, 
and all but the lieutenant were tomahawked and scalped. As he wore 
a sword, he was considered a greater prize, and was conducted to the 
camp of Brant their chieftain. The precise locality of this chief's 
camp at this date has not been ascertained. 

After a brief consultation, it was decided to burn the captive. The 
fagots were collected, and he was tied to a tree, and the fire was 
ready to be kindled. Though a stranger to all in the group, > and 
ignorant of the fact that the Indian chief was a Free Mason, as his 
last hope, Lieut. Maynard gave the Master Mason's sign of distress. 
This sign was recognized by Brant, who was standing by ; and he 
ordered the execution to be postponed. Maynard was put under 
guard ; and in due time, with other prisoners, was sent to Quebec. 
He was held in captivity here till Dec. 26, 1780, when he was 

Lieut. Maynard rejoined his company at West Point Jan. 4, 1781. 
His old colonel, Alden, had been killed by the Indians at Cherry 
Valley Nov. 11, 1778, and the regiment was in command of Col. John 
Brooks. Maynard received his lieutenant's pay of ^8 per month 
for the full time of his captivity. A few weeks after his return, i. e. 
Jan. 25, 1781, he was promoted to the captaincy of his company (his 
commission is dated Feb. 22), and continued in the service at various 
points on the North River, and as recruiting officer, till Nov. 19, 1782, 
when he resigned and received an honorable discharge. 

1779. — Committee of correspondence this year: Daniel Sanger, 
James Clayes Jr., Capt. Simon Edgell, Lieut. Asaph Bigelow, Capt. 
Nathan Drury. 

Officers of the militia : Fifth Middlesex regiment, Col. Abner Perry, 
commissioned May i, Lieut. Col. John Trowbridge, com. May i, Maj. 
John Gleason, com. May 11, Adj. James Mellen, com. Sept. 16. East 
company Framingham militia, Capt. Nathan Drury, Lieut. John Bent, 
Ens. Abel Stone. West company, Capt. David Brewer, Lieut. John 

314 History of Framiiigkam. 

Ma3^hew, Ens. James Mellen. North company, Lawson Buckminster, 
captain, John Trowbridge, lieutenant, Ebenezer Hemenway, ensign. 

April 10. Framingham was required to furnish three teams for the 
public service, to transport stores from Boston to Springfield. Capt. 
Joseph Eames, John Jones and Josiah Bent were employed. 

Capt. Lawson Buckminster raised a company for the R. I. service ; 
and May 7, was ordered to report for duty at Tiverton, in Lieut. Col. 
Samuel Pierce's regiment. He was out till July i. Corp. Micah Drury, 
Amos Gates, Wm. Greenwood, Ephraim Newton, and Thomas Turner 
of this town were members of this company. 

Under the resolve of April 27, five additional men from this town 
were required for the R. I. service till July i. The town '■'■voted that 
the officers should hire the five men now called for, and report to the 
town what they gave them as hire, as soon as may be." Lieut. Silas 
Hemenway, John Stacy, Luther Goddard, John Stone and Andrew 
Dalrymple were hired, and joined Capt. J. McNall's company in Lieut. 
Col. Pierce's regiment. 

June 21. By order of the General Court, four men were called for 
to serve in R. I. for six months. The town voted to hire the men 
instead of drafting them. Lieut. John Pike, Phinehas Graves, Thad- 
deus Hemenway and Jona. Rice were engaged, and joined Capt. 
Thomas Hovey's Cambridge company in Col. Nathan Tyler's 

The difficulty of securing men to fill the numerous calls this year, is 
apparent from the following vote of the town : " Voted, that the militia 
officers, together with Ebenezer Eaton and Noah Eaton Jr. be a 
committee to hire men now called for for the service. Voted that said 
committee be empowered to hire soldiers, if any are called for, till the 
next March meeting. Voted that the treasurer pay out of the town 
treasury, or hire money to pay the soldiers to be raised for such 

In a warrant issued July i, is this article : " By a request from the 
Committee of Correspondence of Boston to the committee of this 
town, suggesting that it is of the utmost necessity at this time, to have 
a Convention of Delegates from the several town committees of corre- 
spondence in this state, to meet at Concord on Wednesday the 14th 
inst. for the purpose of framing such arrangements and adopting such 
measures as shall be necessary etc." Lender this article the town 
" voted to approve the spirit of the resolve of the town of Boston, and 
to desire our committee of correspondence to attend at Concord as 
requested." The object of this Convention was to take into consider- 
ation the whole subject of domestic trade, and establish a system of 
prices at which the necessaries of life and other articles should be 

War of the Revolution. 


sold. The occasion for such a convention was the prevalent scarcity 
of money, the bad credit of the towns which were obliged to hire 
money to pay soldiers' bounties, the grasping spirit of such as had 
money to lend, and the exorbitant prices charged by producers and 
dealers for all articles of daily consumption. 

This Convention fixed in a general way a scale of prices for goods, 
wares and merchandise, and also for farm products and the wages of 
labor. Before adjournment they recommended that another conven- 
tion be held in October which should perfect details. 

At a town meeting Aug. 9, Framingham voted " to accept the spirit 
of the resolve adopted by the Convention at Concord, to regulate 
prices." The town also voted to send Capt. Simon Edgell and Daniel 
Sanger to represent the town in the convention at Concord the first 
Wed. in October. The town further " voted to choose a committee of 
ten men, to state the prices of labor, country produce, manufactures, 
Inholder's charges etc. and chose Josiah Stone Esq., Doct. Ebenezer 
Hemenway, Dea. Wm Brown, Daniel Sanger, David Haven Esq., 
Capt. Lawson Buckminster, Capt. Simon Edgell, Peter Parker, Joseph 
Nichols and Ebenezer Marshall, said committee." 

" Voted that the committee of correspondence for Framingham 
inspect the conduct of any person, not complying with the resolves of 
said convention, and publish in the public prints the names of any 
that are guilty." 

The prices of some of the many commodities and necessaries, then 
established, are here given. It will be seen that the Convention made 
thorough work, and took in all kinds of business. The prices are 
given in the depreciated currency of that date, which was in about the 
ratio of 20 shillings paper to one shilling in silver. This would bring 
the price of Bohea tea to $1.33 per pound, and wages per day in 
summer to 58 cents. 

West India rum, ^6. 9. per gall.; N. E. rum, _;^4. 16 per gall; coffee, 
i8s. per lb.; molasses, ^4. 15 per gall.; brown sugar, from 10 s. to 14 s. per 
lb.; Bohea tea, ^5. 16 per lb.; salt, ^10. 8 per bushel. 

Indian corn, ^4. 4 per bush.; rye, £z^. 10 per bush.; wheat, £Z. 10 per 
bush. ; beef, 5 s. 2 d. per lb. ; butter, 1 2 s. per lb. ; cheese, first quality, 6 s. 
per lb.; hay, 30s, per cwt. ; sheep's wool, 24s. per lb.; flax, 12s. per lb. 

Yard wide tow cloth, 24 s. per yd.; cotton do., 36s. per yd.; men's shoes, 
£6 per pair; women's do. ^6. For weaving tow cloth, yard wide, 4 s.; do. 
cotton, 4 s. 6d. ; do. woollen, 6 s. per yard. 

Carpenters, per day's work, 60s.; masons, do. 60s.; common laborers, 
48 s. in summer. 

Flip, W. I., per mug, 15 s.; do. N. E., 12 s.; toddy in proportion. Extra 
good dinner, ^i; common do., 12 s. Best supper and breakfast, 15 s.; 
common do., 12 s. Horse Keeping 24 hours, at hay, 15s.; grass, 10 s. 


1 6 History of Framing/mm. 

Aug. 13. The town voted to choose two men to represent the town 
in the Convention to be holden at Cambridge, to frame a new 
Constitution or System of Government; and chose Capt. Benjamin 
Edwards and Josiah Stone Esq. 

In Capt. Amasa Cranston's Marlboro' company, Col. Samuel 
Denny's regiment, in service at Claverack N. Y. three months, Oct. 
Nov. and Dec, were Sergt. Daniel Jones, Sergt. Azariah Walker, 
Elijah Allen, Philom Adams, David Belcher, Ezekiel Ellis, Joseph 
Graves, Samuel Haven, Jacob Jones, Joshua Kendall, Paul Pond, 
Thomas Turner, Samuel Walker and Charles Weach, credited to this 

Jeffrey Hemenway was in Capt. Francis Wilson's company, 
3 months' service in N. Y. from Oct. 21, 

Jonathan Gleason and John Stace}^ of this town e.v)L\{s\.Qdfor the war, 
in December. 

Gen, J. Nixon's brigade in which was Col. T. Nixon's regiment, had 
headquarters this year at Peekskill, Verplanck's Point, Constitution 
Island, and other stations on the North River. 

A call was made on the towns for a supply of blankets to be sent to 
the army; and this town furnished its full quota. But the General 
Court allowed only a part of the sum which was actually paid by our 
committee for the same; and the town ^^ voted to grant the selectmen 
and committee ;^293 to repay them the money they advanced in 
purchasing the blankets more than the Court allowed them." 

It appears that the sum borrowed by the town treasurer, to pay 
bounties, and for the support of the families of soldiers now in the 
army, this year, amounted to (in depreciated currency) ;^85oo, which 
sum was ordered to be assessed upon the inhabitants. 

1780. — The term of enlistment of a part of our First Three Years' 
Men expired at the close of the last year, Jan. i, James Byrns and 
James Hemenway re-enlisted for the Second Three Years, Feb. 8, 
Isaac How, Benj. Clark and William Welch re-enlisted, and Judah 
Mofifitt enlisted, for Three Years. These six men are to be added 
to the eighteen already enlisted for the war, and the men whose 
terms had not expired, to show our quota now serving in the regular 

The committee of correspondence this year, were, David Haven 
Esq., Capt. Benj. Pepper, Isaac Stone, Noah Eaton Jr., Matthias 
Bent Jr. 

Mar. 13, " Voted, that the nine militia officers be a committee to 
hire men into the public service the present year." 

The Convention which met Sept. i, '79, to prepare a Constitution 

War of the Revolution. 3 1 7 

or Frame of Government, completed its labors Mar. 2 ; and at a town 
meeting May 22, a committee of fifteen, viz., Dr. Ebenezer Hemenway, 
Dea. Wm. Brown, Josiah Stone Esq., Ebenezer Marshall, David 
Haven Esq., Capt. Lawson Buckminster, James Clayes Jr., Peter 
Parker, Daniel Sanger, Capt. Matthias Bent, Ens. Jesse Haven, Col. 
John Trowbridge, Capt. Daniel Stone, Lieut. Josiah Temple and 
Benj. Eaton, was appointed, to examine the new Constitution, and report 
to the town at the next meeting. And at a town meeting June 5, the 
first and second articles of the Bill of Rights were accepted, by a vote 
of 107 to 6. The third article was accepted by a vote of 113 to 18. 
The other articles, except the one on Representation, and the one as 
to Qualifications of Voters, were accepted. 

May 4. An order was issued to the towns, requiring them to supply 
clothing for the army; and June 19, the town '■'Voted, that the select- 
men draw money out of the town treasury to purchase the town's 
quota of clothing for the Continental Army now called for." 

June 12, an order was issued, calling for men to serve for the term 
of six months. June 19, the town '•'■voted that the committee to hire 
soldiers into the public service, be authorized to agree to pay them in 
money, or grain, or money enough to purchase the same when the 
time of their service is expired." '■''Voted that the town treasurer 
supply the committee with money to hire soldiers ; and if he has not 
got it by him, to borrow it where it can be had ; and also voted that 
the treasurer engage to make the money he borrows as good when it is 
paid as when he borrows it.^' 

The town's quota, under the call of June 12, was twenty-four men. 
The men were assigned to the Fifteenth Division, under Capt. 
Hancock, and marched from Springfield July 14. 

A Fay Roll of the men the town of Framingham raised and sent to the 
contijiental service for six m07iths i?i the year lySo. 

Name. Age. Date of Discharge. 

Ja(^ob Belcher 


John Brown 


Jonathan Dadmun 


David Drury 


Jotham Eames 


Moses Edgell 


Ed. Trowbridge Gates 


George Gates 


Joseph Graves 


William Greenwood 


J. Grant Haven 




























31 8 Histoiy of Fratningham. 

Name. Age. D.\te of Discharge. 

Isaac Henienwa}- 


Dec. 3. 

Richard Hemenway 


Dec. 18. 

Thaddeus Hemenway 


Jan. 4, '81. 

Nathan Kendall 


Dec. 18. 

Moses Learned 


Sept. 17. 

Thomas Nixon Jr. 


Dec. 22. 

Jacob Parmenter 


Dec. 22. 

David Patterson 


Dec. 15. 

John Pike 


Dec. 5. 

Peter Rice Jr. 


died Sept. 15. 

Samuel Walker 


Oct. 26. 

Abijah Winch 

19 ^ 

Dec. 15. 

Thomas Winch Jr. 


Jan. 14, '81. 

Cyrus Woolson 


Jan. 14, '81. 

June 22. An order was issued for New Levies from Middlesex 
county, to re-inforce the continental army in R. L for three months 
from June 30. The following Framingham men joined Capt. Walter 
McFarland's company in Col. Cyprian How's regiment : Lieut. John 
Mayhew, Sergt. John Hemenway, Corp. Noah Eaton, Daniel Eaton, 
Alexander Eames, Josiah Hemenway, Daniel Jones, Daniel Kendall, 
Lawson Nurse, John Pratt, Caleb Stacey, Timothy Stearns, Daniel 
Stone, Josiah Stone, Amos Underwood. 

July 3. At a town meeting, " Voted XhzX the sum of 100,000 pounds 
be assessed on this town, to enable the town treasurer to pay such 
debts as the town has contracted in hiring men into the public 
service." [This is in depreciated currency.] " Voted that any person 
who shall lend money to the town treasurer in his present distress, 
shall receiv'e his note or receipt for so much money, agreeable to a 
contract made with the continental soldiers last raised, which note 
the collectors are hereby directed to receive for said tax." 

June 23. Under an order of Court requiring the towns to purchase 
horses for the use of the State, the selectmen procured the town's 
quota ; and Sept. 4, the town " voted, that the whole charge for pur- 
chasing horses for the use of the State be allowed to the selectmen, 
and that they draw it out of the town treasury, it being the sum of 
;^409o. 9." 

On the "Rhode Island Alarm" of July 22, Col. Abner Perry's 
regiment was ordered out, and marched July 27. The officers of the 
regiment were. Col. Abner Perry, Lieut. Col. John Trowbridge, Maj. 
Hezekiah Broad, Maj. John Gleason, Adj. James Mellen, Qr. Master 
Frederick Manson, Sergt. Maj. Thomas Buckminster. The three 

War of the Revolution. 319 

Framingham Militia companies turned out, in all 133 men, and were 
in service 14 da3^s. 

Oct. 2. The town granted to the committee the amount of their 
expenses in raising soldiers the summer past, viz. £l"j^. 16. 

Oct. 16. Capt. Joseph Eames, Lieut. Samuel Gleason Jr. and 
Lieut. Joseph Mixer were chosen a committee to purchase the Beef 
now called for to supply the army; and the town granted the sum of 
;^i 7,000 to pay for the same, which sum was ordered to be put into 
the next town rate. 

Nov. 27. Another order for Beef for the army was issued. The 
amount required of Framingham was 31 hundred weight. And Dec. 4, 
a further order required 21,431 pounds. And the town granted the 
sum of ;^35,ooo to purchase the Beef now called for. 

Dec. 2. A resolve was passed calling on the towns to furnish their 
several quotas of men to be enlisted for three years or during the war. 
The number required of Framingham under this call, was 21. 

The town chose Eben'' Eaton, Lieut. Joseph Mixer, Lieut. John 
Eames ist, Joseph Bennet, Lieut. John Eames 2d, Matthias Bent Jr. 
Thomas Bent, Capt. Thomas Drury, David Patterson, Capt. Richard 
Fiske, Lieut. Cornelius Clafliin, Capt. Benj. Edwards, Jona. Rugg, 
Corp. David Rice and Joseph Rice, together with the several militia 
officers, a committee "to hire the 21 men now called for. Voted, that 
said committee agree with the men as to price, as they think proper ; 
and granted the sum of ;^5o,ooo to enable the committee to hire the 
said 21 men." But our men were unwilling to enlist. The value of 
the pay offered was uncertain, as the currency was constantly depreci- 
ating. The committee was authorized to agree to pay the soldiers in 
money or cattle ; and to pay the advance wages before they should 
march. The following certificate will show the progress made, up to 
the time of its date : 

" We the subscribers having enlisted ourselves into the Continental Army 
for the term of Three Years, and do hereby acknowledge to have received 
of the Town of Framingham for that service, the sum of one hundred 
dollars hard money per year — We say, Received by us 
April 16, 1 781. Abel Benson 

John Freeman 
James Dose 
Solomon Newton 
Ephraim Newton 
Nathaniel Pratt 
John Pratt 
Ephraim Pratt. 

June 20. The town granted ^360 silver money, to pay for men to 
fill our quota. July 16, a further grant of ;^36o silver money was 


History of Framingliam. 

made for the same purpose. But only lo men could be persuaded to 
enlist. The town was fined for neglect to fill her quota ; and Nov. 12, 
agreed with Capt. Jona. Maynard, who was at home on a furlough, to 
furnish the wanting men. He was to receive $150, per man, $100 in 
one year, and $50 at the end of two years. 

The completed list of The Last Three Years Men is as follows : 





John Pratt 


Jan. 27, 1781 

Ephraim Pratt 


u a 

James Dose 


Feb. 12, " 

John Freeman 


a ic 

James Manning 


U (( 

for the war. 

Solomon Newton 


(( (( 

Ephraim Newton 


(( (( 

Nathaniel Pratt 


u u 

Charles Weach 


Feb. 27, " 


Abel Benson 


Mar. 12, " 


Peter Davis 


Dec. 22, " 

John Burk 


Dec. 28, " 

Samuel Bailey 


Feb. 2, 1882 

David Drury 


Feb. 2, 1882 


Thomas Nixon, Jr. 


Feb. ID, " 


Peter Salem 

April 16, " 


William Dadmun 

May I, " 

Peter Tower 

May 16, " 

Eleazar Coller 

a i( 

William Hemenway 


li a 


Corp. Moses Learned Jr. 29 

d. Sept. 17. 

Owing to ill health, occasioned by his wounds, and long continued 
service in the camp and field. Gen. John Nixon felt compelled to 
resign his commission ; and Sept. 12, 1780 he received an honorable 

Col. Thomas Nixon obtained leave of absence Dec. 20, and Lieut. 
Col. Calvin Smith remained in command of the regiment. It is 
believed that Col. N. did not again assume command, though he held 
his commission and drew pay till the close of the war, when he 
received an honorable discharge. 

1 78 1. — Feb. I. The town was called upon to furnish a quantity of 
shoes, stockings, shirts and blankets for the use of the army. The 
bill is as follows : 

War of the Revolution. 321 

" The Selectmen of Frainingham Dr. 

To 39 prs. of shoes @ £^0 old tenor ^1560 

" 39 prs. of hose 24 " 936 

" 39 prs. of shirts 40 " 1560 

" 19 blankets 95 " 1805 


Charges for collecting said clothing 261 

" " transporting the same 60 

Allowed £61^2 old currency, which is equal to ^154. 11. new 
emission bills." 

In June an order was received requiring the town to furnish 8,854 
lbs. of Beef for the Army; and the sum of £110, new emission, was 
granted to pay for the same. 

On the Roll of Capt. Staples Chamberlain's Holliston company, 
that marched to Tiverton R. I. by order of his Excellency John 
Hancock, Mar. 7, are the following names of men credited to Fram- 
ingham : Lieut. James Mellen, Sergt. John Nurse, Corp. John Park- 
hurst, Jacob Belcher, Edw. Brigham, Joseph Buck, Daniel Cheney, 
Elisha Cheney, Hezekiah Dunn, Luther Eaton, Isaac Fisher, Abraham 
Fisher, Joseph Fairbanks, Amos Gates, Timothy Haven, Luther 
Haven, Samuel Haven, Samuel Hale, Ephraim Harrington, John 
Hemenway, Thaddeus Hemenway, Daniel Jennings, Nathan Lamb, 
Winslow Newton, John Park, John Parker Jr., Nathaniel Polly, Joseph 
Richards, Thomas Richards, Elisha Rice, Samuel Rice, Thomas Rice, 
Timothy Stearns, Daniel Trowbridge, Azariah Walker, Cyrus Woolson. 

The following vote of the town will show the depreciation of the 
currency at this date. June 11, 1781. ^^ Voted that in assessing the 
minister's tax, it be reckoned i of silver to 75 of continental currency." 

Benjamin Holden of this town was out in Capt. Asa Drury's 
company, July i, to Dec. i. 

In Capt. John Hayward's company, in service from July 5, to Nov. 
30, were Lieut. Joshua Trowbridge, Sergt. Noah Eaton, Oldham Gates, 
Ebenezer Hemenway, Joseph Nixon, Jacob Parmenter, Josiah Warren 
and Cyrus Woolson. 

Thaddeus Hemenway and Peter Tower enlisted for six months' 
service, December 26. 

The surrender of Cornwallis and the British army, at Yorktown, 
Oct. 19, virtually closed the war ; though enlistments continued on a 
small scale. 


32 2 History of Framingham. 

1782. — On an Army Roll, the following names are credited to 
Framingham : 

Isaac Allen, age 22, enlisted Mar. 13, '82 for 3 yrs. 
Prince McNeal, " 22, 
Jacob Jones, " 17, " 

Joseph Bourden, " zi. 
John Bournall, " 18, " 
Corporal Timothy Pike was in the service for three months, this 

Capt. Jonathan IMaynard's company, in the Seventh jNIass. Regi- 
ment in the continental army, was in the action at Croton river Oct. 
17, when some of his men were taken prisoners. He resigned his 
commission Nov. 19, and received an honorable discharge. 

Lieut. Peter Clayes was promoted to the captaincy of his company 
in 1780, and continued in service till the close of the war. Samuel 
Frost was his lieutenant, and also served to the end of the war. 
Lieuts. Charles and Micah Dougherty, and Lieut. Luther Trowbridge 
also served to the end of the war, and received honorable discharges. 

Deaths. — The following is a list of the men from this town who 
died in service during the Revolutionary War. Probably it is not 
complete ; for it is a singular fact that, with few exceptions, the 
Company and Regimental Rolls, now preserved, contain no detailed 
record of casualties. The only reference to such, is to give in figures 
the number of the dead, wounded and missing. 

Caesar Boston, died • served 21 months and 2 days. 

Rev. Matthew Bridge, died of dysentery. 

Capt. Elijah Clayes, died at White Plains 1776. 

David Cutting, wounded, and perished in a burning barn. 

Samuel Fames, died of disease. 

Corning Fairbanks, killed at Bunker Hill. 

Francis Gallot, died at Stillwater. 

John Gallot, died of disease. 

Charles Gates, died of disease. 

Capt. Micajah Gleason, killed at White Plains, Oct. 28, '76. 

David Haven, killed near Saratoga, Oct. 8, '77. 

Isaac Hemenway, died Jan. 31, 1778. 

Job Houghton, died 1779. 

Moses Learned Jr., died Sept. 17, 1782. 

Daniel Maxwell, killed; served 27 months and 17 days. 

Nathan Mixer, killed in battle at Bennington. 

Solomon Newton Sen., died in 1782. 

Josiah Nurse, d. at Seaconk R. I. Sept. 1778. 

War of the RevohUion. 


John Pike Jr., died of disease. 

Moses Pike, killed hxag. 28, 1775. 

Jonathan Rice, died of disease. 

John Holbrook Rice, died at Danbury Ct. 

Peter Rice Jr., died at Hackensack Sept. 15, 1780. 

Joseph TemjDle, died of disease. 

Josiah Waite, died of disease. 

Epiiraim Whitney, k. by accident, Sept. 16, 1775. 

Jonathan Whitney, killed in battle. 

Pension List, including the men who enlisted from Framingham, 
and those who subsequently settled here. 

Moses Adams, Chaplain, 

Isaac Allen 

Samuel Bailey 

Jacob Belcher 

Joseph Belcher 

Joseph Bennet 

Abel Benson 

Joseph Bourden 

John Bournall 

David Brewer, Capt. 

John Brown 

John Buck 

Lawson Buckminster, Maj. 

Phinehas Butler 

Increase Clafiin 

Isaac Clark, Lieut. 

Joel Coolidge 

James Dalrymple 

Peter Davis 

James Dose 

Charles Dougherty, Lieut. 

David Drury 

Thomas Drury, Capt. 

John Eames, Lieut. 

Jotham Eames 

Ebenezer Eaton 

Moses Fisk 
Joseph Graves 
Abel Greenwood 
Ebenezer Hemenway 
Jonathan Hemenway 
Aaron Hide 
Aaron Hill 
Jonathan Hill, Lieut. 
Ezekiel How 
Nathan Kendall 
Nathan Knowlton 
John Lamb 

Frederick Manson, Qr. mr. 
Jonathan Maynard, Capt. 
John Mayhew, Lieut. 
Timothy Merriam, M. D. 
Ebenezer Newton 
Alpheus Nichols 
Thomas Nixon, Jr. 
Nathaniel Pratt 
Phinehas Rice 
Uriah Rice, Capt. 
Joseph Tombs 
John Trowbridge, Capt. 
Silas Winch 
Nehemiah Wright. 

Luther Eaton 

By an act of the Massachusetts Legislature passed in 1801, 200 

acres of land in the Province of Maine, was granted to such officers 

and soldiers as enlisted in this State and served through the war. A 

large number of our men were entitled to this bounty land ; and 

324 History of Framingham. 

probably many of them received it. It is known that three men, then 
living in Framingham, received a title to land under this act, viz. Cato 
Hart, John Harvey, and Isaac How. 

Cato Hart, a negro, enlisted for the war Feb. 1777, in the Fram- 
ingham quota ; was attached to the Seventh Continental regiment, and 
was honorably discharged at the disbanding of the army. His resi- 
dence in 1805, was in Mendon. He received a deed dated Aug. 6, 
1805, of 200 acres of land, being lot No. 12, in Mars Hill near the 
boundary between Maine and New Brunswick, "for patriotic services 
rendered in the Revolutionary War." He assigned the deed to Jona. 
Maynard Esq. The grant was included in the tract which was sur- 
rendered to Great Britain by the Ashburton Treaty of Aug. 20, 1842. 
This lot, and the other granted lots and townships included within the 
said surrendered territory, were recently surveyed and located, and 
the titles obtained iji some way, by a sharp claimant, who received 
from the United States Government large sums of money in payment 
for the same. 

John Harvey, then of Southborough, afterwards of Framingham, 
enlisted among the First Three Years Men, and served through the 
war. His deed of 200 acres bears date Aug. 6, 1805 ; was assigned 
to Esq. Maynard ; and full payment for the land was recovered of the 
U. S. Government, by the claimant above referred to. 

Isaac How (wife Lois) sold his 200 acres, being Lot No. 68 at Mars 
Hill, in 1833, to Lawson Buckminster, for $100. 

Peter Salem. — He is sometimes called Salem Middlesex, He 
was a slave, originally owned by Capt. Jeremiah Belknap. He was 
admitted to the church under the half-way covenant Aug. 16, 1760. 
He was sold by Capt. B. to Maj. Lawson Buckminster, before the War. 
He served as a Minute Man in Capt. Edgell's company April 19, '75. 
Apr. 24, he enlisted in Capt. Thomas Drury's company for the eight 
months' service. He enlisted for three years Jan. i, 1777 ; and re- 
enlisted April 16, 1782, for a like term. 

As no slave could be mustered into the army, his enlistment by con- 
sent of his master, worked a practical emancipation. And there is no 
doubt, from the well-known patriotism of Maj. Buckminster, that he 
cheerfully assented to the enlistment. 

Peter served faithfully as a soldier, during the war, most of the time 
in Col. Thomas Nixon's regiment, and as the Colonel's body servant. 
He was in the battle of Bunker Hill June 17, 1775. During the 
action, he with others, was sent from Capt. Drury's company, as a 
support to Col. Prescott in the redoubt. He reached the redoubt just 
as Prescott's men had spent their last powder ; and with a single 

War of the Revolution. 325 

charge in his gun, and perhaps another in his powder horn. Just then, in 
the language of Judge Maynard, " I saw a British officer * * come 

up with some pomp, and he cried out, ' Surrender, you rebels ! " 

But Prescott * * made a little motion with his hand, and that was 
the last word the Briton spoke ; he fell at once." There is a concur- 
rence of testimony which leaves no doubt that this shot was fired by 
Peter Salem. Maj. Pitcairn fell into the arms of his son, who bore 
him off to a boat, and thence to a house in Prince street Boston, 
where he died. The loss of so gallant an officer at this critical 
moment, formed one of the most touching incidents of that eventful 

At the close of the war in 1783, Peter married Katy Benson, a 
granddaughter of Nero, and built a small house on land then owned 
by Peter Rice on the exact spot where now stands the dwelling house 
of Moses M. Fiske, near Sucker pond. He lived here till 1792 or 93. 
But his marriage proved an unhappy one ; and Peter left his native 
town and settled in Leicester. 

In his History of Leicester, Gov. Emory Washburn says: "The 
history of this town would be incomplete, without giving Peter Salem 
a place in it. He lived in various places in the town ; but his last 
abode was a cabin which he built for himself on the south side of the 
road leading to Auburn, about a quarter of a mile from the house 
formerly of William Watson. In front of his cabin he planted and 
reared two or three poplar trees ; and, around it, dug and cultivated 
a little garden, in which, besides the few vegetables that he planted, a 
few clumps of flowering shrubs and a stinted rose or two, with a few 
sweet-smelling herbs, gave evidence of his unequal struggle with a 
hard and rocky soil. 

Horticulture, however, was not his forte. He earned a precarious 
livelihood by making and mending baskets, bottoming chairs, and the 
like ; which gave him admittance into everybody's house, where his 
good nature rendered him a universal favorite, especially with the 
children. His military training in the army had given him a sort of 
instinctive soldierly bearing ; and his habits of obedience there to his 
superiors, infused, into all his intercourse with the considerable people 
of the town, a marked courtesy of manner, which he never omitted 
or forgot. 

It was always a pleasant sight to observe the promptness and pre- 
cision with which the heel of Peter's right foot found its way into the 
hollow of his left one, his body grow erect, and the right hand spring 
up to a level with his eye, to salute Massa Moore or Mistress D. on 
passing, in return for the salutation or nod of recognition with which 
everybody greeted him. 

326 History of Framingham. 

It was a treat, too, for the younger members of the family to gather 
around Peter, while engaged in mending the household chairs ; or, 
sitting in the chimney corner, with the youngest on his knee, while the 
flickering blaze lighted up his black face, to listen to his stories of 
the war, and what he had seen 'when he was out with Massa Nixon.' 

He was especially at home at the firesides of those who had been 
in ' the service,' and generally found a welcome chair at the hospitable 
board. They were, to him, companions in arms ; and he never seemed 
to think he could grow old while any of them remained to answer his 

But though Peter had gone through seven years' hard service un- 
harmed, and had not lost a jot of his freshness of feeling, age crept 
upon him unawares at last. His erect form began to stoop ; his 
military step grew unsteady ; the thinned and whitened covering which 
had concealed an ugly we7i or two, that had perched themselves upon 
the top of his head, no longer served to screen this defect in his 
personal symmetry. His resources grew smaller and smaller ; till, at 
last, the hand of charity had to supply the few wants which the old 
man required. 

In this respect, there is a frightful equality in the law. Overseers 
of the poor never heed whether the man that is hungry is a saint or a 
sinner. If he needs fire to warm or clothes to cover him, though 
scarred all over in the service of his country, it is their ' duty ' to hunt* 
up his 'settlement,' and give notice, as the law requires. 

Peter's settlement was in Framingham, and the good people of that 
town took early measures for his removal thither. 

It was a sad day for Peter; but, before taking his final departure, 
he went round and made a farewell visit to each of his favorite haunts, 
and to such of his old friends as time had spared. With a heavy heart, 
he paid them his last salute, and disappeared from the spot which had 
been his home for so many years. His cabin soon went to decay. A 
rough stone chimney served for many years to mark where it had stood ; 
and the lilac and the rose he planted bloomed for a few years, and 
were then broken down, and died. The last object that marked the 
spot was a poplar tree ; and even that has grown old, and will ere 
long disappear. 

But will any one say that this humble black man, whose hand did 
such service in the very redoubt on Bunker Hill ; who perilled his life, 
through some of the most trying and arduous scenes of the war, for 
that freedom for others which he had never been permitted to share 
till he won it personally by personal valor, — will any one say that his 
name does not deserve a place among those whom it is the purpose of 
these simple annals to commemorate ? " 

War of the RevohUion. 327 

On his return to Framingham, Peter was not treated in all respects 
like the common poor ; but to the credit of his former masters be it 
recorded, that Maj. Lawson Buckminister and Capt. Jeremiah Belknap, 
together with Samuel Hemenway, gave a bond to the town "to support 
him during his natural life." He died at the house of William 
Walkup Sen. August 16, 1816, and was buried in the north central 
part of the old cemetery, where a suitable monument has lately been 
erected by the town to his memory. 

It is a fact of interest, as illustrating the prevalent sentiment of the 
time, and as a contrast with the present, that the men who were 
trusted with the lead of public affairs at the opening of the Revolution, 
had reached, or passed, the period commonly designated middle life. 
Thomas Temple, who was sent as a delegate of the town to attend the 
first ge7teral Conventio7i in Faneiiil Hall^ to inaugurate resistance to the 
oppressive measures of the British ministry, was 54 years old at the 
time of his election. Joseph Haven, chairman of the first committee 
of correspondence and delegate to the first Provincial Congress, was 
76; Josiah Stone, his associate in both trusts, was 50; Dea. Wm. 
Brown, also associated with them, was 51. Ebenezer Marshall, 53, 
Joseph Eames, 55, Benjamin Eaton, 51, John Farrar, 56, John Trow- 
bridge, 45, Dr. Ebenezer Hemenway, 65, were the active members of 
the more important committees. Joseph Nichols, the youngest of the 
political leaders, was 37. John Nixon was 48 when he led his Minute 
Men to Concord in '75 ; Simon Edgell was 42 • Thomas Drury was 
40 ; Micajah Gleason, the junior among our military leaders that year, 
was 35. Rev. Matthew Bridge had reached the age of 54, at the date 
under consideration. 

The loss of Rev. Mr. Bridge and Thomas Temple, just at the open- 
ing of the Revolutionary struggle, was severely felt. Both were ardent 
patriots ; and each in his place was well fitted to lead public senti- 
•ment. Mr. Bridge had the confidence of his people in a high degree ; 
and was of the conservative cast of mind so much needed when pro- 
vocation is great and blood is hot^ as it was with the younger men of 
that day. 

Mr. Temple was six years the senior of his pastor, and like him 
was a man of calm judgment and conservative disposition. He was 
well educated for the times ; was versed in the common and statute 
law, and had an intimate acquaintance with his fellow townsmen of all 
classes. That they had confidence in his integrity and ability, is 
shown by the fact he was elected a selectman for twelve years, and 
held the office at the time of his death. He was in advance of his time 
as an abstainer from the use of alcoholic drinks. An anecdote, con- 

328 History of Framing/mm. 

nected with his funeral, is preserved, which is characteristic of the 
customs and temper of the day. It had been the established rule in all 
families, to provide liquors for the mourners, and in the families of 
men in public station, for all vi^ho should attend the services at the 
house of the deceased. Being an abstainer, from principle, he gave 
directions before his death, that no intoxicating liquors should be fur- 
nished to relations or friends at his funeral. Capt. Jo. Winch, who 
made it a rule to be present on all such occasions, and who was 
always ready to do the honors at the side-board, had not heard of the 
prohibition, and was taken by surprise. After waiting patiently and 
in vain, for the usual invitation, he remarked, in his caustic way, as he 
slowly mounted his old horse — " Queer funeral; no toddy ! no tears." 

Nathaniel Brinley. — The history of this town in the Revolution 
would not be complete, without a notice of Mr. Nathaniel Brinley, then 
a resident, who was accused of being inimical to the American cause, 
and was made to suffer accordingly. The following sketch is taken 
wholly from official documents in the State Archives. It illustrates the 
spirit of the time, which can only be adequately understood by a study 
of individual lives, and the unconstrained judgements and actions of 
men in office, who thus reflect the public sentiment. It shows, better 
than formal statement, the summary way of dispensing justice, prac- 
ticed by the committees of Inspection and Safety, who were the ruling 
power in the towns from the time when Gov. Gage dissolved the 
General Court in May 1774, till the authority of the Legislative 
branch and the Judiciary were again established. 

Mr. Brinley had occupied, as lessee, the celebrated farm known as 
the Buckminister or Brinley Farm, since 1760. He owned an estate in 
Boston ; and his family appear to have lived in Boston or Roxbury a 
part of the time, — perhaps they usually spent only the summer 
months in Framingham. He paid a tax on one poll, as well as on 
personal and real estate here ; but it does not appear that he took 
any active part in our town affairs. Probably his social intercourse 
was mainly with his family connections in and near the metropolis. 

He and his family were in Boston in the spring of 1775, and re- 
mained there while the town was held by the British troops, and till 
the summer of '76. His name was signed to the celebrated "Address 
to Gov. Gage " in 1775. -^"'^^ ^'^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ deemed sufficient evidence 
to prove him a loyalist, and to justify the committee of Inspection and 
Safety in taking into their custody all his real and personal estate in 

In the warrant for a town meeting to be held Mar. 4, 1776, was this 
article : " To see if the town will, in answer to a Petition from several 

War of the Revolution. 329 

of the inhabitants, take any order concerning the Farm lately occu- 
pied by Nathaniel Brinley, or the utensils thereto belonging, and act 
thereon as the town judge proper." No action was taken under this 
article ; but the committee of Inspection and Safety held possession 
of the farm, and personal estate; and May 27, they sold at public 
vendue all the live slock, the amount of which sale was £i']'i-. 13. 8. 
which sum was held by Ebenezer Marshall treasurer of the committee. 
The household furniture and the farming tools were in part stored, 
and in part hired out to different persons. 

In June or July 1776, Mr. Brinley was arrested in Boston, where he 
then lived with his family, and brought before five justices of the 
peace, sitting as a Court of Inquiry, charged with being a person sus- 
pected of entertaining sentiments inimical to the rights of America : 
and after a hearing was sentenced to be confined within the limits of 
the town of Framingham for the space of four months ; and required 
to give bonds in the sum of ;^6oo, with two sureties, for his not 
departing the limits of said town, and for his being of good behavior 
towards all the inhabitants of the free and independent states of 
America, for twelve months. This bond was duly executed. 

The committee of Inspection and Safety of Framingham construed 
this sentence to give them authority to restrain Mr. Brinley of all per- 
sonal liberty; and committed him to the custody of John Fiske, (who 
lived on the Isaac Warren place, now Tho. F. Power's) to labor for 
said Fiske, who was not to permit him to go more than twenty rods 
from his dwelling house, without said Fiske's personal presence, and 
that he be denied the use of pen, ink and paper with which to commu- 
nicate with his friends and others. 

The middle of August, Catherine Brinley, the wife of Nathaniel, 
sent a petition to the Council and House of Representatives then 
sitting at Watertown, in behalf of her husband, complaining of the 
undue severity and stretch of power exercised by the committee of 
Inspection and Safety towards him, and asking that he may be 
"ordered to some other inland town in the state — more especially as 
the only charge against the said Nathaniel was his consenting to have 
his name put to an Address to Gov. Gage, which paper was brought 
to him when he was under great indisposition, and suffering bodily 
pain, and consented to have his name put to said address (he did not 
sign it himself) to escape importunity which would add to his suffer- 
ings ; and he verily believes he should not have consented if he had 
been in health, as he had always avoided every thing of the kind. 

" Your petitioner would further represent, that while he was shut up 
in the town of Boston, being accidently there, and not a Refugee, said 
committee of Inspection and Safety took into their possession the 

2, so History of Fra^ningham. 

stock of the farm lately improved by said Nathaniel, as well as his 
farming utensils of every kind, his household furniture etc. which 
your petitioner prays may be restored to him, as he humbly conceives 
that he has not, by any law of this state forfeited the same." 

"In Council Aug. i6, 1776. 

"A petition of Catherine Brinley, in behalf of her husband, Nathan- 
iel Brinley of Framingham, complaining of certain preceedings of the 
committee of Correspondence, Inspection and Safety of said town 
against the said Nathaniel, was read, and 

Ordered \\\2X the committee aforesaid and the said Nathaniel Brinley 
do attend this Board on Wednesday next at ten o'clock A. M., that the 
said committee may make answer to the complaints made in said 
petition. Jer. Powell, Brest." 

" State of Massachusetts Bay 

Council Chamber, Aug. 23, 1776. Ordered that Nathaniel Brinley 
be forthwith discharged from any sentence or confinement imposed on 
him by the committee of Correspondence Inspection and Safety of 
Framingham, and be peaceably permitted to reside within the same 
town, subject only to such restrictions, terms and conditions as are 
imposed upon and required of him in and by a sentence of the Court 
of Inquiry held in Boston in the County of Suffolk, and his Bond 
given to the treasurer of the State in consequence of said Judgement. 

Jno. Avery, Dep. Sect." 

Upon the receipt of this order of the Council, the committee of 
Inspection and Safety made answer as follows: 

" The Petition of the Committee of Inspection and Safety of the 
town of Framingham 

Humbly Sheweth 

That many people in this town are much dissatisfied That Nathaniel 
Brinley has the full liberty thereof, \\'hich renders it impracticable for 
the said Committee to comply with the order of the Court, taken in 
its largest latitude. As the people take him for a very villen — The 
reasons by them assigned are the following viz. That when among us 
heretofore He used his influence to discourage and corrupt the minds 
of the people by saying that the Parliament had an undoubted 
right to make void the Charter in part or in whole: That 10,000 
troops with an Artillery would go thro' the Continent and Subdue it 
at pleasure, etc. That he had a letter in which we strongly suspect 
he had Intelligence of the Hostile Intentions of the British troops, 
some little time before the 19th of April 1775 : That he was prepar- 
ing to join our Enemies several months before that time, by slowly 

War of the Revolution. 331 

conveying his best Furniture to Roxbury, and moved his family into 
Boston a little before Lexington battle; and remained there so long 
as he could have the protection of the British troops — 
and 'tis further observable ; that he left a large Farm on which he had 
his chief dependence for subsistence, at the most busy season of the 
year; and that his most Intimate connections were some of our worst 

Enemies and Trators. 

Per order of the Committee. 

Framingham 4th Sept. 1776. Eben"" Marshall." 

The result of this remonstrance was, that the House of Represen- 
tatives, Sept. 7, ^'■Resolved, That said Nathaniel Brinley, mentioned in 
said petition, be continued in the town of Framingham, under the 
care and inspection of the committee of said town, agreeable to the 
precept sent to said committee from the Justices of the Court of 

The previous Order of the Council was sufficiently explicit ; but this 
Resolve of the House was ambiguous. And as the action of the 
Council, and the House of Representative, was not cojtciirnmf, our 
committee appear to have felt justified in ignoring the Orders. And 
Sept. 9, the wife of Mr. Brinley sent another petition to the Council 
and House of Representatives, recapitulating the material facts stated 
in her former petition, and adding : " He has been confined in said 
town of Framingham for near the space of six weeks * * and is 
confined to the limits of one farm in said town, viz. Mr. Benj. Eaton's, 
and indeed is not allowed to depart said Eaton's house without said 
Eaton's presence : that he is not permitted to converse with any per- 
son, friendly or unfriendly to the rights of, this State, not even with 
his wife, unless in the hearing of some one of said Eaton's family ; 
that he is denied the use of pen, ink and paper, and is under appre- 
hension of loss of life, should he ever depart from said house : that 
he was once struck at when in a chaise with said Eaton, which stroke, 
had it not been happily warded off, would have dangerously hurt 
him " — and repeats her request that he be ordered to some other 
inland town. 

Sept. 17, 1776, The Council and House of Representatives, in con- 
currence, ''Resolved, That Nathaniel Brinley be put under the care of 
Francis Brinley Esq. of Newport, R. I., to be forth coming at the order 
of this Court ; said Francis giving security therefor to the Treasurer 
in the sum of ;^6oo." His bondsmen were Jonathan Jackson of 
Newburyport, and Joseph Henderson of Boston, 

After the war, Mr. Brinley settled in Tyngsborough Mass., where he 
died in 18 14, aged 81. 

2,3^ History of Framingham. 

Industries. — During the period under review, our people lived 
mainly on home products, and used domestic manufactures. The 
blankets and clothing supplied to the army were made on the looms 
in the house-garrets ; the entrenching tools, and the Beef were sent 
from hom'e. Col. Stone's and Dea. Brown's fulling mills had full 
employ ; and Elijah Houghton the clothier could not be idle. Andrew 
Newton's forge, Ebenezer Marshall's trip-hammer, and the forge 
north of A. G. Kendall's, were kept busy in making farming imple- 
ments, and builders' materials. Many of the mechanics, enumerated 
in the last chapter, still lived, and carried on their respective trades. 

Peter Parker, cordwainer, was here during his lifetime. 

James Greenwood, cabinet-maker and mill-wright, was here as early 
as 1768, as was also Elijah Flagg, blacksmith. 

David Stone and Jonathan Hill, tanners, carried on business at 
what is known as the Charles Fiske tannery, in 1769. Frederick 
Manson had a shoemaker's shop in 1770, as did Ebenezer Eaton in 
'75, though both of them were absent much of the time in the public 
service. Benj. Eaton Jr., tanner and shoemaker, commenced business 
in 1774; Asa Morse, shoemaker, was here in '78. Shubael Seaver, 
blacksmith, lived on the Charles Capen place, which he sold in 1781 
to Richard Atwell, blacksmith. Thomas Chandler had a blacksmith's 
shop east of Addison Belknap's in 1782. 

Taverns. — In addition to Buckminster's, and Trowbridge's, and 
Sanger's taverns, John Haven opened a house of entertainment in the 
old Park house at Park's Corner, as early as 1765 ; Ebenezer Mar- 
shall took it in 1769, and was here till 1774. Jonas Dean kept it from 
1779 ^*^ ^794- Joseph Bixby kept tavern at the Hopkins' house, late 
T. B. Wales Jr., in 1768. Jonathan Locke had a tavern in the Joel 
Coolidge house, now David Nevins', in 1770. Moses Adams kept a 
house of .entertainment on the old "Silk Farm," 1774 to 1777. 

David Patterson's tavern, at Brackett's corner, is named in 1773. 
Micajah Gleason had a tavern at the Joseph Angler place, now John 
Hamilton's, in 1774. When he went to the war, his wife carried it on, 
and was living here as a widow when she married Gen. Nixon, 

Ebenezer Eaton, kept a tavern at the Eli Bullard place, on the angle 
of the roads, east of Warren's bridge, from 1779 to '81. 


1783 -1830. — Ministerial Candidates — Death by Lightning — 
Rev. David Kellogg — Shays' Rebellion — Singing — Framing- 
ham Academy — Small Pox — Pleasure Carriages — The Several 
Villages in 1800 — Mails and Post Office — Masonic Lodge — 
The Artillery Co. — First Baptist Church — First Methodist 
Church — Brackett's Corner — Third Meeting-house — Worces- 
ter Turnpike — New Comers — War of 1812 — Capt. John Tem- 
ple's Co. — The Cotton Factory— -The Great Blow — Fire 
Engine — Saxon Factory — Carpet Factory — Paper Mills — 
Infantry Co. — Book-Bindery — Hatters — Saxonville Post 
Office — Industries — Taverns — Highways. 

IT seemed to be conducive to clearness of impression, and to accord 
with the real prominence of our town's position in the events of 
the period, that an entire chapter should be devoted to the 
Revolutionary War. This absorbed the popular interest, and con- 
trolled to a large degree the direction of local affairs ; but the schools 
were kept up ; religious ordinances were scrupulously maintained ; 
roads were laid out ; and the poor were supported. And it is neces- 
sary to go back and take up the thread of our general history, where 
it was left in Chapter V. 

Ministerial Candidates. — After the death of Mr. Bridge, com^ 
mittees of the church and town were appointed to supply the pulpit. 
Mar. 4, 1776, the town directed the committee to employ Mr. Laban 
Wheaton one month ; and after that to employ Mr. Moses Adams one 

month. Mr. Bigelow supplied six weeks ; and then Mr. Wheaton 

supplied six weeks more. Jan. 27, 1777, the church made choice of 
Mr. Wheaton to be their pastor, contents, 40, non-contents, 20. The 
town concurred with the church in their action, and "Voted ^200 as 
an encouragement to Mr. W. to settle among us ; and ;^ioo for his 
annual salary." Mr. Wheaton declined the call, and preached a fare- 
well sermon July 13. Laban Wheaton was a graduate of H. U. 1774 ; 
and after leaving Framingham, studied law, and became distinguished 
at the bar ; was member of congress ; died 1846. 

334 History of Framingham. 

Deaths p.y Lightning. — An incident occurred this year (1777) 
which made a lasting impression on the public mind. While Mr. 
Wheaton was supplying the pulpit, he negotiated for the purchase of 
a horse ; and arranged with Mr. John Clayes, who lived at Salem 
End, where is now the L. O. Emerson house, to examine and try the 
animal. June 3, a little after noon, some of the neighbors came 
together to witness the trial. Besides Mr. Clayes, there were present 
Abraham Rice, Peter Parker, Simon Pratt and his son Ephraim. Mr. 
Parker mounted the horse, and had ridden to a considerable distance 
away, when a small cloud suddenly came up from the northwest. On 
his return, the company, who had been in the house during his 
absence, came out towards the road. A few drops of rain were at 
this moment falling. As Mr. Parker rode up, Mr. Clayes stepped 
outside the gate, leaving the others leaning against the fence within ; 
and just as he took the horse by the bridle, the lightning struck 
the party, and prostrated them all on the ground. Mr. Clayes, Mr. 
Rice, and the horse were instantly killed. Mr. Parker lay as if dead, 
but gradually recovered consciousness, though a long time elapsed 
before he fully regained his health. The boy, who was standing a 
short distance from the rest, recovered immediately. Mr. Pratt came 
to slowly, and suffered from the stroke for a long time. Mr. Clayes 
was struck in the head, the fluid passing along the neck and breast 
and down both legs, leaving a well-defined mark, but not injuring his 
shoes. The horse was also struck in the head, and marks of the light- 
ning were visible down both fore legs. The party all wore woolen 
clothes, and were all singed in body and dress. There was but this 
single flash of lightning from the cloud, and only a few drops of rain. 
Mr. Rice was in his 80th }'ear, and Mr. Clayes was 41. The sad event 
was commemorated in an elegy written by Miss Lydia Learned, which 
was printed and widely circulated. Two stanzas are inscribed on the 
grave-stone, which may be found in the old cemetery. 

Rev. Solomon Reed supplied the pulpit for a time, beginning Aug. 
10, 1777. Jan. 4, 1778, Mr. Ezra Ripley preached, and supplied nine 
Sabbaths. April 5, Mr. David Kellogg preached, and supplied for 
three months. July 12, Mr. Willard of Mendon preached. In Sep- 
tember, Mr. Eliot preached ; and in that month and October, Mr. 
Guild, and Mr. Gannett supplied for one or more Sabbaths. The 
amount paid for each Sabbath was " the price of 8 bushels of Indian 
corn at market." 

Rev. David Kellogg. — Nov. 18, 1778, was, by vote of the church, 
observed as a day of fasting a.nd prayer, preparatory to their choice of 
a minister. Nov. 20, "the church met and elected Mr. Kellogg their 

Rev. David Kellogg. 335 

pnslor by a lar<;c majority, coiUcnts, 48, non-contents, 7." Dec. 7, by 
a vote of 123 to 14, tlie town chose Mr. K. for their minister, offering 
him fifteen hunched pounds as a settlement, and one hundred pounds 
annual salary. 'I'o this call, April 25, Mr. Kellogg gave a negative 
answer, though he continued to supply the pulpit. Dec. 6, 1779, the 
town ^^ voted to give Mr. Kellogg $4 per day for preaching, to be as 
gofxl as money was 5 years ago." The call was renewed July 3, 1780, 
when the town offered him ;^346, 13, 4 as a settlement, and ;^ioo per 
year as a salary, to be paid in Indian corn at 3 s. per bushel, and rye 
at 4 s. "Nevertheless, in case of infirmity or age he should not be 
able to supply the pulpit, he is to receive but half said salary," 
"/Wdv/, to give Mr. K. annually 20 cords of wood, upon the same 
terms as his salary." One of the reasons which prevented Mr. 
Kellogg's acceptance of his first call was, that he should receive a fifth 
part of his salary in pork, and a large fraction of the balance in beef, 
cider, sheep's wool and (lax. Another delaying reason was the diffi- 
culty of finding a desirable farm on which to "settle." Mr. Ebenezer 
Eaton would sell his Tavern stand (the Eli Bullard place) to the town, 
"if he could have his pay in rye, Indian corn, and salt pork, at certain 
prices;" but the town thought it "not convenient to purchase the 
said place at this time." As is well known, the place finally secured 
as a " settlement " was the farm previously owned by his predecessor, 
now owned by VVm. H. Mellen. Apr. 2, 1781, the town chose James 
Ciayes Jr., Peter Parker, and Lieut. Gideon Haven a committee "to 
assist the Treasurer in giving security to the heirs of the Rev. Mr. 
Jkidge for what the town gave Mr. Kellogg as a settlement." 

Mr. Kellogg accepted the call on the terms proposed by the town. 
Nov. 27, 1780, The church met and Voted i, "That this church for 
the future will consider all persons who have been dedicated to God 
in baptism, under the special watch and inspection of the church, and 
subject to the same discipline with those in full communion. Voted 2, 
that Wednesday Jan. 10, 1781 be the day for the ordination of Mr. 
Kellogg. Voted -^^ to invite the following pastors with their respective 
churches to assist on said day in the capacity of an ordaining Council, 
viz. Rev. Messrs. Stone of Southborough, Harrington of Lancaster, 
Parsons of Amherst, Prentice of Holliston, Badger of Natick, Buck- 
minster of Rutland, Bridge of East Sudbury, Brown of Sherborn, 
Eitch of llopkinton, Biglow of Sudbury. Voted 4, That the church 
make no extraordinary provision for a promiscuous multitude, as has 
l)een customary on such occasions ; thinking the practice repugnant 
to the rules of the (lOspel, and tends to such vain sporting as is utterly 
inconsistent with the solemnities of the day." "The church then 
jirocecded to inciuire of the pastor elect what were his sentiments 

336 History of Framingham. 

respecting Church Discipline ; or how he expected to discipline the 
church, provided he should under God take the pastoral charge of the 
same? To which he replied, that he was willing to conform to the 
same mode of discipline that was pursued in the time of Mr. Bridge ; 
or that he was willing to adhere to the Cambridge Platform (Elder- 
ship excluded) agreeably to the custom of these New England Con- 
gregational churches. — The church by unanimous vote expressed 

Dec. II, 1780. At a town meeting, '■'■Voted to concur with the 
church in their vote to ordain Mr. Kellogg on Jan. 10. Voted, that 
Capt. Lawson Buckminster, Lieut. Samuel Stone, Thomas Buckmin- 
ster, Col. John Trowbridge, and Capt. Simon Edgell be a committee 
to provide for the Council." Also chose a committee " to see that 
the lower gallery be properly supported ; and that the upper gallery 
be made secure so that no person be permitted to go into it on said 
day." Also chose a committee of seven " to take care of the meeting- 
house, and let no person in till the Council and church were seated." 

Jan. 10, 1781, Mr. David Kellogg was ordained. "The day was 
stormy," and only Rev. Messrs. Buckminster, Stone, Bridge, Fitch and 
Bigelow of the pastors invited, were present. Mr. Bridge preached 
the sermon from 2 Cor. v, 20. 


The peculiar terms of payment of Mr. K's salary, made it a matter 
of nice calculation how much he should annually receive. Hence it 
was customary each year at the annual town meeting, to choose a 
committee to confer with the pastor, and determine the present prices 
of corn and rye, and how much more or less than ;^ioo is equivalent 
to the original agreement. In April i8og, such a committee reported: 
" That 250 bushels of rye at 6s. per bushel produced $250, and zizY^ 
bushels of corn at 5s. amount to $277.78, making $527.78, which 
quantities of grain are agreeable to the original contract, and with 
which sum Mr. Kellogg will be content." In 182 1, a similar com- 
mittee reported as follows : "That estimating rye at 75 cts. per bushel, 
and corn at 50 cts., Mr. K's salary, according to the terms of his con- 
tract, amounts to $375.17. And in consideration that he, during a 
considerable part of the late war, when corn and rye were worth from 
one to two dollars per bushel, consented to receive a much less sum 
than was due by his contract, your committee have thought it reason- 
able to recommend a grant of $450," — which sum the town voted to 

Singing. 2>o7 

Shays' Rebellion. — Jan. 15, 1787. Upon summons issued by the 
commissioned officers, the three militia companies of this town met, 
and enhsted the number of men called for. They rendezvoused at 
Weston Jan. 20 ; were with the forces under command of Maj. Gen. 
Lincoln, and marched as far as Worcester. Our men returned Feb. 
27. Framingham was called upon to furnish stores for this expedition; 
and sent 2296 lbs. of bread, 1120 lbs. of beef, and 5 bushels of beans, 
for which the State allowed the sum of ^36. 13. 6. 

Singing. — This part of religious worship had an important i^lace 
in the Sabbath services, in our fathers' time. In Mr. Swift's day, few, 
except the pastor and deacons, had psalm-books ; and it was custom- 
ary for the minister to read the psalm in full, when the senior deacon 
would rise, face the audience, and repeat the first line, which would 
be sung by the congregation; and so on to the end of the six or eight 
stanzas. Before Mr. Bridge's day, an edition of the Psalms and 
Hymns was printed, containing a collection of thirty-seven tunes 
inserted at the end. Mr. Bridge was a good singer, and was accus- 
tomed to meet such of his people as chose to come for instruction and 
practice in music. July 1754, a vote was passed by the church, " desir- 
ing seven brethren, viz., John Cloyes, Benjamin Pepper, John Farrar, 
Bezaleel and David Rice, Samuel Dedman, and Daniel Adams, 
together with Mr. Ebenezer Marshall to take immediate care to qualify 
ihemselves to set the psalm in public ; and as soon as they are properly 
qua'ified, to lead the assembly in that part of Divine Worship." 

The first attempt to form a choir was made in 1768, when a number 
of singers, petitioned the town "to appropriate the front seat in the 
upper galle^'' for their use, that they might sit together." 

Soon after tha formation of the choir, stringed instruments were 
introduced, to set +he tune, and lead the voices. But it gave great 
offence to older peo^e. On one occasion, when the violin was dis- 
abled, an old man, inVterms more forcible than polite, gave thanks 
aloud that the Lord^ s fitmif^ was broke7i I Some years later, when Billings' 
Collection was introducqf., and the choir for the first time sang the 
tune of " David the Ki/g," an aged man cried out, "hold, hold ! " and 
seizing his hat left tl/j meeting-house. 

The custom of " lining the psalm " continued for a long time after 
the organization of a choir; but it was very annoying to them. It 
ceased abo-.^c 1785, and on this wise: Old Deacon Brown, who as 
senior deacon had the right to perform the service, was rather slow in 
his r".ovements, and had the habit of adjusting his glasses and clear- 
ing his throat before beginning to read. At the date in question, 

338 History of Fratningham. 

Col. David Brewer was chosen chorister. Taking advantage of the 
Deacon's well known habit, on the first Sabbath of his leadership, the 
Colonel (acting no doubt on a previous understanding with his choir) 
struck in singing so quick after Mr. Kellogg had finished reading, 
that the Deacon had no chance to begin his work. He looked up in 
amazement — and so did a great many others in the congregation. 
After that, there was no more attempt to "deacon the hymn." 

In 1798, the town granted $30 to hire a singing master. For several 
years, the annual proceeds of the alewive fishery in Cochituate brook 
were given to the singers, and hence received the name of the sifigers 
fish privilege- The town was accustomed to choose annually a com- 
mittee "to regulate the singing." In 1805, the town "-voted, that the 
singers shall regulate themselves, so long as they shall continue to fill 
the seats assigned them, and behave with decency and order." 

Mar. I, 1824, the town "-voted to grant $100 for the support of a 
singing school; and that the money be divided between the two socie- 
ties in proportion to the tax they pay. Chose as a committee, Silas 
Hunt, Dexter Hemenway and Henry Brewer in Rev. Mr. Kellogg's 
society; John Wenzell Jr., H. H. Hyde and Wm Greenwood in Rev. 
Mr. Train's society, to lay out the money." 

Framingham Academy. — Early in the spring of 1792, Rev. David 
Kellogg and twenty-two associates organized as The Proprietors of 
the Brick School House in Framingham; and built a school house on 
the west side of the Training Field, where is now the stone school 
house. The house was two stories hig,h, and cost ^176. 9. 6. The 
associates were : David Kellogg, Jona. Hale, David Brewer, Simon 
Edgell, Elijah Stone, Peter Clayes, Ezra Haven, Joseph Bennett, 
Matthias Bent Jr., John Trowbridge Jr., Samuel Frost Jr., Jona. Rugg, 
John Fiske, Ebenezer Eaton, Thomas Buckminster, Jona. Maynard, 
Elisha Frost, Barzillai Bannister, Lawson Buckminster, Lawson Nurse, 
Samuel Bullard and Andrew Brown. The object, as stated in the 
constitution, was " to disseminate piety, virtue and useful knowledge ; 
and establish a Grammar school in said town, as a school of liberal 
arts and sciences." The by-laws provided, that "no person shall be 
admitted a member of the Society, unless he sustains a good moral 
character ; " and that " no person shall be admitted as a preceptor in 
the school, unless he has received a collegiate education, and been 
endowed with a degree of Bachelor of Arts in some University." 
" Every branch of science shall be taught in said school, which is con- 
ducive to private benefit, or of public utility and importance; * * 
a primary regard being had to the initiation of youth into principles 
of piety and virtue." " Children of both sexes shall be admitted upon 

Framinghain Academy. 339 

equal terms." "The charges of the school shall be levied upon the 
polls (meaning the scholars,)" 

Oct. 17, 1793, the Proprietors received Deeds of one acre of land 
for the school house site, i. e. 3^ of an acre of Thomas Buckminster, 
and % of Samuel Frost. The lot extended on the east to the line of 
the Common and Training Field, which line was several rods easterly 
of the present highway. In 1822, two acres of land additional, and 
adjoining the other lot, was purchased of Thomas Buckminister, by 
the Academy Trustees, all together constituting what is known as 
Academy Land. 

The school was opened Nov. 27, 1792, under the instruction of 
James Hawley, afterwards Tutor in Harvard University. 

In 179S, the Proprietors petitioned the Legislature for an act of 
incorporation as an Academy: and the town voted to grant $1000 to 
support the Academy school, i. e. the interest of said sum to be paid 
annually, provided it will exempt the town from keeping a grammar 
school ; and provided further that the Legislature will make a grant of 
half a Township of Land at the eastward, to the Academy. [The $60 
interest was annually paid, till 1824, when it was ascertained that such 
a town appropriation was illegal ; and it was discontinued.] 

Mar. I, 1799, the Legislature passed "An Act for establishing an 
Academy in Framingham," and appointed the following persons a 
board of Trustees, viz. Rev. David Kellogg, Rev. Josiah Bridge, Rev. 
Jacob Bigelow, Artemas Ward Jr., Jona. Maynard, Jona. Hale, Samuel 
Frost, Peter Clayes, and David Brewer. " And be it further enacted, 
that the said Academy be endowed with a tract of land equal to one- 
half of a township of six miles square, of any unappropriated lands 
within the counties of Hancock and Washington." June 4, 1802, this 
half Township, situated in Washington county on the eastern boun- 
dary of Maine, was conveyed to the Trustees, and was known as the 
"Framingham Grant." This tract of land, which contained 11,520 
acres, was sold by the Trustees in 1803, to Jona. Maynard and Samuel 
Weed for ^5000, for which sum the grantees executed a bond, said 
bond constituting a fund, the interest of which was applied for the 
support of the school. Final payment of the principal of said bond 
was made May 15, 1833. This half-township was included in the land 
ceded to Great Britain by the Ashburton Treaty ; and has since been 
surveyed and located by a claimant, who has been paid for the same 
by the U. S. Government. 

The Academy thus established, became an important factor in the 
social life, the educational standing, and the material prosperity of the 
town. The varied and good fruits of the institution have been ripen- 
ing for three generations, and are not yet all gathered. It numbers 


History of Framingkam. 

among its alumni, hundreds of successful teachers and professional 
men, embracing the names of those well known in ecclesiastical, 
political and judicial departments in our own State, and throughout 
the country. 

In 1822, the Trustees erected a dwelling-house for the preceptor, 
where is now the High school building, at a cost of $3,500. 

In 1826, John Trowbridge devised by will, a legacy of $500 to the 
Trustees, the interest of which has since been applied, agreeably to 
the directions of the donor, in aid of young men of this town prepar- 
ing for college. 

In 1837, t^^ original brick structure was taken down, and re-placed 
by a stone school house (now used for the primary school). The cost 
was $3000. 

In 1838, Micah Stone left by will a legacy of $3000, the interest of 
which was to be applied to the reduction of the charge of tuition to 
pupils belonging to the town. This legacy was recovered by the 
heirs, after the Academy was merged in the town High School. 

By acts of the Legislature, passed May 30, 185 1, and Mar. 15, 1852, 
the Trustees of the Academy were authorized to convey to the town, 
all the property belonging to said corporation, including all trust funds, 
provided the said town shall establish and forever maintain, upon the 
real estate so conveyed, a Town High School. The School Com- 
mittee were authorized to act as Trustees, and the Town Treasurer to 
act as the corporation Treasurer. The supreme court decided that 
this transfer of property to the town, and vesting the rights and powers 
of the Trustees in certain impersonal officers, virtually dissolved the 
Academy corporation. Had the board of Trustees continued in the 
exercise of their functions, and kept proper Records, even though the 
same individuals should hold the two offices of Trustee and School 
Committee, the trust fund would not have been forfeited. 

List of Preceptors of the Academy. 


James Hawley, a g 

raduate of 

H. U. 



John Park, 

D. C. 



David Kendall, 

H. U. 



Eli Bullard, 

Y. C. 



Joseph Emerson, 

H. U. 



Joshua Lane, 




Samuel Weed, 




B. H. Tower, 




William T. Torrey, 




John Brewer, 




Charles Train, 



Small Pox. 



John Cotton, a graduate of . 

H. U 


George jNIorej^, 




Mason Fisher, 




Aaron Prescott, 




George Otis, 




Augustus Whiting, 




George R. Noyes, 




Walter R. Johnson, 




Enos Stewart, 




John M. Cheney, 




Edward Frost, 




Alfred W. Pike, 


D. C. 


George Folsom, 


H. U 


Omen S. Keith, 




David W. Fiske, 


B. U. 


Duncan Bradford, 


H. U 


Barzillai Frost, 




Jacob Caldwell, 




Rufus T. King, 




Charles W. Goodnow 


A. C. 

T 840-45. 

Marshall Conant, 



Thomas Russell, 


H. U. 


John A. Hastings 




Simon G. Sanger, 




Samuel Worcester, 


B. U. 


Carlos Slafter, 


D. C. 













Small Pox. — This dreaded disease was introduced into this town 
by soldiers returning from the army, during the last French and Indian 
war. It again appeared in 1777. But on both occasions it was con- 
fined to single families. 

In Jan. 1793, Abijah Parmenter of Framingham went to Peterboro' 
N, H., to visit David Butler, a kinsman of his wife. On recommenda- 
tion of Parmenter, Butler, who was dropsical, came home with him, to 
be treated by Dr. K. Not receiving the desired benefit, he sent for 
Dr. W. of W., who came March 10, scarified him, and drew away a 
considerable quantity of water. In two weeks after this visit, Butler 
broke out with small pox. His watchers and visitors had been ex- 
posed ; and the selectmen took the Samuel Angier house as a " Pest 
House." In due time, seventeen persons were taken down with the 
disorder, of whom Butler and five others died. 

The names of those who died were David Butler, Mrs. Parmen- 
ter, Mrs. Foster, Samuel Angier, Cyrus Woolson, Aaron Brown. 

342 History of Framingham. 

They were buried in a pasture north of the Geo. H. Thompson place, 
and flat stones, without inscriptions, placed at the head of the graves. 
Another person, Nancy Coolidge, who committed suicide, was buried 
beside them, making seven graves. 

The town voted, " that the selectmen prosecute any person that shall 
spread the small pox by inoculation or any other way." ^^ Voted, to 
grant ;^3o to assist those who have had the small pox, and are unable 
to pay the expenses of their sickness." 

Pleasure Carriages. — The early mode of travelling was on 
horseback. The father sat in the saddle, with one child in front ; the 
mother, with the babe in her lap, sat on the pillion ; and another child 
found room still farther behind. Two-wheeled chairs came first; then 
chaises ; then four-wheel chariots. Benj. Eaton and Josiah Temple 
each owned a chaise in 1775 ; ■Matthias Bent Sen. had one soon after 
this date. Maj. Jona. Hale had a two-horse carriage as early as 1790. 

1800. — The Centre Village. — At this date, the site of our village 
was mostly covered with wood and bushes, or given up to pasturage. 
The meeting-house, which stood in front of the Otis Boynton house, was 
surrounded with large forest trees. The Academy occupied the site 
of the stone school house. The work-house was about four or five 
rods northwesterly from the Town Hall, and the school house stood 
on the road side, nearly in front of Mrs. Bean's. A small red store 
stood where is now Esty's Block. This was built in 1781 by Daniel 
Bridge, felt maker and hatter. Mr. Houghton's tavern, just finished, 
occupied the site of the present hotel ; Abner Wheeler's store, also 
just finished, stood on the site of Trowbridge and Savage's store. 
To the northward could be seen the parsonage of Rev. Mr. Kellogg, 
now W. H. Mellen's, and the Capt. Simon Edgell farm buildings. To 
the east, were Buckminster's tavern, on the site of Geo. H. Water- 
man's house ; Daniel Gregory's dwelling house, now Orre Parker's ; 
the tower-like hay-scales, in front of the tavern ; Gregory's store 
on the river bank, where E. H. Warren's house now is ; and a small 
house nearer the cemetery, with a shop behind it. Across the 
bridge were I. W^arren's tannery and dwelling house, Eli Bullard's 
house, at the angle of the roads, and Isaac Stone's house and barn, 
on the Abner Wheeler place. On the south side of Bare hill, was the 
old Swift house, then occupied by Nathaniel A. Jones, and the John 
Town house, then owned by Aaron Bullard. On the Salem End road, 
the first house was Ezekiel Rice's, known as the Amasa Kendall 
place. On what is now Pleasant street, Wm Maynard lived in a small 
house then standing in the corner of the garden west of Mrs. Mar- 

Mails and Post Office. 343 

shall's ; [now standing on the opposite side of the street, beyond Dr. 
Stone's] Jona. Maynard lived in the Charles Williams' house ; Timo- 
thy Eames, the mason, lived in a small house on the Mrs. Winter 
place ; and Lawson Buckminster's tavern stood where is now Moses 
Ellis' dwelling house. 

Mails and Post Office. — As early as 1786, Nathan Stone Sen., 
born on the Abner Wheeler place, but then living in the west part of 
Natick, and three others, agreed to carry a mail — i. e. the Boston 
Chronicle, a weekly paper, and letters, — from Boston to Sanger's 
tavern at South Framingham, and Buckminster's tavern at the Centre, 
each taking his weekly turn. About 1790, Timothy Stearns started a 
newspaper and mail route between Boston and Worcester, going on 
horseback once a week. He sold out to Walter Mayhew about 1802. 
Mr, Mayhew put on a one-horse wagon, and carried passengers. He 
sold out to Silas Eaton Jr., who sold to Capt. John Hemenway. Capt. 
H. put on a two-horse carriage. Trips were made only once a week ; 
and letters to distant points must be mailed in Boston. Elias Temple 
says : " In 1801 I walked to Boston to mail a letter to Moses M. Fiske, 
in Dartmouth College, which required haste." A stage was put on the 
route between Boston and Worcester as early as 1810. Capt. Levi 
Pease of Shrewsbury drove from Worcester to Framingham ; and 
Jim Jones from F. to Boston. 

The Framingham Post Office was established Dec. 29, 1810, Jona. 
Maynard postmaster. The office was kept at Martin Stone's tavern, 
afterwards Henderson's, and Gaines'. Mr. Maynard was succeeded 
by Samuel Warren, Mar. 29, 1832 ; John Clark, Apr. 30, 1853 ; S. B. 
Wilde, Apr. 12, 1861 ; Mrs. J. H. S. Wilde, July 30, 1864; Geo. F. 
Hartwell, Sept, 15, 1876. 

Masonic Lodge. — The " Middlesex Lodge " of Free IMasons was 
instituted in this town in 1795. The original members were, Jona. 
Maynard, master, Peter Clayes, senior warden, Barzillai Bannister, 
junior warden, John Nixon, Samuel Frost, Thomas Nixon, Aaron 
Brown, Gilbert Marshall, Benj. Champney, Thomas Bucklin, Winslow 
Corbett, Samuel Haven. Lodge .meetings were held first in the 
Academy Hall ; then in the Hall over Henderson's store ; then in 
Esty's Block ; then in its present Hall over Eastman's store. 

Framingham Artillery Company. — This company was organized 
in Mar. 1799. The original members were Josiah Abbott, Elisha 
Belknap, John Bent, Eben"" Brown, Eli Bullard, Josiah Clayes, Joseph 
Eaton, Elisha Jones, John Nurse, Lawson Nurse, Artemas Parker, 
John Parker, Nathan Parker, Daniel Sanger, Zedekiah Sanger, David 
Stone, Purchase Stone, John Temple. The company paraded the 

344 History of Fraininghafn. 

first time July 4, 1799, under the following officers: Eli Bullard, cap- 
tain, John Nurse, ist lieutenant, Eben"" Brown 2d lieutenant. Purchase 
Stone, pioneer, Elisha Belknap, fifer, David Stone, drummer. The 
gun-house was built in the fall of 1799, on the lot w'here the old Town 
House stood, now Otis Boynton's corner. In 1808, the town sold to 
the Commonwealth a spot in front of the present dwelling house of 
James W. Clark, whither the gun-house was removed, and where it 
remained till 1834. The successive commanders of the company 
have been, Eli Bullard, John Nurse, Lawson Nurse, Martin Stone, 
com. Apr. 12, 1810, dis. Mar. 13, 1813, John Temple, com. Apr. 15, 
1813, dis. Nov. 25, 1814, James Brown, com. Feb. 15, 1815, Adam 
Hemenway, Alex"" H. Jones, Leonard Arnold, Amos Johnson Jr., 
Charles Trowbridge, dis. Dec. 23, 1829. At this date the company 
disbanded ; and the guns and other state property were returned to 
the arsenal at Boston. The gun-house and }and was purchased by 
Rev. George Trask, ]\Iar. 26, 1834. 

1800. — Park's Corner. — At the date under consideration, Park's 
Corner was a busy place. The tavern (then kept by Jonas Dean) and 
the store attracted a large custom. Marshall's forge, has already 
been described. Maj. Hale who lived to the south, on the Royal 
Grout place, was a large manufacturer of wool cards. And this 
Corner was the rallying point of the Baptist Society, whose history 
may properly be inserted here. 

First Baptist Church in Framifigham. The earliest denominational 
effort in this town by the Baptists, was made about the time when 
Rev. Mr. Reed resigned the charge of the Second Congregational 
Church, and b}' persons who had been connected with that church. 
This was probably in the spring or summer of 1757. Elders Whit- 
man Jacobs and Noah Adams from Connecticut preached here ; and 
in 1762, Mr. Jacobs administered baptism to four persons. A Baptist 
Society appears to have been organized that year, which supported 
preaching part of the time. In the March warrant for 1764, is an 
article, "To see if the town will ^bate to several persons (who call 
themselves Ana baptists) their minister's rate for the year 1763." 
The town " voted \.h^X the minister's rate for 1763, of Joseph Byxbe, 
James Haven, Elkanah Haven, James Mellen, Benj. Haven, Squier 
Haven, Simon Pratt, Eben"" Singletary, Elkanah Haven Jr., Eben"" 
Bullard, James Haven Jr., and Isaac Fiske, be abated." This action 
implies that these persons had paid a minister's tax to an organized 
body, whose clerk or committee could give the certificate required by 
law. After this, the members of this society were exempted from 
taxation for the support of Rev. Mr. Bridge and Mr. Kellogg, except 

First Baptist Church. 345 

in cases where the certificate was 7iot conformable to the law. In 1787, 
the Society returned 56 ratable polls; in 1790, 48 polls; in 1799, 36 
polls; in 1805, 2 i polls ; in 1810, 34 polls ; in 1812, 64 polls ; in 1823, 
72 polls. 

"Between 1762 and 1792," says Rev. W. P. Upham in a Historical 
Sermon, " about thirty persons were baptized in Framingham ; but 
there is no evidence that they were constituted into a church.'" In 
1809, there were but five Baptist professors here, viz. Rev. Charles 
Train, Benj. Haven, the wife of John Fiske, the wife of Moses Fiske, 
and the wife of Amasa How. In 1810, Elder Grafton baptized two 
persons; and in 1811 Mr. Train baptized five. Aug. 4, i8ii,achurch 
was organized under the name of " The Baptist Church of Weston 
and Framingham." A powerful revival commenced in this church, 
and spread through the town in 18 14, 15, as the result of which 
about 50 were added to the church. In the fifteen years while this 
church continued a branch of the Weston church, the numbers added 
were 177 by baptism, and 32 by letter. May 3, 1826, this church 
became a distinct body, with 119 members. 

The First Baptist Society in Framingham, was incorporated June 
22, 1812. 

Preachers and pastors. Mr. Joseph Byxbe Jr., who lived on the 
Hopkins (T. B. Wales Jr.) place, was probably the first stated preacher. 
Others were, Nathaniel Green, who lived and died in Leicester; 
Simon Snow, of Upton, preached here and at Weston 2 or 3 years, 
afterwards became a Congregationalist, and died at Thomaston, Me. ; 
Noah Alden of Bellingham was here in 1773 ; Elisha Rich, a gun- 
smith, lived in town for a time, and preached regularly on the Sab- 
bath ; removed to Chelmsford, and thence to the West; Edward Clark 
supplied the desk from 1780 to 90 ; removed to Medfield, but returned 
in 1801, and preached till the settlement of Mr. Train. Rev. Charles 
Train, H. U. 1805, was ordained Jan. 30, 181 1 ; dismissed Sept. 1839. 
Rev. Enoch Hutchinson was installed Aug. 24, 1840, dis. Jan. 8, 1841. 
He was a college graduate, and distinguished scholar in the Arabic 
language and literature. Rev. James Johnston preached from June 
27, 1841 to Aug. 10, 1845. Rev. Jona. Aldrich, B. U. 1826, com- 
menced his labors Sept. 27, 1846, and resigned April 3, 185 1. In this 
time he baptized eighty persons. Rev. Wm. C. Child D.D., a grad- 
uate of Union College, was pastor from May i, 185 1 to April i, 1856. 
During his pastorate fifty-three persons were baptized. Rev. Joseph 
A. Goodhue, D. C. 1848, was here, 1859 to July 31, 1862. Rev. A. 
W. Carr succeeded, and' remained till Nov. i, 1865. Rev. Arthur S. 
Train D. D., B. U. 1833, was installed in 1866, and died in ofiice Jan. 
2, 1872. Rev. W. P. Upham commenced his labors Oct. i, 1872, and 

346 History of Framingham. 

resigned in 1877. R^^'- George E. Leeson, B. U. 1874, was ordained 
July 29, 1877 ; died in office Aug. 20, 1881. The present pastor, Rev. 
Franklin Hutchinson, was born in West Hoboken N. J. Aug. 26, 1853, 
educated at N. Y. University, and Union Theol. Sem., class of 1881, 
ordained June 28, 1882. 

Meeting-houses. For many years the Baptist Society had no stated 
place of worship, but held their meetings at private dwellings. Prob- 
ably they first met at Joseph Byxbe's. In 1772, Eben"" Marshall fitted 
up with a desk and benches the upper part of his then tavern house 
(afterwards the Dean tavern and Park's store.) In a few years, the 
society outgrew these accommodations, and bought the meeting-house 
built by Rev. Mr. Reed's Society, which was then standing on the 
" Silk Farm," and moved it to the Corner, where it was placed on a 
ledge of rocks at the east end of the South Common, just where 
the railroad track now runs. In 18 10 the house was repaired, and 
galleries put in. In 18 17, further repairs were made, David Fiske 
defraying one-half the cost. At his death Mr. Fiske left his whole 
estate to the Society, thereby laying the foundation of a permanent 
ministerial fund. In June 1825, Dea. Stephen Buttrick, Dea. Enoch 
Belknap, Windsor Moulton, H. H. Hyde, John Wenzell Jr., John 
Ballard, Joseph Ballard, Isaac Fiske, Moses Fiske, Elias Temple, 
Warren Nixon, Carleton Corbett and David Bigelow entered into an 
agreement with each other to build a meeting-house for the Baptist 
Society, to be located near the Centre village, and to become the 
property of said Society, when it should pay for the house and land. 
The house, (now standing, though several times repaired and re-fur- 
nished) was dedicated on the first Sabbath and first day of January 

A Sabbath School, in connection with this church, was organized in 
18 1 7, by the Misses Deborah Mellen and Emily Parkhurst, 

1800. — South Framingham. — This now leading village, was then 
a dull place. Sanger's tavern and store. Rider's cider mill, and 
Torrey's shoe shop comprised the business of the place. And families 
of Gleason, Learned, How, Fames, Rider, Haven and Pratt, comprised 
the population. The impulse given to business by the coming in of 
the Clarks and others, and by the establishment of straw works on a 
large scale, will be narrated hereafter. 

Saxonville in 1800. — At this date, things remained at both 
Stone's and Brown's water-privileges, as already detailed in Chapter 
I. [See atite, pp. 15, 16] Tucker's tavern at the north end of the 
Pond, the store on the corner opposite F. H. Sprague's, the black- 

First Methodist CInirch. 347 

smith shop at Gleason's old stand, and another at the corners on the 
road to Lanham, and Fiske's Tannery, all contributed to the impor- 
tance of that end of the town as a business centre. But the new era 
of Corporate Manufacturing had not then dawned. 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church. — The history of this 
denominational movement properly belongs to this date, and this 

Mr. Barry states that Methodism was introduced into this town in 
1788. As he received his information from persons whose memory 
reached back to that date, and who were interested in and cognizant of 
the facts, there is no reason to question the correctness of his state- 
ment. Probably Lieut. Jona. Hill became acquainted with the tenets 
and methods of the denomination when in the army near New York, 
in the Revolutionary war ; at which time Francis Ashbury, the first 
bishop of the church in the United States, was actively at work in that 

The first Class consisted of Jona. Hill (leader), Benj. Stone, Isaac 
Stone and their wives, and Matthew Stone. They first met for relig- 
ious worship in the dwelling house of Benj. Stone. This was one of 
the earliest — if not the earliest — church of the order, gathered in 
Massachusetts. The records of the old Needham Circuit do not 
extend back of 1791 ; and there is no doubt that the Saxonville Class 
helped to make up the reputed number of 35 members. 

For several years the church in this town was visited by various 
preachers, viz. John Hill, Bishop Ashbury, Jesse Lee, Ezekiel Cooper 
and George Pickering, through whose missionary zeal, Methodism was 
firmly established in New England. 

There was an article in the warrant Apr. 3, 1797, "To see if the 
town will allow those persons called Methodists to draw their money 
out of the town Treasury which they have paid towards the support of 
Rev. Mr. Kellogg." A committee was appointed "to inquire into the 
legality of the Methodists paying a minister tax." The report of the 
committee is not recorded. But if they were not allowed to pay their 
minister'tax for the support of their own denomination, it was because 
they were not legally organized by the choice of a clerk, who could 
attest the necessary certificate. 

" For nearly forty years " says Rev. R. H. Howard in his Historical 
Address, " Saxonville Methodism was represented by a mere hand ful, 
scarcely more than a single Class, whose varying fortunes, alternating 
between extreme feebleness and hopeful success, must have occasioned 
much prayerful solicitude and constant concern." But they maintained 
their weekly meetings ; and in 1822, under the labors of Rev. Erastus 

34^ History of Framingham. 

Otis and Rev. Geo. Fairbanks, an interesting revival occurred, which 
added considerably to their numbers, and more to their relative 
strength. Since this date, the Society has been one of the places of 
regular appointment of preachers. 

"The earliest original documentary material for a history of Saxon- 
ville Methodism which I have found," says Mr. H., "is a Class-paper, 
yellow with age, of which the following is a copy : 

" Framingham Class-Paper. 

" Lewis Jones, leader; B. Hazelton, J. Risley, I. M. Bidwell, circuit 
preachers; Joseph A. Merrill, presiding elder. 

' Be faithfjil in jneeting yoiiir class, 
And do not forget the motithly fast. ' — Dis. 
'' Needham Ct., 31 ay, 1823." 

The names of the members of this class are as follows : 

Lewis Jones, Sarah Stone, Catherine Hill, Persis Hill, (afterwards Eaton), 
Joseph Potter, Jane Walker, Joseph Moulton, Olive Moulton, Hannah Stone, 
Betsey Eaton, Luther Underwood, Walter Stone, Eliza Stone, Pamelia Hill, 
L. Dudley, Sally Flag, Eliza Belcher, Elbridge Bradbury, Betsey Bailey, 
Roxana Godenow, Elenor Godenow, Lewis Dudley, Patty Dudley, Ann 
Moulton, Abagail Bradbury, William Dudley, Susan Stone, Sally Under- 
wood, Fisher Ames, L. Ames, AL Eaton, and Jenny Eaton." 

"Previous to 1840, three Classes had been organized. Of the first, 
held at the "Corners," Lewis Jones was long the leader, doing duty 
in this capacity for over a quarter of a century, and succeeded by 
Walter Stone. The second was held at the village of Saxonville ; and 
for many years the leader has been, and still is, John Simpson. The 
third class was held at Nobscot, and was conducted by William Stone 
and Nathaniel Gill. 

" Rev. S. W. Coggeshall, D. D., who was appointed to this circuit 
in 1832, writes: — "When we took the old Needham Circuit in 1832 
it was reduced to two Sabbath appointments, Needham and Weston, 
with evening appointments at Saxonville and Waltham Plains. At 
Saxonville we met at the house of Mr. Eaton, whose wife, Persis, was 
a prominent Methodist at the Four Corners. The great, old-fashioned 
kitchen used to be crowded with an earnest congregation, many of 
whom, after having rode or tramped, five miles to Needham to meet- 
ing, and back, would still come out to a third service, or sermon, in 
the evening. We meant business in those days." 

" Another of these praying places was the neighboring house of 
Benjamin Stone. Meetings were likewise held, I am told, in a large 
barn, beyond the Sudbury River, then belonging to Mr. Israel Stone." 

First Methodist Ckui^ch. 349 

In 1S33, the Society commenced the erection of a house of worship, 
near the house of Benj. Stone. " The site selected was about one 
mile north of the village of Saxon ville, on the road leading to Sudbury. 
The land occupied by the building was generously donated for that 
purpose by Elias Hemmenway, residing at the time near the spot. 
The occasion of the location of the church at this singularly unfortu- 
nate point was doubtless the fact that in those days the majority of 
the members of the Society resided in that vicinity." 

The building, 38x40 feet and costing about $2,000, was completed 
and dedicated in due time. Rev. Abel Stevens, then only nineteen 
years of age, preaching (from Dan. 2 : 34, 35) the dedicatory sermon. ^ 

The society was legally organized during the year 1834; Brother 
Richard Kimbal having been appointed first treasurer. 

" A prominent and worthy member of the church during this 
comparatively early jDcriod of its history, was Jotham Haven, a local 
preacher, father of the late Bishop E. O. Haven, — the latter having 
been named after one of the former preachers of the Needham Circuit, 
— Erastus Otis of precious memory, and under whose ministry the 
father had been converted at Lempster, N. H. For some time pre- 
vious to his coming to Saxonville to live. Father Haven, together with 
Tyler Harrington and Daniel Livermore, had been wont, as occasion 
called, to drive over from Weston and supply the pulpit of the then 
new church, in the absence of the regular circuit preacher. Moving 
at length into the place — his farm and homestead having been located 
in the immediate vicinity of the church, — he became naturally more 
intimately identified with and interested in Saxonville Methodism. 
"He was," writes Dr. Coggeshall, "one of the best and most faithful 
of men that I have known in sixty years, — a truly pious and most 
estimable man." "Father and Mother Haven," writes Dr. Merrill, "in 
my day, already far advanced in life, were sincere and devoted fol- 
lowers of the Lamb. Father Haven was a preacher of good abilities, 
very useful in earlier life, but continued to love Christ and his church 
with an even and constant love to the last." 

Meantime, it is a matter of just pride to this people that the 
Saxonville Society once nurtured in its motherly bosom the late 
lamented Bishop E. O. Haven. Converted in Weston at the early 
age of ten years, he joined the Methodist Church on probation in 
Saxonville, being at the time about fifteen years of age." 

1 A very interesting and significant incident connected with this young preacher and his perform- 
ance on that occasion is worth relating. The Rev. Dr. Kellogg, pastor of the Congregational Church 
at Framinghani Centre at the time, was present at this service. Meantime when, at the close of tlie 
exercises, the youthful preacher descended from the pulpit, Dr. K. , a man of patriarchal years and 
appearance, rising from his place in the altar, and placing his hands on the young man's head, with 
much feeling and impressiveness, exclaimed, " Let no man despise thy youth." 

350 History of Framinghani. 

" During the single decade that the Society continued to worship in 
the church at the " Corners," it enjoyed only a scant prosperity. The 
Conference jDreachers who served it were C. Virgin, Peter Sabin, 
N. B. Spalding, Paul Townsend, Thos. W. Tucker, Geo. Pickering, and 
Willard Smith. The Society, in the year 1842, considering themselves 
financially too feeble to support a Conference preacher. Rev. L. P. 
Frost, then teaching in Wayland, near by, was engaged to supply the 
pulpit, which he did most acceptably." 

In 1844, for the better accommodation of people living around the 
Factories, the church was removed to the village. 

In 1880, the present tasteful and commodious house of worship was 
erected, at a cost, including the land, of about $10,000. It was 
dedicated Jan. 5, 1881. 

The preachers since 1844, have been. Rev. Willard Smith, Rev. N. 
S. Spaulding, Rev. Chester Field, Rev. Thomas C. Pierce, Rev. J. T. 
Pettee, under whose ministry occurred a remarkable revival, during 
which nearly two hundred were hopefully converted. This was in 
1850 and 51. In 1852 Rev. John W. oMerrill was appointed here. 
He was followed by Rev. John Cadwell, Rev. Tho^ B. Treadwell, Rev. 
H. P. Andrews, Rev. Franklin Furbur, Rev. Burtis Judd, Rev. G. G. 
Jones, Rev. Thomas Marcy, Rev. Z. A. ]\Iudge, Rev. Albert Gould, 
Rev. Linus Fish, Rev. F. T. George, Rev. W. A. Braman, Rev. 
William Silverthorn, Rev. Andrew J. Hall, Rev. R. H. Howard. 

1800. — Brackett's Corner. — From the earliest settlement of the 
town, this was a busy place. For many years, Joshua Eaton's tannery, 
and Trowbridge's tavern made the corner by school house No. 7, a 
greater business centre. But Capt. Isaac Clark, carpenter, on the 
west, and Boutwell's tinshop on the east, naturally helped to draw 
business towards this corner ; and David Patterson, blacksmith, and 
tavern-keeper, who came here in 1758, and built the Brackett house, 
contributed materially to its prosperity. Josiah Winch, the brick 
mason, commenced business here for himself in 1790. But the com- 
ing of Solomon Brackett in 1794, and Amos Parkhurst a year or two 
later, gave a new start to business enterprise. Mr. Brackett was a 
blacksmith, and took the old Patterson stand, which he carried on for 
a few years ; and then with the aid of Amos Parkhurst, set up a 
baker}^, which became famous, and flourished for a long term of years ; 
and after his death was carried on by his son and son-in-law. In 1845, 
the number of hands employed was 4 ; value of bread baked, $8,000. 

To go back to the Centre Village. — The movement which estab- 
lished the Brick School House, and Academy, already detailed, was 

Third Meeting-Hoiise. 351 

the beginning of a new era to Framingham Centre. The young men 
and young women who had had no occasion to go there except on the 
Sabbath, now gathered there every day in the week, and naturally 
began to take some interest in its surroundings and growth. And new 
names, and young blood from abroad, came in at this juncture. Dr. 
J. B. Kittredge, a well educated and ambitious young physician, located 
here in 1791. Eli Bullard the lawyer came here in 1793. Timothy 
Eames, the brick-mason, and John Houghton, blacksmith, set up 
business in 1794. Isaac Warren commenced the tanning business in 
1797. Abner Wheeler, trader, was here in 1798, followed three years 
later by his brother Benjamin. Nathan Stone, carpenter, and Martin 
Stone, blacksmith, settled here in 1801 ; Asa Holt, the saddler, in 
1802 ; William Larrabee, shoe maker, occupied the old Red Store in 

The Third Meeting-house. — At a town meeting, May 6, 1805, 
*■'■ voted that the town will build a meeting-house at some future time. 
Voted^ that Lieut. Abner Wheeler, Lieut. John Eames, John Park, 
James Wilson, Lieut. Josiah Clayes, James Morse, Lieut. Joshua Trow- 
bridge, Capt. Samuel Frost, and Capt. Josiah Stone be a committee to 
locate the ground where the said house shall be erected ; and Eli 
Bullard Esq. Col. David Brewer and Lieut. Abner W^heeler be a com- 
mittee to consider when the house shall be built, the size thereof, and 
whether the town or individuals shall build it, obtain plans, etc." 

Sept, 2, 1805, on report of these committees, the town voted to 
place the new meeting-house near the Gun-house, i. e. just outside of 
Otis Boynton's northwest corner; that the house be built by the town 
in 1807 ; at an estimated cost of $13,000. Nov. 18, 1805, it was voted 
to build of wood, rather than of brick. June 2, 1806, it was voted that 
the new meeting-house shall be 65 feet square, two stories high, with a 
tower, not a porch. 

April 6, 1807, the town reconsidered the former vote as to location, 
and voted to purchase a piece of land of Martin and Nathan Stone 
and Simon Edgell, lying north of the Common, on which to set the 
meeting-house. The lot purchased of the Messrs Stone contained 
one acre two quarters and 28 rods. The amount of land then pur- 
chased of Simon Edgell, is not known. Subsequently, land for stable- 
ground was bought of Mr. E. ; and the town sold a part of its 
Common lying east of the highway for stable-ground. 

The contractors for building the new meeting-house were David 
Brooks, of Princeton, and Isaac Warren of Charlestown. 

May 4, 1807, the town "-voted, that the selectmen dispose of the 
privilege of selling liquor on the Common, during the time of raising 

352 History of Framing/mm. 

the new meeting-house." May 26, " Began to raise the meeting-house : 
June I, finished raising it." 

The house stood on the spot now occupied by the meeting-house of 
the First Parisli. It had entrance doors from the base of the tower 
only. Both outside and inside were fully finished. A gallery ex- 
pended around the east, south, and west sides, with square pews next 
the walls, and long seats on the slope in front. On the ground floor, 
square pews, raised one step, were built around the walls ; and four 
ranges of slips, with centre and side aisles, filled the body of the 

The cost of the house was $12,475.37. The bell, which cost 
§437.64, was the gift of Colonel Micah Stone. The pews and slips 
v/ere sold without reserve to the highest bidder. The amount received 
from the sale was $14,884. 

The meeting-house was dedicated Feb. 24, 1808; sermon by the 
pastor, Rev. David Kellogg, from Haggai ii, 7. 

May 23, 1808, the town voted to build a Town House out of the 
materials of the old meeting-house. A spot was bought of Thomas 
Buckminister, of just the same dimensions as the house, on which to 
place the same. It stood on what is now the northwest corner of Otis 
Boynton's house-lot, the west line of the lot being the east line of the 
Common. When the new Town Hall was erected in 1834, the old 
Town House was sold to Hollis Hastings, who moved, and utilized it 
as a harness maker's shop at Hastings' Corner. 

In April 1817, the town voted "that on Sabbath days, carriages and 
sleighs, in approaching the meeting-house, shall come from the west, 
and shall move off towards the east." 

1823. Stoves for warming the meeting-house were set up. Hitherto, 
the men kept warm as best they could : the women were accustomed 
to carry y^(7/ stoves, filled with coals from the fireplace at home. The 
cost of the two stoves, pipe and chimney, and a blind for the large 
window behind the pulpit, was $266.41. 

Crying the Bans. The custom prevailed till about 1830, of an- 
nouncing in the public meeting-house, just before the opening of the 
afternoon service, all intentions of marriage, entered with the town 
clerk, during the preceding week. The said clerk would rise in his 
pew, and read in a distinct voice : ''^Marriage intended — between John 
Smith of Boston, and Keturah Jones of this town." As a rule, the 
lady found it convenient to be absent from meeting, that afternoon. 

Minute Men, 1807. — In consequence of the attack by the British 
frigate Leopard on the American frigate Chesapeake, when Commo- 
dore Barron refused to have his ship searched by the British ofificers 

Worcester Turnpike. 353 

for deserters, and the President's proclamation of July 2, detachments 
from the several militia companies were called for, to hold themselves 
in readiness to march at the shortest notice. At a town meeting 
Nov. 16, 1807, it was voted, that each man enrolled as a Minute Man, 
receive $1. Ensign Josiah Fiske and 6 men were detached from 
Capt. John Wenzell's Co.; Sergt. James Clayes and 7 men were 
detached from Capt. Benj. Wheeler's Co., and Cornet Joseph Buck- 
minster and 6 men from Capt. John Hemenway's Co. of Horse. 

The Worcester Turnpike. — In the warrant for a town meeting 
May 6, 1805, is an article, " To see if the town will approve or dis- 
approve of a Turnpike road being made through any part of this 
town." No action was taken on the article. The movement, begun at 
this date, resulted in the incorporation. Mar. 7, 1S06, [act in addition 
passed June 10, 1808] of the Worcester Turnpike Corporation, to 
make a road to run from Roxbury to Worcester, via the Neck of the 
Ponds in Natick, thence near the house of Jona. Rugg in Framingham, 
thence to the house of Dea. Chamberlain in Southboro', etc., with 
power to erect 4 toll-gates. The old stage road between Worcester 
and Boston was via Northboro', Marlboro', South Sudbury, Wayland, 
Weston, Waltham. The new road considerably shortened the distance 
between Worcester and Boston. The steep hills kept off the teaming 
of heavy merchandise, but a stage route was at once established; and 
as Framingham was the central point, for changing horses, and making 
repairs, it gave a great impetus to local business. The through travel 
rapidly increased; the stage lines were extended to Northampton, and 
Albany; and the promptness of the service made this the favorite' 
route; so that, for a long term of years not less than 17 stages passed 
through this town daily. The opening of the B. and W. rail-road in 
1835, drew off the through travel, and as a consequence, the cor- 
poration gave up the turnpike in 1843, ^"*^ by the action of the county 
commissioners, it became a county road. From 18 10 to 1835, the 
stageman's horn was a signal, as common and well known, as the 
railroad engineer's whistle of to-day. 

New Men and New Measures. — With the new meeting-house, and 
turnpike, came new professional men, and new mechanics and business 
enterprises, which gave a new impulse to life at the Centre. Josiah 
Adams Esq., who was to take an important part in social as well as 
civil affairs, came here in 1807 ; as also did the Rev. Charles Train, 
who was to be not less potent in whatever contributes to the town's 
well-being. Wm Henderson, an energetic business man, took 
Gregory's store in 1806; removed to the Square, and put up a two- 

354 History of FramiJigham. 

story building, for a store and Masonic Hall, in -iSii. It stood where 
is now Wight's carriage barn. Asa Brighaai, tailor, located here, on 
the old Kingsbury corner, in 1809. His shop is remembered as Esq. 
Kingsbury's office. Eustis and Simmons, carriage trimmers and 
harness makers, established business here, where is now Miss Moul- 
ton's Block, in 1810; John Ballard 2d came the next year, and event- 
ually bought out the business. Amasa Kendall, carpenter, was here 
in 1812. Josiah W. Goodnow, cabinet maker, built a shop just west 
of Eustis and Simmons, in 18 12, and the house, (known as the Good- 
now house) in 1814. Capt. Peter Johnson, builder, Isaac Stevens, 
tailor, Peter Coolidge, blacksmith, came to the village in 1813. Dexter 
Esty, builder, and Jesse Belknap Jr., wheelwright, came in 1814; 
Nathan H. Foster, gunsmith, and John Kent, carriage maker, in 1815. 
Foster's shop stood on the site of Lewis Stiles' market ; and Kent 
built an addition to J. Ballard's harness shop. Jesse Whitne}', shoe 
maker, Wm K. Phipps, tailor, and Thomas Rice Jr., carpenter, settled 
here in 1816. Mr. Phipps' shop occupied the site of G. Joyce's house; 
and Mr. Rice built on John C. Hasting's corner. Mr. R. afterwards 
bought the Red Store, moved it up street, went into the grocery trade, 
and the same building is now the dwelling house Mrs. Eliza Haven. 

Samuel Warren, who learned the cabinet maker's trade of Stephen 
Rice, bought Goodnow's shop and started business in 1818. Dexter 
Hemenway, house carpenter, bought the old Gregory store by War- 
ren's bridge, and began business for himself in 1820. Hollis Cloyes 
and Geo. W. Mansir, house painters, began business the same year, 
and were joined by Obed Winter, three years later. Otis Boynton, 
book binder, came to town in 1822 ; Mitchell and Hunt, hatters, in 
1823. The hatter's shop is now Otis Childs' dwelling house. 

Dr. Simon Whitney began his long and successful professional 
career in 1822. 

War of 18 12. — The causes which led to this war with Great Britain, 
and the course of events, as well as the results, are too well known to 
need recital in these annals. The Framingham Artillery Company 
was ordered out, and was in service 51 days. 

Pay Roll of Capt. jfofm Temple's Company of Artillery, in Col. Wm 
Edward^ s Regiment., in service from Sept. 10, to Oct. jo, 18 14. 





John Temple 




James Brown 




Adam Hemenway 




Leonard Arnold 

II. ... 


Artillery Company 1814. 




Sergt. Elisha Frost Jr. 11 

" ■ Abel Eaton it 

" Thomas Hastings 1 1 

Corp. Amasa Kendall 10 

" Thomas Arnold 10 

" Richard Fiske Jr. 10 

" Alex^" H. Jones 10 

Fifer Horace Frost 9 

Drum"" William Belcher 9 

Driver Amos Stearns 8 

Joseph Belcher 8 

Benjamin Belcher 8 

Curtis Belcher 8 

Michael Bacon 8 

Seth Clapp 8 

William Dadmun 8 

James Dalrymple 8 

Charles Fiske 8 

Amariah Forrester 8 

David Frost 8 

Joseph Gay 8 

Elisha Goodnow 8 

Jonas Goodnow 8 

Asahel Haven 8 

Elias Hemenway 8 

Josiah Jaquith 8 

Amos Johnson Jr. 8 

Patten Johnson 8 

Adams Littlefield 8 

Robert McFarland 8 

Walter McFarland 8 

Newell Nurse 8 

Artemas Parker 8 

Stephen Rice 8 

John Twitchell 8 

Samuel Warren 8 
This company was stationed at Charles street, Boston ; 
Boston ; and at Commercial Point in Dorchester 

The men drafted or enlisted from the Militia Companies were : 
Jona. Edmunds, Joseph Haynes, Abijah Hemenway Jr., David Kel- 
logg Jr., Phinehas Newton, who were out 96 days ; Moses Copeland, 
Joseph Graves, Asaph Houghton, Luther Newton, Sylvanus Russell, 

at South 

356 History of Framingham. 

who were out 74 days. David Bigelow, Joseph Sanger, Buckley 
Stone, Nathan Tombs, were in the service, but for how long is 
unknown. Eliphalet Wheeler was paymaster at the Forts in Boston 
harbor, 14 days; Isaac Stevens was also in the service; Hartshorn 
Chickering enlisted as a substitute, and was stationed at Fort Warren 
3 months ; Francis Coolidge enlisted as a substitute (from Sharon), 
and was 3 months at Fort Warren ; Lawson Kingsbury Esq. enlisted, 
was appointed first Lieut, in the 21st regiment of Infantry, U. S. 
Army, July 6, 1812; engaged mostly on recruiting service; honorably 
discharged April i, 1813. 

Cotton Factory at Saxonville. — The starting of a Cotton Fac- 
tory, by Samuel Valentine, Aaron Fames, Elias Grout, Fisher Metcalf, 
and others, at the Falls in Hopkinton river, at what is now Ashland 
Centre, in the spring of 181 1 [see ante, p. 12] was simultaneous with 
the movement for starting a like Factory at Saxonville. In 181 1, 
Hopestill Leland of Sherborn bought the Dea. Brown privilege on 
Cochituate brook, of Ebenezer Brown, and erected a Cotton Mill. 
Feb. 6, 1813, Calvin Sanger, Aaron Leland, Joseph Sanger, Leonard 
Dearth, Benj. Wheeler, Luther Belknap, Hopestill Leland Jr., Comfort 
Walker, Moses Adams, Lewis Wheeler, Micah Adams, Joseph, L. 
Richardson, Phillips Clark and Elias Whiting were incorporated as 
The Framingham Manufacturing Company, for the purpose of manu- 
facturing wool and cotton, with power to hold real estate to the value 
of $30,000, and personal estate to the value of $50,000. The next 
year, Mr. Leland sold 6 acres, with corn and grist mills, to this Com- 
pany, and 32 acres to Calvin Sanger, — all in the interest of the new 
enterprise. Mr. Walker located here, and the Company started with 
energy, and soon gathered a considerable number of families, having 
children old enough to work in the Mill, opened a store, in charge of 
Samuel Murdock, employed a blacksmith, Joseph Pritchard, and did 
a large, though not profitable, business for a number of years. The 
property eventually passed into new hands represented by I. McLellan 
of Boston. The factory building was burned in 1834. For further 
particulars of this site and the one next below on the same stream, see 
ante pp. 16, 17. 

The Great Blow. — This remarkable gale, of Sept. 23, 1815, 
struck the coast at Providence R. I., and traversed the country as far 
as New Hampshire. The centre of its track through this town was a 
mile east of the house of J. H. Temple, where the thick forest of 
huge white pines, then 2 to 3 feet in diameter was prostrated, some of 
them being broken off, but most of them were turned over roots and 

Saxon Factory. 357 

all. Trees of various kinds were twisted off, or uprooted, for a dis- 
tance of a mile on each side of the central path. An idea of the 
force of the wind may be formed from the fact that the Isaac Fiske 
house, 36x20, which stood just west of Bullard's bridge, was lifted 
off the underpinning on the exposed side about six inches. Mrs. 
Fiske and some of the children had taken refuge in the cellar; but 
made a hasty exit, on receiving this warning. The barn on the Amasa 
Kendall place was blown down, as was Isaac Clark's barn, south of 
J. W. Walkup's. 

Fire Engine. — In 1818, a Fire Engine was purchased by subscrip- 
tion; and the town appropriated $70 to build an engine house. It 
was placed directly back of Symmes' harness shop. 

Fire wardens were first chosen in i8ig. In 1823, a set of fire- 
hooks, a harness for the engine, 24 buckets, and poles for the wardens 
were purchased, at an expense of $100. 

The Saxon Factory. — Apr. 5, 1822, the following persons, viz. 
Jere. Gore, John S. Harris, Stephen Gore Jr., Ephraim Jones, all of 
Boston, and Abner, Benj. and Eliphalet Wheeler of Framingham, 
bought of Charles Fiske, Isaac Dench, Josiah Stone, Abel Eaton, 
Abner Stone, and others, the land on both sides the river, together 
with the water privilege and buildings, dwelling houses, etc. at the 
Falls in Saxonville; and the next year built the first woolen ]Mill. 
Feb. 4, 1824, the parties above named, were incorporated, under the 
name of the Saxon Factory Company, for the purpose of manufac- 
turing wool in the town of Framingham, with power to hold real estate, 
not exceeding the value of §100,000, and capital stock to the amount 
of $200,000. May 8, 1824, Jere. Gore and his associates sold the 
entire estate and water rights, for §20,000, to the Saxon Factory. 
The canal had been dug, and a mill erected in 1823. 

Feb. 8, 1825, the Saxon Factory and the Leicester Factory were, by 
act of the Legislature "made one corporation, for the purpose of manu- 
facturing wool, cotton and machinery in Leicester and Framingham." 

June II, 1829, Joseph Head, Henry Gardner, Edward Miller, 
H. H. Jones and others were incorporated as the Saxon Cotton and 
Woolen Factory, for the purpose of manufacturing cotton and wool in 
the town of Framingham. 

Feb. 16, 1832, the name of the company was changed to that of the 
Saxon Factory. The statistics of this company April i, 1837 were : 
woolen mills, 5; sets of machinery, 11; wool consumed, 744,000 lbs.; 
cloth manufactured, 268,640 yards; value, §311,800; males employed, 
105; females, 141; capital invested, §415,000. 

358 History of Framinghain. 

In 1837, The N. E. Worsted Co. purchased the entire property of 
the Saxon Co., and removed their worsted machiner}'^ from Lowell to 
Framingham. The main business since then has been the manufac- 
ture of worsted carpet-yarns, and woolen blankets. In 1858, this entire 
property was bought by M. H. Simpson and Nathaniel Francis, and 
the name changed to the Saxonville Mills. No change was made in 
the kind of goods manufactured. During the late civil war, the com- 
pany filled large orders for blue Kersey army cloth. The statistics 
for 1865 were : No. of mills, 4; sets of machinery, 25; lbs. of scoured 
wool consumed, 2,000,000; gross value of stock used, $800,000; yds. 
of blanketing manufactured, 1,500,000; value, $900,000; lbs. of yarn 
manufactured and not made into cloth, 600,000; value, $300,000; yds. 
of army cloth made, 150,000; value, $200,000; males employed, 393; 
females, 390. 

Carpet Factory. — The history of this enterprise, introduced by 
Wm H. Knight in 1830, and prosecuted with remarkable energy and 
success, has been given in a preceding chapter. [See a7ite, pp. 16, 17.] 

Paper Mills. — In 1817, Dexter and David Bigelow erected a 
mill on the Hopkinton river, for the manufacture of writing-paper; 
and in 1828, Calvin Shepard and Son purchased the site of the Dench 
Mills, on the same stream, and put in paper-making machinery. These 
privileges are now in Ashland. In 1837 the stock manufactured was 
278 tons; value of paper, $46,000; males employed, 12; females, 11; 
capital invested $50,000. 

Infantry Company. — The Framingham Light Infantry Company 
was formed in 18 19. It was very popular for many years; and main- 
tained its existence, with varying fortunes and success, till about 1840. 
It was then reorganized, and flourished for a short time. The several 
captains were : James Hamilton, Eliphalet Wheeler, Warren Nixon, 
Wm K. Phipps, R. P. Angier, William Fiske, Calvin Shepard Jr., 
W. E. Faulkner. Of the new company; Simon Whitney, Cha^ R. Train, 
H. B. C. Griswold, N. M. Hudson, (elected but declined) Curtis H. 

Book-bindery. — Otis Boynton established a book-bindery here in 
the spring of 1822. In 1833 John J. Marshall joined the concern, and 
a Book and Stationery store was opened. The business was carried 
on till February 1864. 

Hatters. — Daniel Bridge, felt maker and hatter, built a shop in 
the Centre in 1781, and remained here a few years. In 1823, Silas 

Industries. 359 

Hunt and Ira Mitchell established a hat manufactory, where is now 
Otis Childs' dwelling house. In 1845, 4 hands were employed, and 
the net income of the business was $2,500. The business was given 
up in 1852, Mr. Mitchell and Mr. Jones removing to Milford. 

Formation of a Parish. — Up to 1826, all general ecclesiastical 
matters were managed by the town in its corporate capacity. In April 
of this year, a parish was organized, according to law. 

Reservoir. — In 1827, a committee was appointed to examine the 
spring, on land of the heirs of Thomas Buckminster, near the garden 
of Levi Eaton, for the purpose of a reservoir. They report: "that the 
town cannot now procure a title to the land in question ; also that if 
the centre district is desirous of having a Reservoir, it ought not to be 
made at the expense of the town, but of said district." 

Saxonville Post Office. — This office was established Mar. 5, 
1828, Francis A. Bertody, Post Master. He was succeeded by Charles 
Fiske Jan. 4, 1830; Henry F. A. Richardson Feb. 28, 1854; Samuel 
P. Griffin June 22, 1855 ; Samuel S. Danforth Aug. 15, 1859; John R. 
Clark Aug. 15, 1861; Luther F. Fuller May 30, 1865. 

Industries. — Many of the mechanics, and mechanical trades that 
flourished during the period under consideration, have already been 
enumerated. Other leading industries are here given. Tanners. Jona. 
Hill sold his tannery, north of Saxonville, to John Stone of E. 
Sudbury, who sold Mar. 17, 1788 to Elijah Clayes, who carried on the 
business till Mar. 27, 1790, when he sold to Micah Fiske, by whom 
and his son Charles, it was conducted for half a century. 

Isaac Warren bought the John Fiske tannery of Eli Bullard in 1797, 
and carried on the business till his death. 

In 1780, Thomas and Ezekiel Williams of Roxbury, tanners and 
curriers, bought the Mixer tannery, on Roaring brook, near South - 
borough line, where is now the brick-yard, which they sold in 1790 to 
Benj. Eaton Jr., who continued the business, and died there. 

There was a tannery north of the Albert G. Gibbs house, known as 
the Dench tannery, but by whom started is uncertain. In 1809, 
Joseph Bennett sold it to his son Nathaniel S.,who sold Apr. 21, 181 7 
to Lewis Keyes and Francis Dana, who sold Dec. 8, 1818 to Aaron 
and Henry H. Hyde, who carried on the business for many years. 
These tanneries were operated on the cold process, requiring at least 
6 months to properly cure the hides. The introduction, elsewhere, of 
the hot liquor process, and modern machinery, broke up the business 
in this town. 

360 History of Framingham. 

Carpenters. Besides those before enumerated, were Capt. Adam 
Hemenway and Sons, Windsor Moulton and Sons, James Morse, 
Joseph Hemenway, Josiah Bigelow, Adam Hemenway 2d and brothers. 

Blacksmiths. John Boden, or Bowderi, had a shop near the Moses 
Learned place; Lovell Eames, by the old oak, west of Waverly Block; 
Alexander Clark, near the Shepard paper mill; his sons Alexander 
and Newell afterwards established the business at South Framingham; 
Jona. Rugg Jr. at the Solomon Gates place; Nathan Rand, near Geo. 
H. Thompson's; Solon Fay, under John Ballard's harness shop; John 
Woolson, near Reginald Foster's; David Dougherty, near the Chapel 
at Nobscot; Joel Rice, at Hastingsville; Joseph Pritchard at the 
Cotton Factory; Joseph Angier, first at John Woolson's, and later at 
the John Hamilton place east of Saxonville; Timothy Haven, near 
F. H. Sprague's. 

Shoe-i7iakers . Loring Manson did custom work at his shop east of 
the Poor Farm; Jona. Goodnow, at Edward Goodnow's; John and 
Martin Mayhew, at F. C. Browne's; Abel Greenwood Jr., near the 
Parkhurst place; Calvin Twitchell, near the Train place; Reuben 
Torrey, at Chas. J. Power's; Ezra Hemenway, at the Calvin Hemen- 
way place; Micah Bent, near the Capt. Bradbury place below 

Wheelwrights. Luther Home at Samuel Hill's; David Eames, at 
his own place; Thomas Hastings, at O. F. Hastings'; Osgood Bradley, 
at the Centre. 

Reed maker. Joseph Thurston, toll-gate keeper, west of J. H. 

Maker of fnill-stones. Col. Jonas Clayes. 

John Wenzell Jr. was largely engaged in the manufacture of Shoe- 
pegs, for ten years after 1827. He employed 4 hands, and sold his 
pegs at Lynn and elsewhere. 

Taverns. — Besides the two Buckminster taverns near the Centre, 
Tucker's tavern at the north end of Long pond, Sanger's at the South 
village and Dean's at Park's Corner, (already spoken of), a tavern was 
kept at the Phinehas Rice place (the Nat, Hardy place) by Wm and 
John Hunt. Gen, Joseph P. Palmer took the stand in 1789, and his 
wife kept it till 1797, 

John Houghton built the tavern in the Centre in 1796; which he 
sold to Abner Wheeler in 1801, who kept it till 1812. Levi Eaton was 
here 1812-1818; Capt. James Hamilton 1818-1823; Samuel Warren 
1823-1833; Roswell P. Angier 1833-1836; Wm S.Turner 1836-1841; 
A. J. Putman 1841-1843. Joseph Fuller bought the property in 1843, 
and sold to Lothrop Wight in 1849. ^^ '""^^ since passed through 
many owners. 

Highways. 36 1 

Martin Stone built tlie house on the southerly side of The Square 
(the Geo. Graham place) in 18 10, and opened a tavern, where the 
post-office was kept. This was subsequently kept as a public house by 
Wm Henderson, Wm Larrabee, Ichabod Gaines, Lawson D. Maynard, 
Flagg, Wm S. Turner, Joseph Fuller, Daniel Parker, and others. 

Capt. John J. Clark's tavern at the South village rivalled in popu- 
larity the famous Sanger tavern. It was afterwards kept by Joseph 
Fuller, Edward A. Clark, A. J. Putman, Gilbert Howe, S. F. Twitchell 
and others. The two elms in front of this house were set by 
Moses Fames in 1773. 

HiCxHWAYS. — May 5, 1806. A town way was laid out from the 
county road at a point between Daniel Hemenway's (now Emory 
Haynes) and the school-house, and running on the northerly side of 
the wall which bounds the Lane leading by the house of Timothy 
Steirns 3d (Charles Capen's), and so past the house of Enoch 
Bellnap, and to Moses Haven's. 

S^pt. 7, 1807. A road was laid out from the house of Amos 
Johrson, and running northwesterly to Southborough line, through 
land of said Johnson, Phineas Bemis, the wid. Bridges and Nathan 

Ap-il 4, 1808. The old South Path to Marlborough was re-located 
and iccepted as a town way, " as it is now travelled," from Marl- 
borough line, near Daniel and Levi Cutting, to school-house No. 7, 
thenci through Brackett's Corner to the middle of the New Bridge 
over Sjdbury river. 

Mai 2, 18 1 2. A town road was laid out from the county road near, 
the haise of Ephraim Goodnow, running easterly by Josiah Rice's 
dwellitg-house, to Natick line. 

Apri 4, 18 1 4. The county road, from near the house of James 
Morse now E. P. Travis) to Lawson Buckminster's (now Moses Ellis) 
was altred, to run as at present. Formerly it ran to the north, (see 
ante^ p.;2 4o) 

N0V.7, 18 1 4. Re-location of the cross-road from the foot of the 
hill eas of Capt. U. Rice's, to the road running past the Albert G. 
Gibbs jlace. The turning place which had been directly at the foot 
of the ^11, was carried down below the house of Phinehas Rice, as at 
present,!" said way is two rods wide at the south end, and gradually 
decrease in width till it comes to the turn where it is 30 feet wide, 
and so ontinues to the north end." 

1819. The road on the west side of the Centre Common, (which 
formerlyiran between the white oak and the Town Hall) was laid out, 

362 History of Framingham. 

by order of the Court of Sessions, through land of the town, and land 
owned by the Framingham Academy Corporation. May 5, 1819, the 
Trustees voted " that Benj. Wheeler be hereby authorized to release 
by deed or otherwise, all claim to damage by reason of said road." 

Apr. I, 1822. Laid out a private way for the use of said town, from 
a point about 4 rods west of John Eaton's barn on the southerly side 
of the county road which passes by said Eaton's dwelling-house, 
thence southwesterly about 124 rods to the county road leading by 
Wm Walkup's, said way is laid through lands of John Eaton. 

Apr. I, 1823. Laid out a private way for the use of said town, t>vo 
rods wide, from the road in front of Levi Eaton's (Geo. P. Metcalfs), 
at land of Capt. Peter Johnson, thence southerly on said Johnson's 
land in a straight line to the Worcester Turnpike, the westerly side 
being 3 rods and 3 links from the southwest corner of the stoie of 
Thomas Rice Jr., then crossing said Turnpike obliquely, then rurning 
southwesterly through land of Rufus Brewer, and by his house to the 
road leading to Hopkinton. 

Apr. 14, 1823. A private way for the use of the town was laid out 
from the Common road, running southerly by the house of Slisha 
Jones to the Mill road — all through land of said Elisha Jones. 

Nov. 25, 1824. Laid out a private way for the use of the town, 
from the county road near the house of wid. Joseph Bennett, to the 
county road at the dwelling-house of Josiah Abbott, through lind of 
the Bennett heirs and said Abbott. 

June 12, 1824. Samuel Slater, Joseph Valentine, John J Clark 
and others, were incorporated as the Central Turnpike Corporation, 
to build a road from the Worcester Turnpike in Needham, .hrough 
Natick to the south end of Farm pond in Framingham, tlence to 
Jones' mill in said F. thence to Hopkinton meeting-house, et. The 
road was constructed, and used till 1835, when on the opening of the 
Railroad, it was given up. Certain portions were re-located as town 
ways ; and the line from " the county road near the blacksmih's shop 
of the late Alex''. Clark, running easterly over the late Cental Turn- 
pike to the top of the hill in land of Michael Homer, theice in a 
straight course to the Holliston road, near the house of Roya Grout," 
was laid out as a county road. [This part is now in Ashlan(]. 

Apr. II, 1825. Laid out a private way for the use of the t'wn, from 
the county road near the house of Joseph iiallard, (now Mrs Cutlers) 
via David Frost's and Eben"" Knowlton's, to the i\Iill road, .0 called, 
about three-fourths of a mile in length, "a part of said rad being 
already opened and fenced, and the whole of the distanc being a 
very a?ident bridle way, and in good condition for travel, [liis is now 
in Ashland]. 

Highivays. 363 

1827. Petition for a new county road from near Thomas Hastings' 
to the wading-place in Long pond, and thence to Newton. In Oct, 
the town voted to open the above road from T. Hastings' as far as 
Abel Drury's lane. 

1828. Laid out a town road from Buckminster and Brown's mills, 
to near Capt. Adam Hemenway's. 

182S. Laid out a road from near Dea. Matthias Bent's barn to the 
Saxoii Factory. 

1830. A private way was opened from the Worcester Turnpike, 
about 30 rods east of Col. Jonas Clayes' house, southerly, to the old 
road leading by Jona. Rugg's, Dea. John Temple, the owner of the 
land, giving use of the same, and Col. Clayes agreeing to grade, and 
fence the lane. 

183 1. Laid out a county road from near the house of Lawson 
Nurse, running westerly through the valley to "Oregon" and South- 
borough line. 

1832. A town road was laid out from the foot of the hill below 
Saxonville, running easterly to the county road leading by the Cotton 
Factory, two rods wide, over lands of Josiah Stone, Luther Eaton and 
James Brown; and the old cross road leading from Joseph Angler's 
to Luther Eaton's was discontinued. 

1835. Laid out a town road running northerly from Thomas 
Hastings' to William Hastings'. 

1837. The new county road from the house of Aaron Pratt to 
HoUiston was laid out. 

1837. A town way was laid out from Til ton's corner on the old 
Southborough road (now Pleasant street), southerly to the house of 
Isaac Fiske (now Eben W. Swan) on the Worcester Turnpike. 

1838. A new county road was laid out, from the Worcester Turn- 
pike, 20 rods west of Asa Littlefield's (now J. R. Rooke's), running 
northwesterly to Southborough line. 

1838. Alteration and straightening of the road from the bridge by 
Mrs. Gordon's to near the house of John Kendall. 

1840. Alteration and straightening of the road from the foot of 
the hill north of Lewis Hill's (now John Cutting's), to Joseph 
Belcher's. Formerly, it ran round by the Frost house. 

1840. The lane leading from Wm Buckminster's, north, near the 
Saw-mill, to the road leading by Moses Haven's, was re-located, and 
laid out as a town road. 

1841. Union Avenue was laid out. 


1830- 1 880. — Ecclesiastical Matters — Separation of Church and 
Parish — Hollis Evangelical Society — Church of the First 
Parish — Rev. William Barry — New Meeting-House — Rev. Dr. 
Kellogg — Rev. George Trask and Successors — Saxonville 
Religious Society and Edwards Church — Universalist Church 

— Catholic Church at Saxonville — South Framingham Baptist 
Church — St. John's Episcopal Church — Methodist Church at 
South Framingham — South Congregational Church — Univer- 
salist Society — Fire Department — Cemeteries — Town Map — 
Bonnet Manufactures — Banks — Tin Shop — New Town Hall 

— Newspapers — Rail-road — Silk Company — India Rubber Com- 
panies — Shoe Manufactories — So. Framingham Post-Office — 
Town Library — State Normal School — Boston Water Works 

— So. Framingham Common — Rebellion War Records — So. 
Midd. Agricultural Society — Camp-Meeting Association — 
State Muster Grounds — Provision for the Poor — Industries. 

r^lJ^THE pastorate of Rev. Dr. Kellogg had covered the period 
"m embraced in the last chapter. It had been a half-century of 
great changes of social customs, political parties, and religious 
beliefs. But the pastor had borne himself with a prudence, and main- 
tained a Christian integrity, and purity of purpose, and fidelity to the 
work of the ministry, which commanded the respect and love of his 
people ; and made his pastorate, in the best sense, a success. Feeling 
the infirmities of age coming on, in Nov. 1826, Mr. Kellogg requested 
the church " to settle a colleague to assist him in his labors." The 
parish, organized in the spring of this year, voted to accede to his 
request ; but no further steps were taken at the time. 

The matter of employing a colleague pastor came up again in 1828 ; 
and in Januar}', the church chose Dea. John Temple, Dea. Luther 
Haven and Elisha Belknap a committee, to confer with the parish in 
relation to the settlement of Mr. Asahel Bigelow as colleague with Dr. 
Kellogg. The fact now became apparent, that the church and the 
parish were unable to agree on a candidate. The church, with almost 
unanimity, held to the Evangelical system of doctrines, set forth in 
their Covenant, and taught by Dr. Kellogg for half a century; and 

Church of the First Parish. 365 

required a like belief in him who should be their pastor and teacher; 
the parish was equally divided ; though in the end, a small majority- 
voted in favor of a preacher of more " liberal " views. Dr. Kellogg 
continued to preach, assisted, as circumstances required, by Dr. 
Lyman Beecher, Rev. Samuel Green, Rev. Joseph Bennett, and others. 

In Sept. 1829, the parish voted to have the pulpit supplied three 
Sabbaths by Orthodox, and then three Sabbaths by Unitarian preach- 
ers. This arrangement continued for about three months. 

Jan. 20, 1830, a new parish, called the Hollis Evangelical Society, 
was formed by the friends of Orthodoxy ; [legally organized Feb. 8, 
1830] j and the next Sabbath, Jan. 24, the pastor and church met for 
w-orship in the Town House, -where they continued to hold religious 
services till the erection of a new meeting-house. The church retained 
the name of The Church of Christ in Framingham. 

The parish held the old meeting-house ; and the church connected 
therewith has been known as The Church of the First Parish. A call 
to settle in the ministry was given by the parish (which voted that "we 
deem it reasonable and just that the body which alone can contract 
with their public teacher, should exercise the right to call and settle 
him ") to Mr. Artemas B. Muzzey. Mr. M. was a graduate of H. U. 
1824. The ordination took place June 30, 1830. The order of exer- 
cises was as follows : introductory prayer. Rev. C. Francis ; reading 
the Scriptures, Rev. D. Austin ; sermon. Rev. E. S. Gannett; ordain- 
ing prayer, Rev. Dr. Bancroft ; charge. Rev. F. W. P. Greenwood ; 
right hand of fellowship, Rev. J. W. Thompson ; address to the 
society. Rev. C. Stetson ; concluding prayer. Rev. R. Sanger. Mr. 
Muzzey retired May 18, 1833. I^^v. George Chapman, H. U. 1828, 
was ordained Nov. 6, 1833, and died in office June 2, 1834. "Mr. 
Chapman's ministry was very brief. Few have entered the sacred 
office under circumstances more encouraging and auspicious. His 
early death disappointed the sanguine hopes of an extensive circle of 
friends, to whom he was ardently attached, as well as the just expecta- 
tions of his people, who fully appreciated his intelligence, sincerity, 
and devotion. He died of a puhnonary disease, having administered 
the communion for the last time, Jan. 5, 1834." Barry. 

Rev. William Barry, was installed Dec. 16, 1835 ) retired Dec. 16, 
1845. Although still living, it is proper that a brief sketch of his 
public services should be given in this connection. He was born in 
Boston Jan. 10, 1805, son of William and Esther (Stetson) Barry; 
graduated B. U. 1822. He commenced the study of law with Judge 
Shaw, but from ill health was obliged to give it up, and resided for 
two years at the South. He entered the Harvard Divinity School in 
1826 ; went to Europe in 1828 ; studied in the University of Gottengen, 


66 History of Framingham. 

at Paris, London, and Copenhagen, and returned to America in the 
autumn of 1829. He received a call and was ordained over the South 
Congregational Society in Lowell Nov. 17, 1830. On account of ill 
health he resigned in July 1835. He was installed pastor of the First 
Parish in Framingham Dec. 16, 1835 > ^""^ ^^ once took a leading 
position in educational and social, as well as religious affairs. But 
his health failed, and in June 1844, he sailed for Europe, passing some 
months in Nismes, and returned in December, only partially restored. 
The next two years he devoted to the preparation and publication of 
his " History of Framingham," which came out in Sept. 1847. He 
commenced preaching (without installation) at Lowell Oct. 1847. In 
185 1, he again crossed the ocean; spent some months in travelling 
through Syria, and returned through Italy and France. By advice of 
his physician, he retired from the ministry in 1854, and took up his 
residence in Chicago, 111., which has since been his home. In 1856, 
Mr. Barry was chosen Secretary of the Chicago Historical Society, a 
position for which his early acquisitions and historical tastes had well 
prepared him. In addition to the History of Framingham, Mr. Barry 
has published, A Farewell Sermon at Lowell, 1835 ; Two Discourses 
on the Rights and Duties of Neighboring Churches, Framingham, 
1844; Thoughts on Christian Doctrine, 1844; Report of the Schools 
of Lowell, 1852 j The Antiquities of Wisconsin, Madison, 1857. 

The successors of Mr. Barry have been, Rev. John N. Bellows, 
ordained Apr. 15, 1846 ; retired 1849 ) ^^^- Joseph H. Phipps, Harv. 
Div. Sch. 1848, ordained 1849 ; retired 1853 ; Rev. Samuel D. Robbins, 
Harv. Div. Sch. 1833 ; installed 1854, retired 1867 ; Rev. H. G. 
Spaulding, H. U. i860, installed 1868, retired 1872 ; Rev. Charles A. 
Humphreys, H. U. i860, installed Nov. i, 1873. 

In 1847, the old meeting-house was taken down, and a new one 
erected on the same site. The cost was defrayed by individuals, 
who sold the new edifice, May 2, 1848, to the First Parish. 

The New Parish. — The Hollis Evangelical Society built a new 
meeting-house, directly east from the old house, fronting on the east 
side of the Common. It was dedicated Sept. 15, 1830. This house 
was a plain, substantial structure, 70 by 48 feet, with basement, and a 
tower at the west end. The pulpit was at the east end opposite the 
entrance ; and an orchestra was built over the vestibule, but no galler- 
ies. The cost, exclusive of the bell and vestry, was $4,500. The 
pews were sold, and warrantee deeds given. 

The house was re-modelled in 1848, at a cost of over $6,000; was 
again re-modelled in 1869, by adding transepts, and a chapel, at a cost 
of $12,000. The iDresent number of sittings is six hundred and fifty. 

Rev. Dr. Kellogg. 367 

Rev. Dr. Kellogg performed the full duties of the ministry to his 
people for fifty years, lacking four months ; and, after the settlement 
of a colleague, he continued to preach, as occasion offered or required, 
till his 84th year : sometimes supplying vacant pulpits in neighboring 
parishes, and often assisting the junior pastor at home. And, till his 
last sickness, he was always in his place in the pulpit on the Lord's 
day. He died Aug. 13, 1843, aged 87 yrs. 9 mos. 

In personal appearance Dr. Kellogg was more than ordinarily pre- 
possessing. In stature he was above the medium height ; with a well 
proportioned and muscular frame ; a fresh yet placid countenance ; 
strongly marked features, expressive of an even temperament, good 
sense, decision and benevolence. His general bearing combined dig- 
nity with ease ; his step was firm, his presence commanding. He was, 
in the best sense, a Christian gentleman of the old school. 

Dr. Kellogg possessed intellectual powers of a high order. There 
was always a naturalness and healthy vigor, and a cheerful tone in his 
thoughts. And in this, his mental powers exactly corresponded with 
his bodily powers. He was an active, cheerful man. From the time 
he commenced his professional studies till he left the active duties of 
the^ministry, he rose in the morning at daybreak ; and was busy and 
systematic in the use of time. He was zivjzys punctual. " It is doubt- 
ful," says a member of his family, "whether, in the whole course of 
his public life, he ever met an appointmentjfz/^ minutes iatej" 

In his views of church polity. Dr. Kellogg was a thorough Congrega- 
tionalist. In doctrinal theology, he heartily accepted the Evangelical 
system. The Westminster Assembly's Catechism contains the outlines 
of his religious creed. He received this creed by inheritance ; he 
adopted it, and adhered to it in mature life, — not because it was the 
creed of his father and of the Puritans, but because he found it clearly 
taught in the Word of God. 

The whole number received to the church by profession, during his 
ministry, was between 240 and 250. 

Mr. Kellogg graduated at D. C. 1775 ; received the degree of A.M. 
from Yale College, 1778 ; that of D.D., from his Alma Mater, 1824. 
He published, i. The Nature, Obligation and Importance of Christian 
Compassion ; illustrated by a Sermon preached before the Middlesex 
Lodge, in Framingham, June 24, 1796. 2. An Address on Presenting 
the Right Hand of Fellowship, at the Ordination of Rev. Mr. Dickin- 
son of Holliston, Feb. 18, 1789. 3. Pastoral Charge at the Ordination 
of Rev. Rufus Hurlbut of Sudbury, Feb. 26, 1817. 

Rev. George Trask, Bowd. Coll. 1826, was ordained colleague pastor 
with Dr. Kellogg, Sept. 15, 1830; dis. April 6, 1836. The successors 
of Mr. Trask have been, Rev. David Brigham, U. C. 18 18; installed 

368 History of Framingham. 

Dec. 29, 1836; dismissed May 9, 1844. Rev. Increase N. Tarbox, 
Y. C. 1839, ordained Nov. 22, 1844; dismissed July 2, 185 1. Rev. 
Joseph C. Bodwell, D. C. 1833; installed June 30, 1852; dismissed 
Nov. 5, 1862. Rev. John K. McLean, U. C. 1858; installed Feb. 19, 
1863; dismissed Sept. i, 1867. Rev. Minot J. Savage, Bang. Theol. 
Sem. 1864; installed Jan. 23, 1868, dismissed April 1870. Rev. 
L. R. Eastman Jr., A. C. 1857; installed June 8, 1871. 

The Saxonville Religious Society was incorporated Feb. 22, 
1827; a meeting-house was built the same year, on the beautiful height 
of land northwest from the Falls, and dedicated in September. The 
dedication sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. Ware of Cambridge. 
Religious worship was at first conducted by ministers of the Unitarian 
denomination; and subsequently for a time by the Methodists and 

April 8, 1833, on their application, twenty-five members of Dr. 
Kellogg's church in the Centre were dismissed "for the purpose of 
forming a Congregational Church at Saxonville;" and these, with 
four others, were organized as a Congregational church, May 26, 1833. 
It subsequently took the name of The Edwards Church in Saxonville, 
which name is still retains. 

The first pastor of this church was Rev. Corbin Kidder, A. C. 1828, 
ordained July 30, 1834; dismissed Oct. 25, 1837. His successors 
have been Rev. Isaac Hosford, D. C. 1826, ordained Feb. 24, 1838 ; 
dismissed Mar. 10, 1847. Rev. Birdsey G. Northrop, Y, C. 1841, 
ordained Mar. 10, 1847; dismissed Nov. 6, 1857. Rev. Henry Allen, 
D. C. 1849, installed Nov. 6, 1857, dismissed Oct. i, 1859. Rev. John 
H. Pettengill, Y. C. 1837, installed April 16, i860, dismissed 1862. 
Rev. Geo. E. Hill, Y. C. 1846, installed Oct. 15, 1863 ; dismissed 1870. 
Rev. Charles Jones, U. C. 1832, , installed Oct. 4, 1870; dismissed 
1879. Rev. Samuel Bell, D. C. 1866, was stated supply, 1880 and 
82. Rev. Theodore L. Day, Y. C. 1867, commenced his pastoral 
labors in Mar. 1883. 

This Society built a neat and commodious chapel in 1S71. 

A Society of Universalists was formed in this town Nov. 1829, 
and built a meeting-house, which was dedicated Sept. 1832. This 
society and church employed ministers who entered upon their pastoral 
duties, without the forms of a regular settlement. Rev. Thomas J. 
Greenwood preached for the term of eight years ; Rev. Isaac Brown 
for one year ; Rev. Joseph O. Skinner for four years ; Rev. Horace P. 
Stevens for two years ; Rev, David J. Mandell for two years. After 
maintaining preaching for about twenty years, the society dissolved, 

Catholic Churches. 369 

having lost many of its leading members, by death and removal. In 
1859, the meeting-house was purchased by the Episcopalians; and is 
now owned and occupied by the Catholics. 

Catholic Church at Saxonville. — Mission work was commenced 
at Saxonville by the Rev. George Hamilton, as early as 1844; which 
resulted in the organization of St. George's Parish, and the erection of 
a church, near the carpet Factory. The church was opened for public 
worship Sept. 14, 1845. It has since been considerably enlarged, and 
now has 600 sittings. The successors of Fr. Hamilton have been. 
Rev. Edward Farrelly; Rev. John Walsh; Rev. Anthony J. Rossi, a 
graduate of St. Mary's Seminary, near St. Louis, Mo., who took charge 
of the Parish in Dec. 1869. This Church has a full and well-trained 
choir; a Sunday School comprising 20 teachers, and an average 
attendance of 150 scholars. It has a library of 900 volumes. The 
Parish numbers about 11 00 souls; average number of baptisms per 
year, 30. 

This Parish at first took in Framingham, Sudbury, Wayland, South- 
boro' and Ashland. In June 1876, Rev. Mr. Rossi began mission 
work in Waverley Hall, South Framingham, which resulted in the 
division of the old Parish, and the organization in July 1877 of a new 
district, known as St. Bridget's Parish, which has bought the church 
edifice, built by the Universalist Society, in Framingham Centre. 
This Parish is in charge of the Rev. John S. Cullen, and takes in F. 
Centre, South F. (including the Women's Prison) and Ashland. St. 
George's Parish now includes Saxonville, Sudbury and Wayland. 

South Framingham Baptist Church. — Through the efforts of 
Rev. E. Gale and others, religious services on the Sabbath, to accom- 
modate such families as lived in this part of the town, were commenc- 
ed in Dec. 185 1. The meetings were held in Waverley Hall. In the 
next spring a Sabbath School was organized ; and thenceforth preach- 
ing was regularly maintained. As the out-come of the movement, the 
South Framingham Baptist Church was constituted Mar. 17, 1854, 
with a membership of 22. A meeting-house was erected, and dedicated 
Mar. 15, 1855. 

The pastors have been. Rev. Bradford H. Lincoln, installed March 
30, 1854; dismissed Nov. 2, 1855. Rev. Samuel W. Foljambe, install- 
ed Apr. 20, 1856; dismissed Dec. 31, 1858. Rev. Theron Brown, Y. 
C. 1856, installed Dec. 15, 1859; dismissed Nov. 29, 1861. Rev. 
Samuel Brooks, B. U. 1852, was here about two years. Rev. A. M. 
Higgins, B. U., 1854, installed Mar. 31, 1865 ; dismissed Jan. i, 1867. 
Rev. T. T. Fillmer, Roch. U., installed Jan. 3, 1868 ; dismissed . 


370 History of Framingham. 

Rev. George R. Darrovv, installed Feb. i, 1874 ; preached two years. 
Rev. Henry G. Safford, B. U. 1858, installed Dec. 12, 1875. 

St. John's Church, Protestant Episcopal. — On application of 
Charles R. Train, Geo. Eastwood, T. C. Hurd, J. W. Brown, A. R. 
Esty and others, the Parish was duly organized Dec. 21, i860; ward- 
ens, J. W. Brown, A. R. Esty ; clerk, T. C. Hurd. Services were held 
for a time in the Town Hall ; then in the old Universalist meeting- 
house. In 1870, a tasty stone church was erected on the west slope 
of Bare hill, and first occupied on Easter Sunday 187 1. It was 
consecrated June 12, 1872. 

The Rectors have been: Rev. Richard F. Putnam, 1861; Rev. 
Reese F. Alsop, 1863: Rev. Wm H. Neilson Jr., 1864; Rev. A. C. 
Patterson, 1S66; Rev. Thomas R. Harris, 1867; Rev. G. G. Jones, 
1868; Rev. Joseph Kidder, 1871; Rev. Francis Chase, 1875; Rev. 
Frank S. Harraden, 1881. 

A Methodist Episcopal Church was gathered at South Fram- 
ingham in February, 1869, and formally organized at the Quarterly 
Conference held at the house of H. W. Carter Nov. 5, 1869. There 
were at this date about twenty members in full connection. Services 
were held in Waverley Hall till the autumn of 1873, when the Kennedy 
property was purchased by the Society, and the hall since known as 
" Irving Hall " was fitted up for a place of worship. The dedicator}^ 
sermon was preached Dec. 21, 1873 by Re\-. Wm R. Clark D.D. 

The society has grown slowly but steadily, and now numbers about 
eighty members. The pastors that have been stationed here since the 
formation of the society are : Rev. F. B. Hamblin who died after 
having preached only two sabbaths, and Rev. J. M. Avann, 1869; 
Rev. Seth C. Carey, 1870-72; Rev. John H. Mansfield, 1873; Rev. 
Joshua Gill, 1874-5, and 1879-81; Rev. D. K. Merrill, 1876: Rev. 
Phineas Sloper, 1877; Rev. John H. Emerson. 1878; Rev. Almon F.